US 3901445 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [1 1 Chang GAS BURNER LANCE CONSTRUCTION  lnventor:
 Assignee: Pullman Incorporated, Chicago, Ill.
 Filed: Nov. 8, 1974 [21 App]. No.: 522,180
Yi-Chung Chang, Murrysville, Pa.
Primary Examiner-M. Henson Wood, Jr. Assistant ExaminerMichael Mar Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Richard J. Myers  ABSTRACT A gaseous burner-lance construction for burning a gaseous fuel with air or pure oxygen gas to generate [4 1 Aug. 26, 1975 heat in an industrial furnace including a specially constructed lance tip which improves the degree of mixing of the gaseous fuel and the gaseous oxidant issuing from the tip for more complete combustion, the tip having an outer concentric conduit conveying the gaseous fuel and an inner concentric conduit within the outer conduit conveying the gaseous oxidant and a gas separating partition wall structure connecting each of the conduits, said partition wall structure being deeply corrugated to provide for a plurality of fingers or lobes defining ridgescommunicating with the oxidant and grooves communicating with the gaseous fuel. In one embodiment the partition wall construction is an outwardly and downwardly diverging multi-lobed cone member communicating with each of the conduits and in a second embodiment a cylinder member is corrugated to provide for vertically extending fingers or ridges and in a third embodiment there is provided a partition wall construction in each of a plurality of circumferentially spaced orifices or ports on a single tip. In all of the three embodiments a sealing arrangement is provided to prevent intermingling of the gaseous fuel and the oxidant within the lance tip and yet to allow intermingling of the gases as they issue from the u 22 Claims, 17 Drawing Figures PATENTEI] AUG 2 61975 PATENTED M1325 1975 sum 3 05 5 GAS BURNER LANCE CONSTRUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to a burner-lance apparatus for burning a gaseous fuel with air or pure oxygen gas to generate heat in an industrial furnace. More particularly, the invention relates to a gas burner-lance tip constuction to provide for mixing of the gaseous fuel and the gaseous oxidant for more complete combustion.
2. Description of the Prior Art The use of a burner-lance apparatus which introduces in a central tube of the apparatus oxygen into the molten bath and which further introduces a gaseous fuel such as methane from an outer concentric tube into the molten bath in the melting and refining of metals is known, for instance, from US. Pat. Nos. 3,638,932 and 3,202,201 as well as from French Patent No. 1,450,718 granted July 18, 1966. However, it is de' sirable that the gaseous fuel and the gaseous oxidant issuing from the lance tip should mix well with one another so as to produce a more complete combustion with a more compact and intense flame and this is what the following described invention accomplishes.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is a general object of this invention to provide for a novel gas burner-lance that will insure more complete mixing of the oxygen and fuel gas emitting from the tip of the lance.
The invention has for its object to provide for a lance construction that has an outer concentric pipe or conduit to convey and to deliver the gaseous fuel into the furnace for burning and to further provide for a second pipe or tube of smaller diameter concentrically disposed as a central tube within the first mentioned pipe for conveying and delivering the gaseous oxidant into the furnace for mixing with the gaseous fuel for burning whereby there is provided a multi-lobed partition wall construction connecting with each of the pipes or conduits, the walls of this partition wall construction being deeply corrugated with ridges touching the inside walls of the larger outer pipe and grooves reaching nearly the centeer of the smaller or inner pipe. The gaseous oxidant flows in the lobes or ridges formed by the inner pipe or tube and the gaseous fuel flows in the spaces or grooves between the lobes and bounded by the outer pipe. This sandwiching of slices of oxidant and fuel gas insures rapid and thorough mixing of the two upon leaving the tip for burning. The construction of the partion wall construction may be a downwardly outwardly diverging corrugated cone or a corrugated upright cylinder in form or a partition wall cnstruction may consist of a plurality of partition walls each being located within a port circumferentially spaced from an adjacent port on a single lance tip.
These and other objects will become apparent from reference to the following description and appended claims and attached drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is an elevational view of a burner-lance partly in section and illustrating my invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged sectional elevational view of the novel burner-lance tip of my invention;
FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view taken along line 33 of FIG. 2;
. FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken along line 44 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 5 is a sectional elevational view of a modified form of the tip construction of my invention;
FIG. 6 is a partial sectional view taken along line 66 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a partial bottom plan view taken along line 7-7of FIG. 5;
FIG. 8 is a partial cross-sectional view of a modified form of the burner-lance tip of my invention and also taken along line 88 of FIG. 9;
FIG. 9 is an elevational sectional view taken along line 99 of FIG. 8;
FIG. 10 is a bottom plan view taken along line l0l0 of FIG. 9;
F IG. 1 1 is still another modified burner-lance tip with a spiral corrugation arrangement as viewed from the bottom of the tip; and
FIGS. 12-17 are diagrams of various types of nozzle profiles utilizing various orifice and ridge and groove partition wall arrangements.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS With reference now to the drawings and in particular with reference to FIGS. 14 it is seen in FIG. 1 that there is shown a gas burner-lance 2 for burning gaseous fuel with air or pure oxygen gas to generate heat in an industrial furnace in order to do such things as refine a molten bath of steel. The gas burner-lance is provided with anupper section 4 and an intermediate or barrel section 6 and a lower or tip section or burner tip 8 that is provided with a single nozzle 20 that has a single orifice 22. The lance 2 is carried by a bale 10 when introducing the tip into the molten bath and the lance has its tip maintained cool by coolant means such as water which is introduced into the liquid coolant line 12 and is removed from the lance by liquid coolant line- 14. The lance is further provided with an oxygen inlet line 16 and a fuel inlet line 18. The tip 8 is held to the intermediate or barrel section 6 by welds w as best seen in FIG. land the barrel'section as well as the tip section are provided with outer concentric tube or pipe 24, outer intermediate concentric tube 26, inner intermediate concentric tube 28 and central or inner tube or oxygen tube 30. The inlet coolant passage 32'is located between the inner and outer intermediate concentric tubes 28 and 26 and the outlet coolant passage 34 is located between the outer intermediate concentric tube 26 andthe outer concentric tube 24. The gaseous fuel passage in the intermediate and tip sections is located between the oxygen tube 30 and the inner intermediate concentric tube 28 and the oxygenpassage 38 for the oxygen is located within the oxygen bearing tube 30 extending into both the intermediate and tip sections. The foregoing description of the lance is conventional and its construction and design may be found in such patents as U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,525,508 and 3,638,932.
The novel aspect of my invention is the utilization of the deeply corrugated partition wall structure 40 as best seen in FIGS. 2-4. According to my invention, improved and rapid mixing of fuel gas and oxidant gas at the exit of the burner tip (that is, so called surfacemixing) is realized by arranging the flow of channels of the two said gases in such a way that each of the two gas streams are subdivided into a number of thin slices of plumes or lobes and the two kinds of slices sandwich each other. This is done by providing a deeply corrugated partition wall 46 of the partition wall structure 40 between the fuel-gas-stream and the oxidant-gasstream so that one gas flows in subdivided form in the ridged area of the corrugation and the other gas flows in the subdivided form in the alternating groove area. This is the characteristic of my invention. In FIGS. 2-4 it is seen that the burner tip has a single gas port or orifice 22 corresponding to the entire cross-sectional area of pipe or tube 28. It is seen that the tip section of pipe is gradually expanded to fill pipe 28 at the exiting plane, the lower part of pipe 30 actually being in the form of a cone member and the wall 46 of the cone member 40 are deeply corrugated with the degree of corrugation gradually increasing from top to bottom for the orifice 22 and thus it is seen that the exiting end view of this construction is a lobed type or deeply corrugated partition wall 46 which is the partition wall between the oxygen gas and the fuel gas with the tip of the lobes or hollow ridges 42 touching the inside wall of the tube 28 adjacent the orifice 22 with the inner ends of the lobes or bases of the lobes reaching nearly to the center of the oxygen tube 30 or the cone structure 40. Thus you have the petals or hollow ridges or flanges 42 having spaced alternately between them the grooves or valleys 44 which at their base also approach near the center of the oxygen tube 30. The cone wall 46 of the cone structure 40 is provided with upright sides 46a and sloped cover or outsides for sealing means 46b and the cone wall 46 is provided with a cone inside 46c. As
'7 portion 48 and the straight portion 50 of the oxygen tube 30 with the cone member 40 cooperating to provide for a converging/diverging type nozzle. It will be appreciated .that the individual nozzle arrangement shown in FIG. 2 shows a converging/diverging type having the converging portion 48, the straight portion 50 and the cone portion 46 of the oxygen tube 30.
However, the individual nozzles can be of any desired profile, that is, straight converging or diverging/converging or any combination of straight and converging or straight and diverging or just diverging. Therefore, portion 48 could be diverging or straight as well as converging while portion 46 could be straight or converging as well as diverging and these parts 48 and 46 could have any combination of this with the portion 50 being straight. It can be seen from the foregoing cone partition wall construction that the oxygen gas stream in pipe 30 upon reaching the tip section of the burnerlance will subdivide itself and fill up the lobes 42, and will exist from the tip in a number of thin plumes whose cross-section is defined by the shape of the lobes. Similarly, the fuel gas stream in pipe 28 will subdivide itself and fill up the alternating spaces 44 between the said hollow lobes 42 bounded by the pipe or tube 28 and will exit from the tip 8 in thin slices sandwiched with that of the oxygen gas. Upon leaving the burner tip 8, the tube gases will mix rapidly and thoroughly by traveling the short distance across the thickness of the gasslices into each other.
Now, turning to FIGS. 5-7 there is shown a modified form of my invention of providing means of subdividing the gaseous fuel and gaseous oxidant streams into sandwiched thin plumes and this second embodiment differs from the first embodiment mainly in the construction of the corrugated partitional wall structure. While in the first embodiment, the corrugation wall is in the form of a cone, this corrugated partitional wall structure 52 of my second embodiment is in the form of a cylindrical member or cylinder 53. The depth of the corrugation for ridges or lobes 54 instead of varying as in the first embodiment of the cone structure is uniform from one end to the other vertically of the cylinder. The second embodiment is provided with elements that are similar to those shown in the first embodiment and these elements are marked with a short vertical line to the upper right part of the number or primed. For instance, the inner intermediate concentric tube is marked 28' and the fuel passage is marked 36, etc. See oxygen passage 38', tip section 8, oxygen tube 30, orifice 22, outer concentric tube 24', outer intermediate concentric tube 26', nozzle 20, outlet coolant passage 34', and inlet coolant passage 32'. Between the ridges or lobes 54 are provided the U-shaped grooves or spaces 56 in which flows the gaseous fuel such as a hydro-carbon as methane while the oxygen or air flows in the hollow spaces in the ridges or lobes 54. The corrugated cylindrical member 53 is comprised of a continuous undulating or corrugated side wall 60 which has an outside surface 60a where the gaseous fuel is and an inside surface 60b where the oxygen is. The U-shaped portions of the groove formed between two ridges and extending within the oxygen tube 30 on the top of the corrugated wall 60 are covered by groove seal plate portions 66 and the tops of the ridges extending into the gaseous fuel chamber 36 are covered by ridge seal plate portions 64, the portions 64 and 66 being a sealing 'or sealer plate 62 shown in FIGS. 6 and 7 which plate alternatingly seals the groove portions inside the oxygen pipe and the ridge portions outside the oxygen pipe.
My third embodiment is shown by FIGS. 8-10 In the two previous embodiments, the burner tip utilizes a single port, whereas the third embodiment concerns a burner tip 8" with multiple ports or orifices 22". The number of ports can be any number greater than two and there is illustrated herein a three-port tip. As mentioned in the previous or second embodiment there are elements in this third embodiment that are common to or similar to the embodiment shown in the first design of FIGS. 1-4 and where this occurs the reference characters of these elements will be double prime, as for instance, in the case of the elements, outer concentric tube 24", outer intermediate concentric tube 26", inner intermediate concentric tube 28", central or inner tube 30", inlet coolant passage 32", outlet coolant passage 34", nozzle 20", fuel passage 36" and oxygen passage 38". In each of these three ports there is provided a corrugated partition wall structure 68 including a corrugated wall 68a separating the oxidant stream and the fuel stream. This corrugated partition wall 68a is constructed by modifying the end portion of the oxidant pipe 30, wherein the oxidant and fuel gases coming out of each port are in the form of sandwiched thin plumes. The corrugated wall portion 68a defines a plurality of ridges or lobes or fingers 72 which form oxygen chambers 70 each of which has an inside surface 71 and an outside surface 75. The oxygen gas flows into the finger or ridge 72 and the methane gas flows into the grooves or methane chambers 74 between the ridges 72. The nozzle is of the diverging type and communicates with the oxygen tube 30" via the prechamber opening 69. The ridges or lobes 72 have their tops all covered by the sealer cap portions or tops 73. The coolant flows from passages 32" to passages 34 by way of water port 76 (see FIG. 9) and the coolant is deflected on the right side of the nozzle by deflector 78 when passing from coolant passage 32" to coolant passage 34".
In any of these modifications described above the corrugated partition wall is dependent somewhat on the diameters of the oxygen pipe 30 and the adjacent outer concentric pipe 26, but the length of the corrugated partition wall can be varied considerably without violating the spirit of the invention. In the case of a cone-shaped partiton wall, the sustained angle of the cone can also be varied considerably. The number of corrugations, that is, the number of grooves and ridges, is somewhat dependent on the size of the oxygen pipe 30 but is closely related to the desired thickness of the gas plumes. In general, the larger the number of corrugations, the thinner the gas plume, the more efficient the mixing of the gases upon exiting from the tip. In general, the lobes are shaped in such away that the gas slices will be more or less uniform in thickness, but the shape of the lobe can be varied in an unlimited number of ways without departing from the spirit of this invention. Furthermore, the depth of corrugation can be varied.
The direction of the corrugation of the corrugated partition wall is not limited to the axial direction of the port. It can be spiralized to impart some swirling motion to the gas plume to accelerate mixing. FIG. 11 is illustrative of such a spiralized corrugation where there is provided a burner tip 80 having an orifice 81 and partition lobes or fingers 82 each being provided with a pair of lobe or finger walls 84 that extend vertically but are spiral or curved, each lobe 82 defining a chamber 86 for receiving the oxygen from the central oxygen passage 88. The grooves 90 as viewed in the bottom view of FIG. 11 are the methane chambers and are disposed between the finger chambers 86. Oxygen sealer caps or plates 92 are provided on the tops of the lobes 82 extending in the fuel gas or-methane pipe and methane or fuel gas sealer caps or plates 94 are provided on the groove portions of the groove 90 extending into the central oxygen passage 88. Lastly, FIGs. 12-16 are illustrative of the cross-sectional shape that the port of the tip of the burner can take and FIG. 17 is illustrative of the shape that the groove and ridges can take. Specifically, FIG. 12 shows that the port or orifice can be square in shape and be provided with fingers 96, finger chamber 100, and groove or fuel gas chamber 102. FIG. 13 shows the port to be rectangular in shape and FIG. 14 shows the port to be crescent shaped and FIG. 15 shows the port to be triangular shaped and FIG. 16 shows the port to be oval in shape. FIG. 17 shows the fingers or ridges 98 to be multiple Hshaped in form with a lateral finger or ridge connector branch 104.
The burner tip can be made of any suitable material such as metal, ceramic, cermet, or a combination of these in the form of a coating or composite. Further,
the burner tip can be fabricated by any suitable method such as casting, welding, machining or combination of them.
The foregoing description and drawings merely explain and illustrate the invention and the invention is not limited thereto, except insofar as the appended claims are so limited, as those skilled in the art who have the disclosure before them will be able to make modifications and variations therein without departing from the scopeof the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In a burner-lance for burning a fuel-gas with a gaseous oxidant ina furnace having a substantially elongated lance barrel section and a lance tip section, said lance tip section comprising:
a port means in the end thereof,
a corrugated partition structure within said port means,
an inner tube connecting with said partition structure and defining a first gaseous passage,
an outer tube concentric about said inner tube and defining'la second gas passage, and
said corrugated partition structure having a deeply corrugated vertically extending partition wall formed into an upright tubular member and defining a plurality of alternating depp upright hollow ridge portions and open groove portions with the ridge portions communicating with the first passage and the grove portions communicating with second passage, whereby alternating plume layer gases can mix with one another outwardly of the port means.
2. The invention according to claim 1, and
said ridge portions and groove portions having alternating ports extending respectively into said second passage and said first passage, and
said partition structure having sealing means on the partition wall preventing mixing of the first gas with the second gas between the alternating ports of the ridge portions and groove portions within the port means. 3. The invention according to claim 1, and said partition wall comprising an annular upright cone-shaped-member having its upper narrowest part connecting with the inner tube and its lowest widest part being adjacent said lower end of said concentric outer tube.
4. Theinv'ention according to claim 1, and
said ridge portions and groove portions having alternating ports extending respectively into said second passag'e and said first passage,
said partition structure having sealing means on the partition wallpreve'nting mixing of the first gas with the second gas between the alternating ports of the ridge portions and groove portions within the port means,
said partition -wall comprising an'annular upright cone-shaped member having its upper narrowest part connecting with the inner tube and its lowest widest part being adjacent said lower end of said concentric outer tube, and
including the downward sloping portion and said sealing means of the ridge portions.
5. The invention according to claim 1, and
said partition wall comprising an annular upright cone-shaped member having its upper narrowest part connecting with the inner tube and its lowest said cone-shaped member including sealer means for the portions of the ridge portions and groove portions extending respectively into the outer tube and inner tube to prevent commingling of the first gases and second gases within the tip section.
17. In a burner-lance for burning a fuel-gas with a gaseous oxidant in a furnace having a substantially elongated lance barrel section and a lance tip section, said lance tip section comprising:
said first gas passage being oxygen bearing and said second gas passage being fuel bearing.
7. The invention according to claim 6, and
said fuel being a hydrocarbon gas. 10 a P means in the end thereof, 8 Th i v i according to l i 1, and a corrugated partition structure within said port said barrel section having an inner pipe for carrying means,
a first gas connecting with the inne tube and an inner tube connecting with said partition structure ing an outer concentric pipe for carrying a second and defimng a first g f p fl g gas connecting with said Outer concentric tube an outer tube concentric about said inner tube and 9. The invention according to claim 1, and fiefinmg a Second f P g said ridge portions forming a curved spiral shape for sand corrugated paftltlon Structufe deeply giving gyrating motion to gases exiting from the tip corrugaied vertlcafny extendmg Pamtlon wall section to increase mixing of the first and second formed Pnght tutfular member and defin' gases mg a plurality of alternating deep upright hollow 10. The invention according to claim 1, and ridge Portions and Open grcfove Portions the said port means being rectangular in shape. ndge Pomons commumfatmg h fi pilg- The invention according to claim 1 and sage and the groove portions communicating with Said port means being triangular in Shape. second passage, whereby alternating plume layer 12 The invention according to claim 1 and gases can mix with one another outwardly of the 9 said port means being oval in shape. P l l and 13. The invention according to claim 1, and said partition wall including a generally corrugated said port means being circular in shape. afmularly shaped member having Sald. ndge POP 14. The invention according to claim 1, and Hons grclove pomqns fol-mm; vertical walls Said p means being crescent in Shape 18. The invention according to claim 17, and 15 The invention according to claim 1 said partition structure including sealer means exsaid port means including a plurality of circumferenl Over the parts of ndge portlons extenlj tially spaced ports on the outer peripheral portion mg i the miter Concenmc. tulle to prevent gas m of the p Section the ridge portions from passing into the outer concentric tube, and a sggiiirfig figg g z iz gill l z fi g said sealer means extending over the parts of the outer tube and g groove portions extending into the inner tube to each port having a passageway communicating with prevent the gas m the groove portions from passing into the inner tube. the hollow interior of the ridge portions and the 40 The invention according to claim 18, and
inner tube. 16. In a burner-lance for burning a fueLgas with a .said sealer means including a top sealer plate on said annularly shaped member, said plate having altergaseous oxidant in a furnace having a substantially elongated lance barrel section and a lance tip section, said lance tip section comprising:
a port means in the end thereof, a corrugated partition structure within said port means, an inner tube connecting with said partition structure and defining a first gaseous passage, an outer tube concentric about said inner tube and defining a second gas passage, said corrugated partition structure having a deeply nating oppositely directed tab portions alternately covering the ridge portions extending into the outer tube and the groove portions extending into the inner tube. 1
20. The invention according to claim 17, and
said annularly shaped member being generally cylindrical in shape.
21. In a burner-lance for burning a fuel-gas with a gaseous oxidant in a furnace having a substantially elongated lance barrel section and a lance tip section, said lance tip section comprising:
a port means in the end thereof,
a corrugated partition structure within said port means, i
an inner tube connecting with said partition structure and defining a first gaseous passage,
an outer tube concentric about said inner tube and defining a second gas passage,
said corrugated partition structure having a deeply corrugated vertically extending partition wall formed into an upright tubular member and defining a plurality of alternating deep upright hollow ridge portions and open groove portions with the ridge portions communicating with the first passage and the groove portions communicating with 9 10 the second passage, whereby alternating plume and communicating with the inner tube and the layer gases can mix with one another outwardly of outer tube. the port means, 22. The invention according to claim 21, and said port means including a plurality of circumferensaid ridge portions and groove portions having cover tially spaced ports on the outer peripheral portion parts sealing the ridge portions from the outer tube of the tip section, and and the groove portions from the inner tube. a corrugated partition structure being in each port