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Publication numberUS3901695 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 26, 1975
Filing dateMay 21, 1973
Priority dateApr 6, 1964
Publication numberUS 3901695 A, US 3901695A, US-A-3901695, US3901695 A, US3901695A
InventorsShelffo Loren E
Original AssigneeAddressograph Multigraph
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrophotographic process using polyamide containing developer
US 3901695 A
Images(9)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

[111 3,901,695 1451 Aug. 26, 1975 1 1 ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS USING POLYAMIDE CONTAINING DEVELOPER [75] Inventor: Loren E. Shelffo, Palatine, Ill.

[73] Assignee: Addressograph Multigraph Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio [22] Filed: May 21, 1973 [21] Appl. No.: 362,410

Related US. Application Data [60] Division of Ser. No. 123,065, March 10, 1971, Pat. No. 3,764,538, which is a continuation of Scr. Nov 692,732, Dec. 22, 1967, abandoned, which is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 357,743, April 6, 1964, abandoned.

3,565,654 2/1971 Story 252/621 3,650,797 3/1972 Tomanek 3,764,538 10/1973 Shelffo 252/62.l

OTHER PUBLICATIONS T875,005, Tower Composition for Developing Electrostatic Images, Beyee et al., 875 0.6. 12.

Primary ExaminerRoland E. Martin, Jr.

[5 7 ABSTRACT A developer mix for use in electrostatic printing to develop latent images, including charged and uncharged areas of an image bearing sheet said developer mix comprising separate granular carrier particles, and a developer powder comprising a coloring agent and a resin having a triboelectric relationship of opposite polarity with respect to said carrier granules, said resin comprising a blend of resins in which the physical properties of the blend are distinct with respect to the physical properties of the resin components which are heat blended together, the principal resin being a polyamide resin which represents the infrangible resin component, and the completed resin being reduced to a melt point within the range of 8, whereby developed images of substantially improved black density may be formed over extended operating periods.

16 Claims, No Drawings lELlEE'lflROlllllOTOGR/XPHIC PROCESS USING llUlLlKll/illllllll CONTAINING DEVELOPE CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This application is a division of my copending application Ser. No. 123,065, filed Mar. I0, 1971, now U.S. Pat. No. Ser. 3,764,538, which is a continuation of copending application SEr. No. 692,732, filed Dec. 22. 1967, now abandoned, which in turn is a continuationin-part of prior copending application Ser. No. 357,743, filed Apr. 6, 1964, now abandoned all assigned to the same assignee as the instant application.

This invention relates to electroscopic powders of the type useful in rendering visible the latent electrostatic images produced by photoelectrostatic or electrostatic copying. More particularly it relates to improved electroseopic powders for use in automated type photoelectrostatic copying apparatus.

in photoelectrostatic copying processes, an electrostatic charge pattern is created on a charge photoconductive layer, such as zinc oxide or selenium, by exposure to a light pattern. Various techniques and devices have been employed to expose the charged surface, such as projection or contact printing methods, fiber optic imaging devices, and various phosphor display devices. Upon exposure of the charged layer to light under darkroom conditions, a latent electrostatic charge image is formed.

Still other image generating devices are employed that directly deposit a charge pattern corresponding to the graphic subject matter by the use of single or multiple styli. The technique of direct imaging may be carried out in the presence of light.

Irrespective of the technique employed for creating a latent electrostatic charge image, it must be rendered visible by development with a suitable resinous, thermoplastic, electroscopic powder and rendered permanent by the application of heat, pressure, solvent vapor or other fixing technique. The developed image may be fixed in place on the surface upon which it is formed, or it may be transferred to a new surface and fixed thereon.

A number of techniques are available and in wide use for carrying out the developing step which brings the electroscopic powder, or toner powder as it is known in the art, into contact with said latent image. These include, for example, powder cascade, powder cloud, and dry magnetic brush development. The advancement represented by the improved electroscopic powders of this invention is applicable to all of the foregoing systems where a charge-sensing powder is brought into contact with an clectrostatically charged surface for the purpose of producing a visible image.

Further discussion of the improvements represented by this invention will be explained in terms of the magnetic brush type of apparatus, but the novel electroscopie powders disclosed herein can also be used with equal advantage in other developing apparatus and their use is not limited to magnetic brush techniques.

The magnetic brush method for developing an electrostatic image involves the use of a mixture of magnetically attractable particles and clectroscopic powder. This mixture or developer mix" is formed up into a brush-like mass on the surface of a cylindrical roll under the influence ofa magnetic field created by magnetic means disposed within said roll.

The electroscopic powder is held to the magnetically attractable carrier particles by a triboelectric effect whichresults from frictional contact between the particles. This effect is more fully described in U.S. Pat. No. 2,874,063 dated Feb. 17, 1959. The relative position in the triboelectric series of carrier and electroscopic powder materials will determine the polarity of the charge generated on the electroscopic powder. Hence, particular materials can be selected for either positive or reversal printing. In practice, the electroscopic powders are mixed with larger carrier particles, such as iron, ferrites, magnetites, cobalt, and nickel. The car'- rier particles align themselves along the lines of magnetic flux provided by the magnetic means so that they stand erect on the surface of the cylinder. In this manner the particles, carrying the electroscopic powder present a uniform and continuous array of developer mix along that portion of the roll which contacts the electrostatic recording member bearing the latent electrostatic image thereon.

U.S. Pat. No. 3,003,462 discloses a typical magnetic brush development apparatus wherein the developer mix is deposited in a trough, thereafter is picked up on the periphery of an applicating cylinder having the magnetic means therein, and is formed into a brush in the environment of said magnetic field. As the rotating applicator cylinder carries the developer mix outside the magnetic field, the magnetic brush collapses and developer mix falls back into the reservoir. This cycle of brush formation and collapse is repeated as long as the developer roll rotates.

Electroscopic powders available heretofore have left much to be desired when used in automated electrostatic copying machines, particularly where the magnetic brush-type apparatus is employed. One of the major problems is that of deterioration of the electroscopic powder component of the developer mix. One evidence of such deterioration appears in the photoelectrostatic copies which begin to show adherence of the electroscopic powder indiscriminately in both image and non-image areas.

Another evidence of mix deterioration is a fall-off or loss in copy density, that is, the developed image appears gray rather than having an intense black color.

Also, carrier particles may begin to deposit on the copy sheet as a result of mix deterioration giving the photoelectrostatic copy a gritty feel.

Still further problems caused by mix deterioration relate to improper mixing and impairment of the mechanical mixing means of the developer apparatus.

The automated photoelectrostatic office copying equipment under discussion is designed especially for high production, high quality copying. Equipment of this type is required to produce up to 6000 copies in a typical work day. The deteriorated condition referred to above can take place rapidly. Deterioration of known developer mixes has heretofore necessitated complete and frequent replacement with fresh material.

Deterioration is caused by physical changes in the electroscopic powder. These physical changes primarily concern the particle size of the powder. The first such change relates to particle size fracture or commi nution, and the second relates to agglomeration or clumping of small particles into larger ones.

The forces which operate in the magnetic brush developer exert a grinding or milling action on the developer mix. Electroscopic powder particles may be split or fractured so that the new fragments do not have the same electroscopic properties as the particles from which they were formed. Each of these fragments is present as a spurious particle which serves only to impair the performance of the developer system.

Further attrition of the particulate matter generates excessively small particles referred to as dust or fines that are incapable of discriminating between the charged and uncharged areas. These fines tend to become airborne and create an undesirable condition from a housekeeping standpoint.

Agglomeration or clumping is caused by an increase in mix temperature. This temperature rise may be due to the absorption by the powder of frictional energy developed through impact between the particles as they are mixed and churned within the developer unit. Another source of heat is the high temperature fusing unit within the apparatus. The thermoplastic toner particles begin to clump or agglomerate as they reach their softening or tackifying temperature. In a severe condition the agglomerates may occlude some of the iron carrier particles. These clumps, containing both iron and softened electroscopic powder, completely disrupt the developing step.

These clumps often become deposited in clearances between moving and stationary mechanical parts thereby increasing the power required to drive the magnetic brush roller. The additional power is dissipated as heat so that the process of agglomeration becomes progressively worse.

Generation of the triboelectric charge on the electroscopic powder depends upon proper contact between toner and carrier particles. Clumping and agglomeration prevent the proper circulation and blending of toner with the carrier in the developer apparatus. A free-flowing condition is particularly necessary during replenishment when fresh toner is added to a depleted mix. Poor circulation gives rise to a non-uniform powder mixture which produces copies that are unevenly developed. Poor blending of electroscopic powder and iron particles reduces the level of triboelectric charge generated on the powder.

The demands placed on electroscopic powders suitable for high speed, continuous automatic electrostatic copying, are exacting and have heretofore not been met. From the foregoing discussion, it is seen that the thermoplastic, resinous toner particle must have certain distinct properties if it is to achieve a practical mix life in a magnetic brush developing apparatus.

The resin blend should be sharp-melting so that it is converted from discrete, solid pieces to a flowable material over a temperature range not greater than about 5 to 8F. Such a resin blend will flow smoothly onto the paper to form a permanent image and solidify rapidly when removed from the fuser, thus producing an image which will not smear. The thermoplastic resin should remain in a solid state at temperatures substantially higher than room temperature so that it does not soften, become tacky, and form cakes, clumps, or agglomerates. Such a divergence of requirements demands that the thermoplastic resin be at once tough and resilient enough to withstand the grinding action in the developer apparatus, yet sufficiently brittle and frangible to permit its reduction to powder on conventional grinding equipment.

Some thermoplastic compositions. which are tough and infrangible, have excellent clectroscopic properties, but cannot be manufactured on conventional milling equipment. Other resins which may have excellent electroscopic properties and which may be readily ground to a desired particle size in conventional milling equipment are too brittle or frangible for the magnetic brush apparatus. These are reduced to an inordinate amount ofdust and fines by the mixing action of the developer unit.

It is a primary object of this invention to provide an electroscopic powder particularly suitable for use in automated and continuous photoelectrostatic copying machines.

It is an object of this invention to provide an electroscopic developing powder having greatly improved resistance to deterioration in magnetic brush developer apparatus.

It is a further object of this invention to provide an electroscopic developing powder that will fuse in a narrow temperature range below the char point of paper and will resist clumping or agglomeration.

It is a further object of this invention to provide electroscopic developing powder which is resistant to attrition or grinding when used in'a magnetic brush developer apparatus.

It is a still further object of this invention to provide an electroscopic developing powder comprised of a blend of thermoplastic resins having suitable frangibil ity properties and temperature response characteristics that will produce consistently high quality electrostatic copies having a high contrast between image and nonimage areas.

These and other objects are apparent from and are achieved in accordance with the following disclosure.

The electroscopic powders which constitute this invention comprise a blend of a tough, infrangible synthetic resin with a highly frangible thermoplastic synthetic resin which melts between about C. 158F.) and 165C. (329F.), preferably in the range of 213-235F., said blend having the critical property of going from discrete particles to flowable material in a range from 508F. The blend of synthetic thermoplastic resin materials preferably should have a correspondingly high softening point, that is, the thermoplastic particles should remain discrete at temperatures up to F. and not adhere to one another or form agglomerates. The preferred average particle size of the electroscopic power ranges from 4 to 10 microns with the over-all range of particle sizes ranging from 1 micron to 74 microns.

The invention is directed to a novel thermoplastic resinous electroscopic powder comprising a tough, infrangible resin component, such as a thermoplastic polyamide resin, which is chemically blended with a highly frangible, brittle substance such as a rosinmodified maleic anhydride-polyhydric alcohol resin, an unsaturated co-ester resin such as a diphenol resin esterified with a fatty acid, or a pure non-heat reactive phenolic resin.

The powder blends may optionally include additives such as polyol resins, toluenesulfonamides, or butylated-hydroxy-toluene which enter into the blends as fluxing agents, tending to decrease the melt viscosity of the thermoplastic blend.

The preferred polyamide resins are produced by the reaction of high molecular weight polyene fatty acids and their esters with an amine. By reacting ammonia. a primary or secondary amine, a hydroxyamine or an alkanolamine, with a high molecular weight carboxylic acid or an ester thereof, either saturated or unsaturated, said acid or ester being obtainable by polymerizing at elevated temperature said polyene fatty acid or esters thereof. and in the case of the esters, converting the polymers to the corresponding acid if desired, there are produced the preferred polyamides. Examples of polyene fatty acids in esterified form are 9,11- and/or 9,12octadecadienoic acid (obtainable from soybean oil and dehydrated castor oil), linoleic acid, alpha and beta-eleostearic acid (obtainable from tung oil). The preferred esters are those derived from methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Primary or secondary amines may be used such as, for example, methylamine,ethylamine, propylamine, ethylenediamine, tetraamethylenediamine, pentamethylenediamine, piperazine, and diethylenetriamine. The class of thermoplastic, polyamide resins is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 2,379,413 and sold by the General Mills Company under the trademarks Versamide" and Omamid". Other suitable polyamide resins are also available from the Krumbhaar Resin Division of Lawter Chemicals, Inc., under the trademark Polymid.

The second thermoplastic constituent in the electroscopic powder is extremely frangible but it is sharp melting. A suitable frangible constituent may be a rosin-modified phenolic resin, such as those prepared by modifying a phenol formaldehyde resin with the reaction product of maleic anhydride and rosin or a polyhydric alcohol such as glycerol or pentaerythrytol. Such rosin-modified phenolic resins are sold under the trademark Amberol" by Rohm & Haas Company. Diphenolic resin materials esterified with a soya fatty acid and certain thermoplastic phenolformaldehyde resins exhibit satisfactory frangible properties. The esterified diphenolics are available from the Johnson Wax Company Chemical Division of Racine, Wis, and the thermoplastic phenol-formaldehyde resins are available from the Krumbhaar Resin Division of Lawter Chemicals. Inc., and from Nelio Chemicals, Inc., Jacksonville, Fla.. as their VBR-800 series resins.

The blend ofinfrangible and frangible resins with coloring materials forming the electroscopic powder should be highly infrangible and should have a fracturing value of at least 400 gram-centimeters when measured on a wafer of resin 3.75 cm, in diameter and 0.5 cm. in thickness at 100F. by the falling ball method. In this method, as adapted from American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Vol. 87, p. 35. 1930, the resin wafer is subjected to impact by a falling ball and the energy (measured in gram-centimeters) required to just fracture the wafer is measured. The infrangible resin component of the resin blend should preferably have a fracturing value of at least 1000 gramcentimeters in the foregoing test while the frangible resin component may have low fracturing values in the range of 100-200 gram-centimeters.

The resin blend forming the electroscopic powder should not soften or become tacky at temperatures below 130F. The softening properties of resins can be measured with a penetrometer by the procedure of A.S.T.M. Standard No. D5-61. By this procedure. it has been found that resin blends which permit a maxis a it having molecular weights in the range from 1000 to 2000. Purified wood resins such as those sold by Hercules Powder Company under the name M-Wood Rosins, and toluenesulfonamides available under the trademark Santicizer 8 and Santicizer 9 from Monsanto Chemical Company are also suitable.

The various thermoplastic resins are compounded by reducing the resinous materials to the molten state and then blending in the required pigments, dyes, and coloring agents and the fluxing materials where they are to be included, using conventional mixing equipment.

FORMULATION NO. 1 (Major percentage of tough. infrangible resin) Polyamide Resin -907: Frangible resin component (phenolic maleic anhydridepolyhydric alcohol resin 5-407: Polyols 0-1071 Nubian resin black 1-571 Carbon black pigment (Nee-spectra. Mark III) 1-571 FORMULATION NO. 2 (Minor percentage of tough. infrangible resin) Polyamide Resin 9-507L Frangible resin component (Pure phenolics Krumbhaar K254 50-90% Polyols 0-1071 Nubian resin black 1-671 Carbon black pigment (Ned-spectra. Mark 11]) 1-271 The following examples are given to illustrate preferred embodiments and process for producing electroscopic powders embodying this invention. It will be understood that this invention is not limited to these examples.

In these examples, all percentages are given on a weight basis.

EXAMPLE 1 Electroscopic powder formulation is: Synthetic. polyamide. thermoplastic resin (Versamide 930) Polyol (Shell X-450) Maleic anhydride-polyhydric alcohol rosin-modified resin (Amherol X00. Rohm & Haas -Continued Company) 49.5% Nubian resin hluck dye 6.6 7: Carbon black pigment (Nco-spectru, Mark 11) 1.07:

The quantity of polyamide resin called for is heated in a suitable vessel equipped with a conventional impeller type mixer until the resin is just molten so that it can be stirred. To the molten polyamide resin is added the Polyol while the mass is being agitated. Agitation continues during the addition of the maleic anhydridepolyhydric alcohol resin-modified resin. After the maleic anhydride-polyhydric alcohol resin is completely melted, the quantity of black dye is added to the batch followed by the addition of the carbon black.

After the batch has been thoroughly mixed, it is removed from the mixing vessel, cooled, crushed and pulverized to an average particle size ranging from 4-10 microns. Understandably there will be particle sizes ranging from under one micron to 50 microns and larger. As a final step, the electroscopic powder is passed through a 200 mesh screen so that the largest particle size possible in such an electroscopic powder would be under 75 microns.

The softening point of the electroscopic powder was measured by placing a quantity of the electroscopic powders in a constant temperature oven for 12 hours. A series of oven tests, at different temperature levels, revealed that powder produced in Example I remained in particulate form, and did not clump or agglomerate until tested at a 155F. level. The melt point of the electroscopic powder was in the range of 215220F. measured in accordance with A.S.T.M. Method No. E2- 8-58T.

The image copies were of uniform density indicating complete and thorough mixing between the carrier and powder. A high image density was maintained throughout the run while non-image areas remainedclean and free of spurious toner deposition A copy is considered to have proper image density if reflectance density measurements, taken by a standard Photovoltmeter, are above 1.0 units.

Similarly, reflectance readings can give a measure of the contrast between the image and non-image areas. The non-image area on a processed copy should not measure more than 0.05 Photovolt units. The copies were clean in the non-image areas giving Photovolt reading less than 0.05 units.

The copies were not gritty" indicating that the carrier particles were being retained in the system and not occluding on the powder.

EXAMPLE 2 ingredients: Polyumide resin (Versumide 930) 749! Mulcic anhydridc-polyhydric alcohol rosin-modified resin (Amhcrol 800) I991 Nubian resin black dye 5.6% Carbon hluck pigment (Nee-spectra. Mark ll) 1.4%

The ingredients were processed in accordance with the steps set forth for Exammle 1 above. The melting point range and softening point of the above electroscopic powder were 2l3-220F. and greater than 140F., respectively. lt will be noted that this example incorporates a major percentage of the tough, infrangible polyamide material. Photovolt readings were all above 1.0 units. Such an electroscopic formulation finds particular utility in environments where the copying equipment is used for extended periods of time and where there is a high ambient temperature.

EXAMPLE 3 An electroscopic powder was prepared in accordance with the procedure of Example 1 wherein the electroscopic powder was comprised largely of polyamide material.

Ingredients:

Polyamide resin (Versamide 930) Maleic anhydride-polyhydric alcohol rosin-modified resin (Amberol 800) 7'7: Nigrosine dye 6'71 Polyols 8% Carbon black pigment (Neo-spectra. Mark II) 1'72 The melting point range and the softening point of the granular mass were 2l7222F. and greater than F., respectively. The formulation of Example 3 is suitable for use under high temperature conditions. The inclusion ofa fluxing agent tends to lower the melt point slightly and give a more uniform image.

EXAMPLE 4 Ingredients: Polyamide resin (Versamide 930) 3371 Polyol (Shell X-450) fluxing agent 9.971

Phenolic Resin (No. K-254 Krumbhaar Chem. Div. of

Lawter Chemicals. Inc.) 49.57: Nubian resin black (National Aniline) 6.671 Carbon black pigment (Nco-spectra. Mark ll) 19;

The above formula has substituted for the maleic anhydride rosin-modified resin a pheno-formaldehyde resin which is a highly frangible. sharp melting thermoplastic material. The performance of this formulation in respect of print quality and resistance to developer mix deterioration was fully equivalent to that observed in Example 1. The melting point range and softening point of the above example were 2l5220F. and greater than 140F., respectively.

EXAMPLE 5 EXAMPLE 6 The electroscopic powder prepared in this example conformed to the formula set forth in Example 1 above with the exception that a mixture of orthoand para-N- ethyl-toluenesulfonamides (Santicizer 8, Monsanto Chemical Company) was substituted as a fluxing agent for the polyol (Shell X-450), The copy quality obtained was fully equivalent to the copy quality obtained from the formulation of Example 1.

EXAMPLE 7 This example'differs from Example 1 chiefly in the use of lesser percentages of polyamide resin blended with the highly frangible thermoplastic material. It has been found that the addition of polyamide in amounts less than 9% by weight in the electroscopic powder formula has little or no effect on improving its resistance to the grinding and milling action present in the developer apparatus.

Polyamicle resin (Versamide 930) 97? Maleic anhydride-polyhydric alcohol rosin'modified resin (Amberol 800) 83.2% Nubian resin black 6% Carbon black (Neo-spectra, Mark ll) 171 The above composition had a melting point range and softening point of 220-228F. and above l55F., respectively. Electroscopic powders formulated with 5-6% polyamide deteriorated after 3,0005,000 electrostatic prints. improvements begin to show when the level of 9%, and above, of the polyamide thermoplastic synthetic resin is included in the formula.

All of the foregoing examples when used in a magnetic brush developer of the type described in US. Pat. No. 3,003,462 gave consistently dense uniform images. The first copy from a batch of developer mix, and the later copies made after 100 hours of continual use, pro duced prints having a print density greater than 1.0 Photovolt readings. Reflectance in the non-image area on the developed copy of photoelectrostatic paper was less than 0.05 Photovolt units.

With the developer mix of this invention, the formation of clouds of developer powder or throwout, in the vicinity of the developer mix, is greatly minimized, if not completely prevented. Hence, the areas where such machines are located are kept substantially clean.

A further advantage of the electroscopic powder of this invention is that it does not agglomerate or cake during storage, and therefore remains uniform, ready for use. It is not uncommon for materials in shipment to be exposed to a wide variety of climatic conditions, including extremely high temperatures, which often cause the powder to actually "cake" into a solid mass in the-shpping container. The material of this invention has been found to retain its free-flowing granular consistency, making it ready for use immediately by the operator.

The discussion of the electroscopic powder has been limited to the technique of positive printing wherein the triboelectric relationship of the electroscopic powder to the iron carriers particles is such that the particles acquire the necessary positive charge so that they will adhere to the negatively charged electrostatic image on the photoconductive member. The advantages provided by the electroscopic powders of this invention may be applied with equal success to the technique of reversal printing as described in co-pending application Ser. No. 221,888 and assigned to the same assignee.

The present invention has been described in great detail, having presented the best mode of formulating the electroscopic powders. Other useful materials and formulations will occur to one skilled in the art over the particular embodiments described herein which are exemplary and not intended to limit the invention, but are intended to cover the invention broadly within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. The method of making an electrostatic copy on an electrostatic recording member comprising the steps of electrostatically charging said member in the dark, exposing the charged member to a light pattern to produce thereon an electrostatic charge image, developing said charge image by applying thereon an electroscopic powder, said electroscopic powder comprising a blend of infrangible, sharp-melting, thermoplastic polyamide resins and a sharp-melting highly frangible, thermoplastic resin, said blend being accomplished by melting the resin components together to form a miscible mixture, said infrangible resin component having a fracturing value of at least 1000 gram centimeters when measured by the falling ball method at 100 F. on a wafer of resin 3.75 centimeters in diameter and 0.5 centimeters in thickness, a melting range not greater than 8 F. being present in an amount ranging from 9 to by weight of said granular powder, said highly frangible resin having a fracturing value not greater than 200 gram centimeters when measured by said falling ball method and a melting range not greater than 8 F. and thereafter fixing said developed charge image to form a permanent image on said recording member.

2. The method of making an electrostatic copy on an electrostatic recording member comprising the steps of:

electrostatically charging said member in the dark;

exposing the charged member to a pattern of light and shadow to produce thereon an electrostatic charge image;

developing said charge image by applying thereon an electroscopic powder comprising a resin blend of:

i. at least 9% by weight of said powder of an infrangible thermoplastic polyamide resin formed by reacting a high molecular weight polyene fatty acid or ester thereof with an amine, said polyamide resin having a fracturing value of at least 1,000 gram centimeters, and

ii. a highly frangible thermoplastic resin having a fracturing value not greater than 200 gram centimeters,

said resin blend being formed by mixing the resin components in their molten state and said blend further having a sharp melting point within the range of about 150 F. to about 329 F., said fracturing values being measured by the falling ball method on a wafer of resin maintained at about 100 F. and 3.75 cm. in diameter and 0.5 cm. in thickness.

3. The method of making an electrostatic copy on an electrostatic recording member comprising the steps of:

electrostatically charging said member in the dark;

exposing the charged member to a pattern of light and shadow to produce thereon an electrostatic charge image;

developing said charge image by applying thereon a developer mix comprising:

a. separate granular triboelectrically chargeable carrier particles, and

b. a developer powder comprising:

1. a coloring agent selected from the group consisting of dyes and pigments,

2. a resin blend having a triboelectric relationship of opposite polarity with respect to said carrier particles and having a sharp melting point within the range of about 70 C. to about 165 C., said resin blend being formed by mixing the resin components in their molten state and being composed of:

i. an infrangible thermoplastic polyamide resin formed by reacting a high molecular weight polyene fatty acid or ester thereof with an amine, said polyamide resin having a fracturing value of at least 1,000 gram centimeters, and

ii. a highly frangible thermoplastic resin having a fracturing value not greater than 200 gram centimeters, said fracturing values being measured by the falling ball method on a wafer of resin maintained at 100 F. and 3.75 cm. in diameter and 0.5 cm. in thickness, whereby developed images of substantially improved density can be formed over extended operating periods.

4. The method of making an electrostatic copy on an electrostatic recording member comprising the steps of:

electrostatically charging said member in the dark;

exposing the charged member to a pattern of light and shadow to produce thereon an electrostatic charge image;

developing said charge image by applying thereon a developer mix, said developer mix comprising:

a. separate granular triboelectrically chargeable carrier particles,

b. a developer powder comprising:

1. a coloring agent selected from the group consisting of dyes and pigments, and

2. a resin blend having a triboelectric relationship of opposite polarity with respect to said carrier particles and having a sharp melting point within the range of about 70 C. to about 165 C., said resin blend being formed by mixing the resin components in their molten state and being comprised of:

i. a major portion of an infrangible thermoplastic polyamide resin formed by reacting a high molecular weight polyene fatty acid or esters thereof with an amine, and

ii. a minor portion ofa highly frangible thermoplastic resin having a fracturing value not greater than 200 gram cm., the frangibility of the resins being measured by the falling ball method on a wafer of resin maintained at 100 F. and 3.75 cm. in diameter and 0.5 cm. in thickness, whereby developed images of substantially improved density can be formed over extended operating periods.

5. The method as claimed in claim 4 wherein the frangible resin is a maleic anhydride rosin-modified rosin.

6. The method of making an electrostatic copy on an electrostatic recording member comprising the steps of:

electrostatically charging said member in the dark;

exposing the charged member to a pattern of light and shadow to produce thereon an electrostatic charge image;

developing said charge image by applying thereon an electroscopic powder suitable for developing said electrostatic charge images, said powder consisting essentially of:

i. frangible and infrangible thermoplastic resins combined when in their molten state to form a miscible mixture, said mixture having physical properties which are distinct from either of the components comprising said mixture, a softening point not less than 130 F., and a melting point below the char point of paper to which it is applied and changing from discrete particles to a flowable state within 8 of said melting point, said frangible resin constituting in the range of from 10 percent to 91 percent by weight of the electroscopic powder and having a fracturing value not greater than 200 gram cms.,

ii. said infrangible resin being a polyamide resin formed by reacting a high molecular weight polyene fatty acid or esters thereof with an amine and constituting in the range of from 9 percent to percent by weight of the electroscopic powder and having a fracturing value of at least 1000 gram centimeters, the fracturing value of the resin being measured at F. by the falling ball method on a wafer of a resin 3.75 cm. in diameter and 0.5 cm. in thickness.

7. The method of making an electrostatic copy as claimed in claim 6 wherein said electroscopic powder has a melting point in the range of from 250 to 235 F.

8. The method of making an electrostatic copy as claimed in claim 7 wherein said electroscopic powder is constituted of from 10 percent to 50 percent by weight of said polyamide resin and 50 percent to 90 percent by weight of a maleic anhydride rosin-modified resin.

9. The method of making an electrostatic copy as claimed in claim 6 wherein said electroscopic powder is comprised of from 30 percent to 40 percent by weight of a polyamide resin, 40 percent to 50 percent by weight of a maleic anhydride rosin-modified resin and from 1 percent to percent by weight of a polyhydric alcohol tluxing agent.

10. The method of making an electrostatic copy as claimed in claim 6 wherein said electroscopic powder is comprised of from 50 percent to 90 percent by weight of said thermoplastic infrangible polyamide resin and from 5 percent to 40 percent by weight of a frangible thermoplastic resin component selected from the group consisting of maleic anhydride rosinmodified resin, esterified diphenolic resin, and phenolformaldehyde resins.

11. The method of making an electrostatic copy on an electrostatic recording member comprising the steps of:

electrostatically charging said member in the dark;

exposing the charged member to a pattern of light and shadow to produce thereon on electrostatic charge image;

developing said charge image by applying thereon a developer mix comprising a granular electroscopic powder of colored thermoplastic particles mixed with larger carrier particles, said thermoplastic particles and said carrier particles having charges of opposite polarity, said thermoplastic particles having as one component at leat 9% by weight of a polyamide resin formed by reacting a high molecular weight polyene fatty acid or esters thereof with an amine heat-blended with a second frangible resin component to form a composite electroscopic powder having a fracturing value of at least 400 gram cms., said polyamide resin having a fracturing value of at least 1000 gram cms.. the blend having a melting point in the range of about 158 F. to about 329 F.. and

fixing the developed electrostatic image by exposing the recording member to heat.

12. The method of making an electrostatic copy as claimed in claim 11 wherein said polyamide resin is present in an amount of 50 percent to 90 percent by weight of said electroscopic powder.

13. The method of making an electrostatic copy as claimed in claim 11 wherein the second frangible resin component is a maleic-anhydride-polyhydric alcohol rosin-modified resin and is present in an amount of from 9 percent to 50 percent by weight of said electroscopic powder.

14. The method of making an electrostatic copy as claimed in claim 11 wherein the polyamide resin is a reaction product of polymerized linoleic acid and ethylenediamine.

15. The method of making an electrostatic copy as claimed in claim 11 wherein the electroscopic powder has an average particle size in the range of from four microns to ten microns.

16. The method of making an electrostatic copy on an electrostatic recording member comprising the steps of:

clectrostatically charging said member in the dark;

exposing the charged member to a pattern of light and shadow to produce thereon an electrostatic charge image; developing said charge image by applying thereon a developer mix comprising: A. separate granular triboelectrically chargeable carrier particles, and B. a developer powder comprising:

i. a coloring agent selected from the group consisting of dyes and pigments, ii. a resin blend having a triboelectric relationship of opposite polarity with respect to said carrier particles, a melting point in the range of about 158 F. to about 329 F. wherein the blend changes from discrete particles to a flowable state within 8 F. of said melt point. said resin blend being formed by mixing the resin components in the molten state and being composed of a. at least 9% by weight of said powder of an infrangible thermoplastic polyamid resin formed by reacting a high molecular weight polyene fatty acid or ester thereof with an amine, said polyamide resin having a fracturing value of at least 1000 gram centimeters,

b. a highly frangible thermoplastic resin having a fracturing value not greater than 200 gram centimeters,

said blend having a fracturing value of at least 400 gram centimeters, a particle size in the range of l to 74 microns, and a softening point of about 130 F., said fracturing values being measured by the falling ball method on a wafer of resin maintained at F. and 3.75 centimeters in diameter and 0.5 centimeters in thickness,

whereby developed images of substantially improved density can be formed over extended operating periods.

UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION PATENTNO. 3,901,695 DATED August 26, 1975 INVENT 1 Loren E. Shelffo It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 4, line 45, "50 should read --5 column 6, line 22, "resins" should read ---rosins--; column 7, line 13, resin-modified" should read --rosin-modiied--; column 7, lines 36 and 37, "EZ-8-58T" should read --EZ8-58T--; column 7, line 39, afteg "15" there should be inserted --parts--; column 11, line '7, "150 F" should read --158 F-.

Signed and Scaled this second Day of W191i [SEAL] Arrest:

RUTH C. MASON C. MARSHALL DAMN Arresting Officer Commissioner oj'Parenrs and Trademarks

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4256818 *Nov 5, 1979Mar 17, 1981Xerox CorporationMagnetic or electrostatographic imaging and high speed fusing method uses polyamide resin in toner
US4311779 *Nov 28, 1979Jan 19, 1982Mita Industrial Company LimitedDeveloper for developing electrostatic latent images
US4315064 *Nov 28, 1979Feb 9, 1982Mita Industrial Company LimitedElectrostatic photographic copying process
US4499168 *Apr 27, 1984Feb 12, 1985Canon Kabushiki KaishaFixing method
US4623603 *Jun 17, 1985Nov 18, 1986Hitachi Metals, Ltd.High electrical resistivity, long life
US4770969 *Jul 8, 1987Sep 13, 1988Konishiroku Photo Industry Co., Ltd.Heat fusible toners for developing electrostatic images
Classifications
U.S. Classification430/123.52, 430/122.1, 430/111.4, 430/108.4, 427/145, 430/123.55, 430/109.5
International ClassificationG03G9/087, G03G9/10
Cooperative ClassificationG03G9/08766, G03G9/10, G03G9/08775, G03G9/08722
European ClassificationG03G9/087B4, G03G9/087F, G03G9/087D9, G03G9/10
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
May 12, 1988AS17Release by secured party
Owner name: AM INTERNATIONAL, INC.
Owner name: SECURITY PACIFIC BUSINESS CREDIT, INC. :
May 12, 1988ASAssignment
Owner name: AM INTERNATIONAL, INC.
Free format text: RELEASED BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:SECURITY PACIFIC BUSINESS CREDIT, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004884/0524
Oct 26, 1984ASAssignment
Owner name: SECURITY PACIFIC BUSINESS CREDIT, INC., A DE CORP.
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AM INTERNATIONAL, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004332/0512
Effective date: 19841009