US 3902466 A
A rotary V internal combustion engine in which the pistons are V-shaped and arranged in parallel in a circle with cylinders at each end thereof is structured for four stroke operation in which the cylinders at one end are fired in sequence and the cylinders at the other end are fired in sequence with the fuel intake and exhausts both being in the head plates which carry the cylinders.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
[451 Sept. 2, 1975 United States Patent [191 Gulko e w; .m w BO 03 57 99 l 1 62 FOUR STROKE ROTARY V INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE  Inventor: Arnold G. Gulko, 1835 Arcola Ave.,
Iver Sprmg Md 0 0 Primary Examiner-Clarence R. Gordon Oct. 29, 1974  Filed:
Appl. No.: 518,625
52 us. 123/43 A; 123/43 0 123/4l.69' A Mary v internal cmbustfln l in which the 123 /32R; 123/144 pistons are V-shaped and arranged in parallel in a cir- Int. FOZB 57/02 cle with cylinders at each end thereof is structured for four stroke operation in which the c end are fired in sequence and the ylinders at one  Field of Search........... 123/43 A, 43 AA, 43 C,
cylinders at the other end are fired in sequence with the fuel intake and exhausts both being in the head plates which carry the cylinders.
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,444,764 7/1948 123/43 A 12 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures FOUR STROKE ROTARY V INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE The present invention relates to rotary V internal combustion engines in which the pistons are V-shaped a arranged in parallel in a circle with cylinders at eat. end thereof. These engines are normally two stroke engines as described in the August 1974 issue of Popular Science at pages 62-64 and 1 17.
Two stroke engines have many deficiencies, but the rotary V internal combustion engine of the type under consideration is not readily adaptable to four stroke operation, and this is the objective of this invention.
In accordance with this invention, a four stroke rotary internal combustion engine is formed with a plurality of parallel V-shaped pistons arranged in a circle, and each of the pistons is confined at each end thereof, by cylinders which are held between a head plate and a heel plate. The cylinders, the heel plates, the head plates and the pistons are all supported for rotary movement about an axis paralleling said pistons and extending through the center of said circle so that the opposite ends of the pistons simultaneously reciprocate within the cylinders as rotation proceeds. This is the advantage of this type of engine, since the movement is entirely rotary, but the action is entirely reciprocatory. Two fuel intake tubes are employed, one for each end of the pistons, and these intake tubes extend from the heel plate to the head plate along the axis of rotation. Also, fuel intake means are situated between the heel plates so that a carburated mixture will be supplied through each of the intake tubes. The intake tubes are interconnected to hold these tubes against rotation and means are provided in the head plates for distributing fuel supplied by the intake tubes to the various cylinders. Means are also provided in the head plates for independently exhausting the cylinders. Means are further provided which are responsive to the rotation of the head plates with respect to the intake tubes for sup plying fuel to the fuel distributing means, one at a time, and means are employed for preventing the supply of fuel to the fuel distributing means during alternate rotations of each head plate. Lastly, the exhaust means are controlled so that the cylinders are exhausted during part of these alternate rotations. As a result, all of the cylinders at one end of the engine fire and then, while these cylinders exhaust and are recharged, the cylinders at the other end of the engine fire, these other cylinders being at an angle to the cylinders at the first named end of the engine.
Going into greater detail, the intake tubes are mounted for nonrotary reciprocation at opposite ends of a perforated V-shaped tube, and means are provided for reciprocating the intake tubes in order to open and close the fuel distributing means in the head plates. It will be understood that while the fuel distributor at one end of the engine is closed during one complete rotation, the fuel distributor at the opposite end is open, and the opposite is true during the next rotation, and this sequence alternates. The exhaust is closed shortly after the fuel supply is started, and it is opened again for the last of the four strokes of the engine (the exhaust stroke). Each of the four strokes requires onehalf of a rotation of the engine, the total cycle requiring two rotations.
The sequence of strokes as related to a multi-cylinder rotary engine will be clarified hereinafter by illustration.
In the preferred construction, the intake tubes are cam reciprocated by at least one cam carried by one of the pistons, and this cam is preferably positioned between the heel plates. The cam is loosely mounted so that relative rotation with the pistons occurs to keep a cam follower in a dual track on the interior of the V- cover on the center section of the engine between the heel plates, and to keep the bearing portion of the cam on the inside of the engine where it can work against the intake tubes. The dual track includes a cross over point so that the cam will follow one path on one rotation, and a second path on the next rotation. The cam follower is elongated and pivotally carried bythe cam to move across the crossing point and thereby follow the complex track. It is convenient to employ two cams, one for each of the intake tubes, and to control both the availability of fuel and the exhaust by movement of the intaketube alone, even though these functions are not actuated at the same time.
The invention will be more fully understood from the description of an illustrative structure which is shown in the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a side elevation, with most of the cover removed, and showing the overall construction of an illustrative engine;
FIG. 2 is a sectional side elevation, and showing the fuel supply to the head plate (not shown in section) and the structure for reciprocating the fuel intake tube;
FIG. 3 is a partial sectional view showing the cam which controls the reciprocation of the fuel intake tube and its interengagernent therewith;
FIG. 4 is a partial sectional view through the center of one of the head plates to show the mounting of the fuel intake tube in the head plate, the fuel distribution to the cylinders and the exhausting of the cylinders;
FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic cross-section showing the fuel distribution to the various cylinders and also the exhaust system and its cam actuation. The oiling system is shown in phantom;
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary view showing further means to cam the fuel intake tube; and
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary view showing cam operation of optional channels which tie some of the cylinders together.
The rotary V internal combustion engine is shown in its entirety in FIG. 1 from which it will be seen that the pistons 10 are V-shaped and arranged in parallel around a circular configuration. Four pistons are used, three of which can be seen in FIG. I, but any number in excess of one could be used. The use of a four stroke engine, as in this invention, allows a shorter stroke to be used, and this enables fewer cylinders to be used with a shallower angle to the V, so that four cylinders at each end of four pistons presents preferred practice using a piston stroke which does not exceed the piston diameter by more than 30%.
Cylinders 11 are positioned on the opposite ends of each piston, the cylinders 11 being held between heel plates 12 and head plates 13. The cylinders 11 can be constituted by individual tubes, as shown, or by a circular casting in which the cylinders are bored. The cylinders 11 shown here are clamped between the plates 12 and 13 by bolts 14 and nuts 15. Welding can be used to improve the seal, especially with the head plates 12. Gaskets can also be used. The cylinders shown herein do not rotate with respect to the plates 12 and 13, but relative rotation is permissible.
Spark plugs 16, one for each cylinder 11, are employed herein, but in certain arrangements, only one Spark plug at each end would be sufficient, and it is even possible to eliminate all of the plugs and allow the entire engine or many of the cylinders to function as a diesel. Since adjacent cylinders are fired one after another, it is also possible to use the ignition in one cylinder to ignite the next one, as will be explained.
-The heel plates 12 define a chamber 17 into which a carbureted mixture is drawn from a carburetor (not shown), and the chamber 17 is closed by a cover 18 which is sealed (a loose seal is adequate) to the heel plates 12 by rings, not shown, which permit the plates to rotate while the cover 18 is stationary. The vacuum created by the fuel intake stroke of the various pistons is maintained by the sealed chamber 17 and is relied upon to draw the fuel and air through the conventional carburetor in conventional fashion (note intake port 19).
The cover 18 is constituted by mating cover plates which are supported by structure outside of the engine, e.g., the frame of an automobile. The interior of the cover is formed with dual cam tracks 20 which cross as shown at 21. It is this dual cam track which enables different control to take place on each alternate rotation of the engine. In the preferred structure shown, there are two dual tracks, one for each end of the engine.
The cross-section in FIG. 2 shows the manner in which the pistons reciprocate within the cylinder 11, the piston being fully retracted when it is at the bottom of the rotational cycle, and being fully projected when the piston is at the top of the rotational cycle. This figure also shows the fuel supply. As previously pointed out, the carbureted mixture is drawn into the central chamber 17 between the heel plates 12, and from here the mixture is drawn through the intake tube 23 to the head plate 13 where it is distributed as explained hereinafter. The intake tube 23 is mounted for sliding reciprocation on a V-shaped perforated connecting tube 22. Rotation of tube 23 is prevented because tube 22 is fixed at both ends, and tube 23 has a groove which rides on spline 24 formed on the exterior of tube 22.
FIG. 2 also shows the manner in which the intake tube is reciprocated. As can be seen, earns 25 encircle one of the pistons 10 between the heel plates 12. The cams 25 carry a follower 26 which rides in the dual tracks 20, and a bearing element 27 engages with flanged groove 28 which circles the inner ends of the intake tubes 23. Cam 25 is shown in FIG. 3 from which it will be seen that follower 26 is elongated and pivotally mounted at the top of the cam on pin 29, and this enables the follower to cross over the crossing point in the dual track. The sliding interconnection between the intake tube 23 and the connecting tube 22 is also visible in the figure.
Referring to FIG. 4, it will be seen that the outer extremity of the fuel intake tube 23 is sealingly seated, via ring 30, in a cylindrical recess 31 in the head plate 13. This figure also shows the inner portions of two of the cylinders 11. As will be appreciated from FIG. 5, each of the cylinders is provided with a fuel passageway and an exhaust, but FIG. 4 only shows one fuel passageway 32 to one cylinder, and one exhaust 33 for the other cylinder so as to ease the burden of description, but each cylinder contains both structures.
The portion of the tube 23 within the recess 31 contains a fuel distribution port 34 which, when the fuel passageway 32 of any cylinder is in line with the port 34, will enable fuel to be drawn into the cylinder 11 as the piston 10 moves away from head plate 13 in an intake stroke. Port 34 extends only over the intake portion of the rotational cycle.
When cam 25 crosses to the outer track of the dual track 20, this projects the tube 23 to its fully projected position shown in FIG. 4 in which port 34 is in line with the passing fuel passageways 32, and this begins a first rotation in which none of the cylinders at the illustrated end of the engine will fire. Of course, the other end of the engine is one rotation (two strokes of 180 each) out of synchronization with the illustrated end, so all four of its cylinders will fire while the illustrated end is fueled (charged) and partially compressed as will be explained.
In the fully projected position of the tube 23 shown in FIG. 4, the fuel port 34 is in charging position, thus causing (see FIG. 5) cylinder No. 4 to be charged with fuel and then cylinder No. 3. However, in this same projected position, cam surface 35 acts on follower 36 of the exhaust controller 37 to project the controller 37 against the pressure of spring 38 to align port 39 with the exhaust 33 to permit cylinder No. 2 to be exhausted, followed by cylinder No. 1. The exhaust on cylinder No. 1 is not completed since the exhaust must be closed before charged cylinder No. 4 reaches the point where it will be exhausted, so after an about turn into the first rotation, cam 25 retracts the tube 23 about one third of its full stroke so that follower 36 slides off cam surface 35 to close the exhaust 33 per the action of springs 38. Thus, and for the remainder of the first full rotation, the alignment of port 34 with fuel passageways 32 continues (note the extent and width of port 34) and, as a result, cylinder No. 2 is charged and then cylinder No. 1 is charged. At the same time, and with the exhausts of each cylinder being closed, the charges in cylinders No. 4 and No. 3 are compressed in sequence.
The partial exhausting of cylinder No. 1 can be tolerated, but it can also be eliminated since the fact that each cylinder has an independent exhaust structure means that the follower on cylinder No. 1 can be differently sized so as to remain on cam surface 35 after the other followers 36 are positioned below it. This is shown in phantom and identified by the numeral 36. Thus, while the followers 36 are out of contact with cam surface 35 when tube 23 is one third retracted, the enlarged follower 36' associated with cylinder No. 1 stays on the cam surface 35 until it is rotated beyond the end of the cam surface 35 and, by the time the first complete rotation is over, tube 23 is further retracted so that none of the followers, including follower 36', can engage cam surface 35.
During the second rotation, the earns 25 cross to the other of the dual tracks (the inner track for the illustrated end) so that the illustrated end is the powering end while the opposite end goes through the very sequence of charging and partial compression described above.
Continuing with consideration of the illustrated end, at the start of the second rotation, cam 25 crosses the dual track to retract the fuel intake tube 23 so that it is about two thirds retracted. The exhausts at the illustrated end remain closed, but the port 34 is now above the fuel intakes 32 so fuel can no longer be supplied. This situation continues for the first half of the second rotation, and as the spark plugs 16 pass a firing position where the pistons are in a projected position,,the compressed charge is fired, thus firing first cylinder N0. 4,
and then cylinder No. 3.-At the same time, and with the exhausts closed, cylinder No. 2 is compressed and then cylinder No. 1 is compressed. i
As will now be apparent, the head plates 13 have two sides at anyinstant of time, namely, a side where the pistons are ,-retracting and a side,yy here the pistons are projecting (relative to the head plates). The fuel distributing means is operative only on the piston retracting side, and the exhausts are operative only on the piston projecting side. v I i The spark position can be slightly prior to the cylinder reaching the full dead center position to gain maxi mum power from the fuel, and it can be advanced and retarded with the rotational speed of the engine.
When the first half ofthe second rotation is completed, cam 25 moves tube 23 to a fully retracted position, thus causing the cylinders on'the exhaust side to be exhausted as followers 36 ri'de out on cam surface 40. Thus, cylinder No. 2 is fired, then cylinder No. l, and at the same time, the previously fired cylinders No. 4 and No. 3 are exhausted, and this completes the entire four stroke cycle which now starts again as the cam 25 cro'ssespov'er to the outer portionof dual track for the illustrated end of the engine.
With this description of how and when cam moves tube 23 into'its various positions, the config'urationof the two tracks in the dual track 20 will be evident.
At the right hand side of FIG. 1 is shown an oil container 50 which extends between the stationary walls of cylinders 11 as shown in phantom in FIG. 5. The oil in container 50 is thrown outwardly by centrifugal force, entering the cylinder 11 via opening 51 shown in FIG. 5. The oil is distributed within cylinders 11 by the reciprocation and relative rotation of the pistons 10 within the cylinders using one or more grooves 52 on the exterior of the pistons, and this partially explains the preference for cylinders which are fixed to the head plates.
If it is desired to have a momentary interconnection between adjacent cylinders through the head plate so that the ignited gases in one cylinder will travel back, counter to the rotational movement, to ignite the com pressed charge in the adjacent cylinder, this can be done by having channels (one for each pair of adjacent cylinders, save between the last cylinder to fire and the first one) interconnecting adjacent cylinders. These channels 66 are normally closed, but are cammed to open at the right time by a cam 65 carried by the intake tube 23 above the level of cam to engage the channel-opening element only when the tube 23 is in its firing position (two thirds retracted or fully retracted). This allows such ignition with its attendant advantages of reducing the number of spark plugs and of lowering cylinder peak pressure and temperature to be obtained using nonrotatable cylinders as is preferred herein for the lubrication of the engine. The channel closing element is shown in FIG. 7 as lever 68 which is engaged by cam 65 to pivot about pin 67 to align port 69 with the channel 67.
All sorts of auxiliary equipment may be present. Thus, the head plates 12 carry shafts 60 and 61. One of these shafts carries a geared wheel (not shown) to enable connection to a conventional starter motor. The other shaft provides a power take-off. An electrical contact 562 is also present tocontact the spark plugs 16 when they move past the desired firing position. The cover plates have, openings for air cooling Bearings and rings are used wherever appropriate. An exhaust port 63 is provided in the ends of the cover 18, the ports .63 leading to exhausts 64. After-burners or cata ly ti c converters for treating the exhaust gases may also be present, and these can conveniently be located in the ends of the cover 18 to contact the exhausts where they have the highest temperature.
While it is preferred to have the cam carried by one of the pistons and to form the dual track onthe interior of the cover 18, the details of construction can be var ied. Thus, the dual track can also be carried on the exterior of each of the fuel. intake tubes 23 where it can be operated by pivoted elongated followers, one carried by each of the heel plates 12. The track is shown in FIG.6 where the follower 26 carried by pin 29 is mounted on a rod 70 fixed to heel plate 12.
Reduction in the proportion of unburned hydrocarbons inthe exhaust, isparticularly important and this is best done by having the exhaust contact oxygenarich air as quickly as possible and also by havingthe air as warm as possible. This is done herein by mounting vanes 71 on the non-rotating cylinders 11 to blow air toward the head plates 13. Holes 72 are provided in the head plates so that air warmed by the hot cylinders is blown into the exhaust as soon as it passes through the head plates thereby cooling the cylinders and simultaneously minimizing hydrocarbon pollution.
The invention is defined in the claims which follow.
1. A four stroke rotary internal combustion engine comprising a plurality of parallel V-shaped pistons arranged in a circle, each of said pistons being confined at each end thereof, by cylinder which are held between a head plate and a heel plate, said cylinders, the heel plates, the head plates and the pistons being supported for rotary movement about an axis paralleling said pistons and extending through the center of said circle so that the opposite ends of said pistons simultaneously reciprocate within said cylinders as rotation proceeds, two fuel intake tubes, one for each end of said pistons, extending from said heel plate to said head plate along said axis of rotation, fuel intake means situated between said heel plates so that a carbureted mixture will be supplied through each of said fuel intake tubes, means interconnecting said fuel intake tubes to hold said tubes against rotation, means in said head plates for distributing fuel supplied by said intake tubes to said cylinders, means in said head plates for independently exhuasting said cylinders, means responsive to the rotation of said head plates with respect to said intake tubes for supplying fuel to said fuel distributing means, one at a time, means to prevent the supply of fuel to said fuel distributing means during alternate rotations of said head plate, and means for controlling said exhaust means to that said cylinders are only exhausted during part of said rotations.
2. An engine as recited in claim 1 in which said cylin ders are non-rotatably secured to said head plates.
3. An engine as recited in claim 1 in which said fuel intake tubes are interconnected by a V-shaped perforated connecting tube, said intake tubes being mounted for longitudinal reciprocation. on said connecting tube.
4. An engine as recited in claim 1 in which said intake tubes are mounted for longitudinal reciprocation between a projected position, a one-third retracted position, a two-third retracted position, and a fully retracted position, said intake tubes carrying fuel distributing means and exhaust control means so that fuel is supplied to the cylinders in the two projected positions and is withheld on the two retracted positions, and the exhausts are open in the fully projected position, and the fully retracted position, but are closed in the two intermediate positions.
5. An engine as recited in claim 4 in which the fuel distributing means is operative only on the piston retracting side of the head plate, and the exhausts are operative only on the piston projecting side of the head plate.
6. An engine as recited in claim 1 in which the means for distributing fuel to the cylinders and the means to exhaust the cylinders is controlled by a member which reciprocates longitudinally and which is reciprocated by at least one cam carried by one of the pistons between the heel plates, this cam riding on a dual track carried by a cover which encloses the space between the heel plates, said dual track including a cross-over point so that an elongated follower pivotally carried by the cam will follow the dual track across the cross over point so that the cam will follow one path on one rotation and a different path on the next rotation.
7. An engine as recited in claim 2 in which an oil container is carried between said cylinders adjacent said heel plates and an opening is provided in said cylinders so that oil from said container can reach the pistons to be distributed thereby as the pistons reciprocate and rotate relative to said cylinders.
8. An engine as recited in claim 2 in which channels are provided in said head plates to interconnect adjacent cylinders except between the first cylinder to fire and the last one to fire, means normally closing said channels and cam means for momentarily opening said channels carried by a stationary portion of the engine for opening said channels one at a time shortly after the previous cylinder has fired.
9. An engine as recited in claim 1 in which only the first cylinder to fire is equipped with a spark plug.
10. An engine as recited in claim 1 in which said cylinders carry vanes to blow air toward said head plates, and said head plates are perforated so that heated air passes through them to mix with the exhaust.
11. An engine as recited in claim 3 in which said fuel intake tubes each carry a dual track including a cross over point and said intake tubes are reciprocated by means of an elongated pivotally mounted follower carried by an element of the engine which rotates about the axis of rotation.
12. An engine as recited in claim 1 in which the exha'usts for each cylinder are cam operated and the follower for the last cylinder to fire is enlarged to cause the last cylinder to continue to exhaust after the followers on the other cylinders are removed from the influence of the cam which controls the exhausts.