US 3902559 A
A fire fighting appliance comprising a container containing a blanket-like carrier soaked in a viscous aqueous solution of a thickening agent.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Everingham et a1.
FIRE FIGHTING APPLIANCES Inventors: Robert Alfred Everingham,
Annandale; Patrick Denis Lamly, Mascot; Bert Robert Newell, Phillip Bay; Edward Ritchie Cole, Turramurra; Norman William West, Cremorne, all of Australia Assignee: Water-Jel International Pty.
Limited, Australia Filed: June 28, 1973 Appl. No.: 374,698
Foreign Application Priority Data June 29, 1972 Japan 47-65402 Feb. 28, 1973 Japan 48-25730 U.S. 169/50; 128/155 Int. CL. A62c 7/00 Field of Search 128/268, 260, 296, 156, 128/155; 169/48, 49, 50, 51, 52
[451 sew. 2, 1975  References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 360,998 4/1887 Cloud 169/50 3,062,210 11/1962 Scholl 128/156 3,089,492 5/1963 Owens.. 128/268 3,395,063 7/1968 Ralha 128/156 X 3,624,224 11/1971 Wei 128/156 X 3,657,760 4/1972 Kudisch... 128/268 X 3,750,666 8/1973 Graham 128/268 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 340,172 12/1930 United Kingdom 169/50 Primary ExaminerM. Henson Wood, Jr. Assistant Examiner--1\/1ichae1 Mar Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Steinberg & Blake A fire fighting appliance comprising a container containing a blanket-like carrier soaked in a viscous aqueous solution of a thickening agent.
23 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures FIRE FIGHTING APPLIANCES The present invention relates to fire fighting appliances and more particularly to a fire fighting appliance which can be applied manually to a fire or to a burn victim.
Numerous fire fighting appliances are known such as foam and powder extinguishers, sand buckets and asbestos blankets, however, all of these prior art devices suffer from serious deficiences, particularly when they are to be applied to known burn victims. The present invention is adapted to provide a fire fighting appliance which offers to the public an alternative to the existing fire fighting appliances and which, in preferred embodiments, provides effective means of extinguishing burning clothing on humans.
The present invention consists in a fire fighting appliance comprising a container and a woven or nonwoven carrier disposed within the container, the container further containing a stable aqueous solution or dispersion of a thickening agent in an amount at least sufficient to saturate the carrier, the solution or dispersion having a viscosity, as hereinafter defined, of more than 250.
The container may be made of any suitable material such as a synthetic plastics material, a laminated foil material, or a common metal. The material is preferably capable of resisting corrosion or deterioration for a period of at least 2 years. The container may be of any suitable size and configuration commensurate with the rapid removal of the carrier therefrom. It is desirable that the container be such that it can be sealed in an airtight manner whilst still being capable of being rapidly and easily opened when required.
In one preferred embodiment of the invention the container is rectangular in cross-sectional shape and is moulded from a synthetic plastics material. The container is provided with a lid; quick release catches being provided to clamp the lid in an airtight manner to the body of the container. In another embodiment of the invention the container comprises an envelope of an aluminium reinforced heat sealable synthetic plastics material, the envelope being provided with a line of preferred weakness at one end to allow rapid opening of the envelope.
The carrier may be of the woven or non-woven fabric type; it is preferred that the carrier should be of the high bulk, low density type so as to be capable of carry ing a maximum amount of the thickener solution. The carrier should preferably be resistant to loss of tensile strength with ageing over periods of at least 2 years. It is further preferred that the carrier should be formed of material which is non-inflammable and non-heat softening, the most preferred material for the formation of the carrier is wool, either alone or in combination with another fibre. It is preferred that the carrier should be a woven fabric having an intercellular weave.
The most preferred specification for the carrier is as follows:
100% Pure New Wool Mean Fibre diameter 35 microns 65 Tex X 2 lnterccllular Weave forming 5 X 5 WOOL STRENGTH according to this invention Warp 30 kg minimum Weft 30 kg minimum WEIGHT Dry (Mean) 234 gms per square metre The thickening agent must be present in an amount sufficient to give the aqueous solution a viscosity, as hereinafter defined, of more than 250. It is preferred that the viscosity should be more than and most preferred that it should be more than 50. The preferred examples which have shown the most desirable properties are those showing a viscosity of about 0. The viscosity is preferably less than l0(recoil) as hereinafter defined.
The viscosity of a solution is defined for the present purposes as being the reading obtained by the following procedure:
Scope a. This method of test is intended as an arbitrary method of determining the viscosity of aqueous solutions or dispersions of natural or modified gums and synthetic hydrophilic polymers, which show Newtonian or Non-Newtonian properties. The viscosity is determined by measuring the damping effect on a metal cylinder suspended by a torsion wire which is twisted through 360.
a. Viscometer Universal Torsion viscometer l fitted with N0. 30 S.W.Cv. torsion wire and a 1% inch diameter torsion cylinder.
*1 (Model VS-020, Av Gallenkamp 8L Co. Ltd., London, EC2) b. Container water jacketted cup, internal dimensions 2% inch diameter and depth*2. *2 (Gallenkamp Catalogue No. VS-UBS) 0. Water bath constant temperature, capable of maintaining the temperature at 23 i O.2C. To be fitted with a pump suitable for circulating water through the jacketted cup.
d. Timing device clock or stop watch caliorated in seconds.
e. Balance Chemical, to weigh 200 g, readable and accurate to 0.05 g.
f. Mechanical stirrer agitator of stainless steel attached to a motor capable of speeds up to 1000 r.p.m.
g. Miscellaneous beakers l l, spatula.
Procedure a. Preparation of solution weigh to the nearest 0.10 g the required weight of gum or polymer. Pour 600 ml of distilled water into a l l beaker and set the stirrer in motion, adjusting the speed to produce a deep vortex about the stirrer shaft. Place the gum or polymer on a piece of glazed paper and pour it into the vortex, tapping the paper as necessary to produce a slow continuous stream of the powder or granules. Maintain the stirrer at a speed which produces rapid agitation without incorporating an excessive amount of air, until the solution is free from undissolved solid or gelatinous agglomerated particles. Allow to stand for 24 hours.
b. Test for uniformity in the solution by pouring the sample into a l l beaker and back again into the original beaker. If necessary, continue the process until the solution is uniformly mixed.
c. Fit the thermometer by means of a cork to the jacketted cup, connect the jacket with the water bath pump. Fill the cup with the solution to within 1 cm from the top and place it in position in the viscometer, finally swinging in the supporting shelf.
d. Circulate the water through the jackctted cup, at a temperature required to adjust the solution under test to the prescribed temperature.
e. Fix the viscometer flywheel at the zero point and hold in place with the release pin. Twist the wire one revolution by rotating the upper knob. Allow to stand for minutes.
f. Release the flywheel pin, at the same time starting the timing device. Note the degree of recoil of the flywheel towards the zero point, or if the flywheel is carried past the zero point note the maximum overswing. If the flywheel has not reached the Zero point after 400 sees a reading should be taken irrespective of whether the flywheel has reached a stable position or not.
Reporting a. Report the viscosity as either the degrees of partial recoil or degrees overswing, whichever is the case.
The solution or dispersion (referred to hereinafter for convenience as the solution) is preferably thixotrophic although this is not essential to the invention. The use of a thixotrophic solution will tend to facilitate the adhesion of the thickened solution to the carrier while allowing the solution to flow out of the carrier readily upon the application of a force to the solution. The property of thixotrophy will also help stabilise the solution against undue syneresis.
It is also preferred that the solution shows incipient gel properties at the desired viscosity. While it has been found that it is not essential that the solution shows incipient gel properties, experiments having shown that a merely viscous solution is sufficient, it has been found that the presence of incipient gel properties increases the amount of solution which can be carried by the carrier. The term incipient gel properties is used to denote a condition of non-homogeneity in which the solution includes lumps" or blobs of gel in an otherwise homogeneous solution.
The solution should be stable against undue syneresis, i.e. separation of the solution into a more viscous lower layer and a watery upper layer with standing. In some applications the solution need only be stable for a matter of hours, however for use in situations in which the fire fighting appliance is to be stored for a matter of months or years to use it is necessary for the solution to be highly stable against syneresis.
If it is intended that the carrier, saturated with the solution, is to be applied to humans having areas of burnt skin or flesh it is desirable that the solution should be non-toxic or at least non-harmful for short term topical applications to the human body. If the fire fighting appliance is to be used where it will not be applied to the human body it is not necessary to use a non-toxic thickening agent. The thickening agent should however be used in sufficiently low concentrations, or be of such a nature, that the toxic combustion products are not produced during its use.
The thickening agent is desirably of such a nature that an amount of from 0.1 to 10 percent, preferably 0.25 to 5 percent by weight of the thickening agent relative to the total solution, will produce the desired viscosity.
Many polysaccharide thickening agents have been found to be suitable for use in thickening the solution used in the present invention; the xanthan gums, either alone or together with another polysaccaride such as locust bean gum, are particularly effective. Other polysaccharides such as starches, carrogeenans, alginates and carboxy methyl celluloses, have also been found to be useful. Synthetic thickening agents such as polyacrylamides may also be used.
The thickener solution is preferably such that it forms a smooth, non-sticky film on drying. This property is particularly desirable where the carrier is to be applied to the human body. If the carrier is left in place on the human body for any length of time it is inevitable that some of the solution will dry on the body. It would be undesirable for the person being treated to be left with a sticky feeling on the skin or burnt flesh.
In order to facilitate more economic formation of the solution of thickener it is desirable that the thickener be capable of being readily dispersed in cold water. In some cases, as with some types of starch, it might be more economic to heat the solution, before, during or after the addition of the thickener in order to achieve more rapid dispersion of the thickener and/0r increase the viscosity of the solution.
The thickening agents which have been found most desirable by the present inventors are,
0.25% KELGUM a 50/50 mixture of xanthan gum and locust bean gum sold by KELCO COM- PANY, of Clark, N.J., U.S.A.
0.5% KELZANa xanthan gum sold by KELCO COMPANY.
0.5% KELTROL a xanthan gum sold by KELCO COMPANY.
0.75% SEASPEN believed to be a carrogeenan containing material which is sold by MARINE COLLOIDS INC., Springfield, N. I., U.S.A.
2.33% SODIUM ALGINATE 2909 sold by AL- GINATES (AUSTRALIA) PTY. LTD., Sydney, Australia.
1.0% SEPARAN a polyacrylamide sold by DOW CORPORATION, Sydney, Australia.
1.0% MANUTEX an alginate sold by AL- BRIGI-IT & WILSON, Sydney, Australia.
1.0% MAGNAFLOC a polyacrylamide sold by ALLIED COLLOIDS PTY. LTD., Sydney, Australia.
If the tire fighting appliance is to be used on humans it is essential that the contents of the container, i.e. the carrier and the solution, be sterile or at least be free of pathogenic microbes in order to avoid the possibility of infection of the burn on the person being treated. This sterilisation may be achieved chemically or by subjecting the contents of the bucket to a sterilising radiation or to heat, provided that the contents are such that they will not be affected by the heat.
The solution preferably includes a bactericidal composition which will, at least in part, contribute to the sterility of the container contents and which will have the effect of reducing the microbial population of the skin when the carrier is applied to a burnt person. The bactericide may be selected from the known water soluble bactericides, however it should be selected in accordance with the nature of the thickener to ensure that the stability and/or viscosity of the solution is not affected by the addition of the bactericide.
The preferred bactericides are Tea Tree Oil, RESI- GUARD and PHENONIP.
Tea Tree Oil is a natural oil obtained from Melaleuca alternifolia. a tree which grows on the north coastal areas of the state of New South Wales, and in southern Queensland, Australia. Similar types of oil are obtainable from allied species of Melaleuca such as Melaleuca lineariifolia and Melaleuca leucadendron. The principal active constituents of Tea Tree Oil are,
1-TERPINEN-4-OL TERPINOLENE CINEOLE SESOUITERPENES P-CYMENE PINENE RESIGUARD is a Registered Trade Mark of NICHO- LAS PTY. LTD. and is a concentrate containing as ac tive constituents,
PICLOXYDINE 1% OCTYLPHENOXY POLYETHOXYETHANOL BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE 12.0%
PHENONIP is the Registered Trade Mark of NIPA LABORATORIES LTD. and includes as active ingredients NIPA ESTERS (PARABENS) and PHENOX- ETOL (a brand of PHENOXY ETHANOL B.P.C.)
The three abovementioned bactericides are preferably used in combination in the solution in the following proportions by weight relative to the total weight of the solution.
Tea Tree Oil 0.4%
PI-IENONIP 0. 1%
It is desirable to include in the solution a surfactant to increase the wetting, penetrating and spreading properties of the solution. The surfactant should be compatible with the other ingredients in the solution and is preferably highly bio-degradable. One suitable surfactant is SURFAX 90" a surfactant sold by SUR- FACTANT SERVICES PTY. LTD. which includes as its active ingredients alkarylpolyglycol esters, cocoalkylolamide and amine neutralised tridecylbenzene sulphonate. I
If desired other materials such as solubilisers, e.g. glycerine, coloring or perfuming compositions as well as bulking agents such as builder salts or the like may be added to the solution. If such ingredients are added they should be compatible with the other ingredients in the solution.
In one preferred form of the invention the aqueous solution contains the following ingredients.
1. Alkyarylpolyglycolether 1. Surfax 90 2. Benzalkonium chloride 2. Resiguard 3. Butylparahydroxybenzoatc 3. Phenonip 4. Cineole 4. Tea Tree Oil 5. Cocoalkylolomide Surfac 9O 6. Cymene Tea Tree Oil 7. Ethylparahydroxybenzoate Phenonip 8. Formaldehyde Used to sterilise blanket 9. Glycerinc B.P. 5. Basic ingredient -Continued 10. Hydrophilic Colloid 6. Kelgum 1 1. Methylparahydroxybenzoate Phenonip 12. Nipa ester combination Pheninip l 3. Octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol Resiguard 14. Picloxydene Resiguard l5. Pinene Tea Tree Oil 16. Polysaccharide gum Kelgum l 7. Propylparahydroxybenzoate Phenonip l8. Sesquiterpene alcohol Tea Tree Oil 19. Sesquiterpenes Tea Tree Oil 20. Terpinolene Tea Tree Oil 21. Terpinenol Tea Tree Oil 23. Tridecylbenzenesulphonateamine neutralised Surfax 23. Water-filtered and sterilised 7. Basic ingredient Hereinafter, given by way of example only, is a preferred embodiment of the invention described with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 shows a fire fighting utensil according to the present invention.
FIG. 2 shows a part-sectional view of a carrier which may be used in the fire fighting utensil shown in FIG.
FIG. 3 shows in stylised form the weave formation used to produce the carrier shown in FIG. 2.
The fire fighting appliance shown in FIG. 1 comprises a container 10, a woven carrier 11 and a viscous colloidal dispersion 12.
The container is made of high density polypropylene by injection moulding and comprises a body part 13 and a lid 14. The lid 14 is held in engagement with the body portion 13 by the quick release catches 15 which engage under the shoulder 16 formed integrally with the body part 13. An airtight seal is maintained between the body part 13 and the lid 14 by a resilient gasket 17 which extends about the periphery of the lid 14 and bears against the inside wall of the body part 13.
The volumetric capacity of the container is not critical, however volumes between 5 and 15 liters are preferred.
The carrier is a woven fabric of pure wool having a mean fibre diameter of 35 microns. The yarn is a two ply yarn each yarn being of 65 tex. As is seen in FIGS. 2 and 3 the fabric structure is an intercellular weave forming 5 X 5 cm fabric squares with 9 warp threads per cm and 9 weft threads per cm.
The colloidal dispersion is an 0.5 percent dispersion of a 50/50 mixture of xantan gum and locust bean gum sold under the Trade name KELGUM by KELCO CO., Clark, N.J., U.S.A.
A mixture of bactericides are present in the dispersion and these comprise,
Tea Tree Oil 0.4%
A surfactant, SURFAX 90 is present in an amount of 0.1 percent by weight together with 1.0 percent by weight glycerine.
The dispersion is prepared by mixing together the SURFAX 90, the RESIGUARD, PHENONIP, Tea Tree Oil, and glycerine which are all liquids. The powdered KELGUM is then added to these liquids and thoroughly mixed before being poured into a tank containing the required amount of Water. The aqueous dispersion is then circulated by means of a pump until a viscous solution is obtained.
The solution is preferably prepared under sterile conditions using sterilised water and the carriers are fumigated above a solution of formaldehyde prior to soaking in the dispersion and packaging in the container. The container is filled to a level above that of the blanket in order to ensure complete saturation of the blanket.
' We claim:
1. A fire fighting appliance comprising a container and a flexible, sheet-material carrier capable of being folded, said carrier being disposed within the container, the container further containing a stable aqueous mixture which includes a thickening agent in an amount in excess of that sufficient to saturate the carrier, the mixture containing a bactericide and having a viscosity of between 250 and recoil.
2. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the container comprises a synthetic plastics material box having a lid which is connected to the body of the container in an airtight manner.
3. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the container is an envelope of a flexible laminated foil which envelope is sealed in an air tight manner.
4. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the carrier is a woven carrier.
5. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 4 in which the woven carrier is made at least partly of wool.
6. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 5 in which the woven carrier has an intercellular weave forming 5cm x 5 cm squares with 9 warp threads per cm and 9 weft threads per cm.
7. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the mixture has a viscosity of more than 150.
8. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the mixture has a viscosity of more than 50.
9. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the mixture is thioxtrophic.
10. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the mixture shows incipient gel properties.
11. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the thickening agent is a polysaccharide.
12. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 11 in which the thickening agent is composed of at least one polysaccharide selected from the group consisting of xanthan gums, locust bean gums, starches, alginates, carrageenans, substituted or unsubstituted carboxy methyl cellulose compounds and mixtures thereof.
13. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the thickening agent is a polyacrylamide.
14. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the mixture contains 0.1 to 10 percent, preferably 0.25 to 5 percent by weight of thickening agent relative to the total weight of the mixture or dispersion.
15. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the mixture is capable of drying to a smooth, non-sticky film.
16. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the thickening agent is capable of being readily dissolved in cold water.
17. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the contents of the container are sterile.
18. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the bactericide is at least in part Tea Tree Oil.
19. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the mixture additionally contains a surfactant.
20. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 in which the mixture additionally contains glycerine.
21. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 and wherein said carrier is a blanket.
22. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 and wherein the mixture is a solution.
23. A fire fighting appliance as claimed in claim 1 and wherein said mixture is a dispersion.
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