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Publication numberUS3902729 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 2, 1975
Filing dateJan 21, 1974
Priority dateMar 30, 1970
Publication numberUS 3902729 A, US 3902729A, US-A-3902729, US3902729 A, US3902729A
InventorsBarry L Druss
Original AssigneeChimera Res & Dev
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ski binding
US 3902729 A
Abstract
A ski binding comprising an interengaging mechanism between the ski boot and the ski, allowing the skier to transfer his weight to the ski. The essential elements of the binding consist of a plug member and an interengaging socket member, the former being removably secured to the ski, and the latter associated with the boot. The socket member may be permanently attached to the boot. The ski binding has at least one central controlling member journaled in the plug member for selectively loading and at least partly unloading groups of detent members by means of interposed parts, such as pawls, supports therefor, and a corresponding number of preferably flat wound springs acting on the detent members. These latter are either balls or plunger-like elements or both, by which the plug and the socket members are allowed to become detached from one another. The socket member has an opening sufficient to receive the plug member. A plurality of channel-shaped recesses is formed in the socket member, between preferably stamped frame portions which constitute the socket member, to register with the detent members of the plug member. Any force whether longitudinal of the ski, or as a torque about the skier' s body or legs, will develop a reactive force through or about the area of the geometric center of the binding. If the force is sufficient in magnitude and duration an automatic separation of the interengaging members is effected in response to the force, independently for the groups of detent members. The invention also provides a mechanism for applying and at least partly removing the loading force to and from the detent members, including a common lever for actuating the mechanism when the skier attaches or removes the ski.
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United States Patent [191 Druss [4 1 Sept.2,1975

[ SKI BINDING [75] Inventor: Barry L. Druss, Holliswood, NY.

[73] Assignee: Chimera R. & D., Inc., Holliswood,

[22] Filed: Jan. 21, 1974 [21] Appl. No.'. 435,088

Related U.S. Application Data [63] Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 302,786, Nov. 1, 1972, Pat. No. 3,810,643, which is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 23,876, March 30, 1970, Pat. No. 3,727,932,

[52] U.S. Cl 280/1135 R [51] Int. Cl. A63C 9/08 [58] Field of Search ..280/l 1.35 D, 11.35 K, 280/1135 A, 11.35 C, 11.35 Y, 11.35 E, 11.35 R; 36/25 AL [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,727,932 4/1973 Druss ct a1. 280/1135 K 3,764,154 10/1973 Witting 5 K 3,772,802 11/1973 Smolka et 211.. 5 D 3,810,643 5/1974 Druss 280/1135 R FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 270,472 4/1969 Austria 280/1135 K Primary Exuminer--David Schonberg Assistant Examiner-Milton L. Smith Attorney, Agent, or FirmTab T. Thein 57 ABSTRACT A ski binding comprising an interengaging mechanism between the ski boot and the ski, allowing the skier to transfer his weight to the ski. The essential elements of the binding consist of a plug member and an interengaging socket member, the former being removably secured to the ski, and the latter associated with the boot. The socket member may be permanently attached to the boot. The ski binding has at least one central controlling member journaled in the plug member for selectively loading and at least partly unloading groups of detent members by means of interposed parts, such as pawls, supports therefor, and a corresponding number of preferably flat wound springs acting on the detent members. These latter are either balls or plunger-like elements or both, by which the plug and the socket members are allowed to be come detached from one another. The socket member has an opening sufficient to receive the plug member. A plurality of channel-shaped recesses is formed in the socket member, between preferably stamped frame portions which constitute the socket member, to register with the detent members of the plug member. Any force whether longitudinal of the ski, or as a torque about the skier 5 body or legs, will develop a reactive force through or about the area of the geometric center of the binding. If the force is sufficient in magnitude and duration an automatic separation of the interengaging members is effected in response to the force, independently for the groups of detent members. The invention also provides a mechanism for applying and at least partly removing the loading force to and from the detent members, including a common lever for actuating the mechanism when the skier attaches or removes the ski.

28 Claims, 17 Drawing Figures m l 1, u 11% 1 1 ill/ll; 1 i

l l l PATENTEDSEP' 2l975 3,962 TZQ SHEET 1 BF 5 FIG] PATENTEU 2 75 SHEET 2 [IF 5 PAIEMEU EP' 21% 3.902129 seam u [If 5 I F/GJZ 93 x If 1 J i gml SKI BINDING This is a continuation-in-part application of Ser. No. 302.786 filed Nov. 1, 1972 by the same inventor, titled Ski Binding now, US. Pat. No. 3,810,643 dated May 14, 1974 (which itself was a continuationin-part of Ser. No. 23,876 of Mar. 30. l970by B. L. Druss and K. S. Williams, also titled Ski Binding, US. Pat. No. 3,727,932 of Apr. '17, 1973).

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION 1. Field of the invention t This invention relates to improved ski bindings and more particularly to bindings adapted to release automatically upon being subjected to a force of predetermined magnitude and duration. The binding is also characterized by a novel central arrangement for independently applying loading force to pairsor groups of detent members between the ski binding members, and allowing optionally also to remove the loading force at least partly, e.g. when the skier attaches or removes his ski.

2. Prior Art Heretofore ski bindings provided means for attaching a skiers boot to a ski by mechanisms of varying degrees of complexity and reliability, with a common purpose of holding the boot to the ski during skiing maneuvers and to effect a release of the boot from the ski when the skier falls forwardly, backwardly or sidewardly or twists. Because of the basic design principle of substantially all of the prior ski bindings, the problem of effecting an accurate, reliable and substantially instantaneous release of the boot from the ski in response to forces which could cause injury to the skier has not been satisfactorily solved.

According to the present invention the connection between the ski boot and the ski is effected by means disposed'intermediate the toe and heel portions but preferably in line with the axis of twist or rotation of the skiers leg.

With the boot being attached to the ski, the skier transfers his weight to the ski, namely in a so-called weight transfer area or range,'usually defined as being between the farthest contact points from front to back, between the boot and the ski. In the inventive ski binding, optionally front and rear rests limit this area, allowing at' least one couple with respect to one of the two engaging portions of the binding. In accordance with the above-mentioned earlier own patents, preferably one rest'is made adjustable lengthwise of the ski so as to regulate the weight transfer range.

In existing devices that have integrated the different torque, roll and pivot actions in one mechanism, there is allowed a return-play activity for the binding mecha nism. The failure in these structures resides in that the allowable retum play action, when altered, cannot be changed so as to allow one action without altering the other. A

For example, it is understood that the resistance to roll mostly affects the stability of the skier on his weight'transfer platform. When for pivotal conditions a large vertical elastic movement is also accompanied by a large longitudinal'axis roll movement, the lateral leverage ore dge 'control is completely lost, penalizing the chances for the skiers recovery.

Therefore the choice in these known ski bindings is to allow either roll activity, accompanied with pivot and torque regulation, or platform control to minimize the pivot and torque-return play activity with greater platform control but with less shock sensitivity. Therefore, when roll activity is integrated with torque and pivot actions. a means must be found to control roll separately.

It is therefore an object of the present invention that the ski binding allows for initial natural pivot activity, namely when leaning forward, the normal condition is to rotate about the ball of the foot, and when rearward, on the heel. The existing mechanisms have artificial pivots located about the ball or arch of the foot. The improved conditions provided by the inventive ski binding conform to a much higher degree to the natural actions of the body during skiing.

The addition of a greater amount of lateral travel and return-play activity permits the binding to conform to the natural pivot conditions that occur. When in forward leaning condition, ball-of-foot rotation is the norm, and conversely, heel rotation when leaning rearward.

The inventive ski. binding allows greater initiation response to normal ball-of-foot and heel-rotation activities, with the addition of an increased amount of lateral travel return-play activity. These features enable the axis of rotation for torque loadings to move longitudinally fore and aft in accordance with a shifting of the skiers weight from the heel platform to the ball-of-foot platform.

In having a pair of central transverse detent members positioned above the fore and aft detent portions, and up against the arch of the foot, maximum amount of leverage support is provided in the improved ski binding for the shaft of the leg, thereby maximizing edge response at the shaft source and not elsewhere.

In-accordance with an important feature of the invention, the binding integrates vertical-axis torque activity, as previously explained, with transversal-axis activity, across the arch. The improved ski binding separates the action into pairs or groups of correlated engaging or detent members, allowing the transverse axis to be maintained accurately by directing a greater holding load transversely than longitudinally.

Consequently the fore and aft group or groups of detent members will absorb the longitudinal change of weight from heel to toe before the transversal (lateral) detent-member group (preferably a pair) is made to respond. This creates a second axis of activity for skiing maneuvers when this feature of the improved ski bind ing is used.

This is a desirable condition for the boot ski interface construction because it absorbs variations in longitudinal skiing activity, and yet maximum roll or lateral control conditions are maintained.

The two separate conditions, that had formerly been in opposition, are now integrated in the inventive ski binding. The opposing conditions encountered in good ski bindings are: the binding should conform with the ability to selectively react to weight-transfer input forces, i.e. roll vs. torque and pivot, while the other condition relates to the ability to uniformly separate from the weight-transfer platform.

The common error in prior-art structures is the inability to resolve these two separate conditions. Bindings either contain the boot to the ski by selective means, i.e. lateral toe means and vertical heel means; or by multi-directional release means, such as both toe and heelconnections, sharingvertical and lateral conditions. i

The difference is that the selective release binding construction resists roll release, i.e. lost edge control across the weight-transfer platform, more effectively than the multi-dircctional release, whereas the reverse is true for the ability of the binding to separate the boot from the ski in various directions.

To resolve this dilemma, the multi-directional release binding of the earlier patents had to be redesigned so as to react selectively to weight-transfer platform input forces In accordance with the present invention, the most important feature is the resistance to roll activity when combined with torque and pivot. This is accomplished by restricting the elastic travel for roll conditions before release, the binding being located between the ball and the heel. Vertical travel can be allowed 'withoutaffecting roll movement off the weight-transfer lowed across the weight-transfer platform of the present invention. In addition, the binding force can be so arranged that it resists a roll with greater effort than with pivot'ortorque effort.

Upon careful study and evaluation of these seemingly different and contradictory factors, the earlier own pa-v tents have been reconsidered, with the result of the here disclosed improved ski binding.

In accordance with an important feature of the invention, the release sensitivity has been improved in allowing the binding to more closely follow natural weighted torque-release actions. Bypermitting an additional amount of lateral movement across the binding, it enablesthe skiers boot to follow a torque action about the ball of thefoot or about the heel platform. Thus the torque-axis activity can follow the location of the weight placement on the plaltform, and thereby further reduce the-effect of friction on the platform.

It is a general object of this invention to overcome the shortcomings of prior-artski bindings by .a new principle, applied to an improved practical embodiment.

It is an object considered in the invention to provide a centralized mechanism acting independently on at least two pairs or groups of detent members, preferably with appropriate main and pre-loading means, and with a common lever mechanism which allows selective loading and unloading of the detenting action.

As compared to the known state of the prior art, it is most important that in the inventive device the interengaging mechanism is forward of the heel portion but rearward of the toe portion of the skiers boot, the only location where the advantageous and novel results can be attained. Some known prior-art structures provide the interengaging parts strictly under the heel of the boot, which is an unsuitable location if one attempted to obtain the required results of interengagement and indexing.

The interengaging mechanism goes beyond all previous structures in that it provides more than just a locking orcatching action; it provides controlled indexing, in various directions and angles, each with an independently predetermined loading force, and is consequently far superior to the known devices.

The loading and unloading mechanism combined into the improved ski binding according to the invention carries the advantages even further, allowing for example stronger indexing for at least one group (pair) of detent members of which the common axis is tranverse to the longitudinal axis of the ski. A total of two or three groups of such detent members can be provided according to exemplary embodiments of the improved ski binding of this invention.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to the invention a plug member and a socket member, constituting interengaging means, Q) act to hold the ski boot to the ski during normal use, and become disengaged when subjected to abnormal forces, the magnitude of which is predetermined and adjustably preset for independent groups or pairs of detent members. I

One form of a socket member according'to the piesent invention consists of an assembly made up of outwardly directed open channels that contact their respective detent members at the inner portions of the channels. In this preferred form, the channels tape r out and to the open sides of the ski, for maximum snow clearance effect. i

Another form of the improved socketmember .only maintains contact with the plug member from 'below the midpoint axis of the detent members, cupping a minimum underside contact area on each detent member. In this structure support means have'to be provided on either side of the plug member to supportthe socket member in its vertical contact with'the detent members.

In the present invention the interengag'ement between respective detent means can be non-planar, and it may have two common radial distances about a common axis, the preferred form having transverse, opposed detent members at a shorter radial distance, and longitudinally or angularly directed sets located at a longer radial distance. v

The improved ski binding according to this invention combines the functions of various release requirement properties in a single mechanism whereby the torque, roll and pivot conditions can be controlled independently through a/ changing the elasticity (return-play activity) of one property with respect to the other, by changing the size of the detent members of one group, for example of the transverse pair of detent members, as compared to the other groups; b/ changing the loading on one set of detent members with respect to the otherra'nd/or c'/ changing the relative movement to release one group of socket catch elements from that of the other groups of elements. I

In comparision to the earlier US. Pat. No. 3,8 l 0,643 of the inventor, it is the major distinction and feature of the present invention that the plug member has at least two pairs or groups of symmetrically disposed. outwardly directed passages, the detent means of which provides positive indexing between the plug and socket members including the same number of groups of captive detent members protruding from the passages, with the same number of second detent members being provided in the socket member.

At least one central controlling member is journaled in the plug member, associated with the first-named groups of detent'members for applying loading force thereto. This member may be rotational, for an angular effect, or alternativelyelevational, for a vertical action. The inventive, improved binding also incorporates a mechanism, associated with the"plug me'mber, for selectively applying and at least partly removing the load ing force to and from the groups of detent'members, including a common lever for actuating the mechanism when the skier attaches and removes the ski.

Thelever for the load-applying and removing mechanism may have a lateral or rearwardextension, preferably flanking from at least one side the rest on the rear of the ski, when provided. The lever can be manually actuated, or may have a strap attached thereto for pull ing upward when the skibinding should be released, alternatively self-actuated by the heel of the skiers boot upon reengagement.

At least one group (pair) of the firstnamed detent members may be non-planar with respect to other such detent members and other parts of the respective engaging portions. i I

In accordance with one of the important inventive features, as mentioned before, open-ended channels may be provided in the socket member for cooperation with the first detent members.

The passages in the plug member may slope downwardly and inwardly at a slight angle from the longitudinal direction of the ski, toward the center of the plug member.

As a further optional feature, at least one pair or group of the detent members may have a shorter radial distance from the center of the plug member than at least one other pair or group of said members.

At least one pair or group of the same detent members may also be disposed in a plane other than the other pairs or groups of these members.

In a modified embodiment, the detent members may be engaged from below the horizontal midpoint axis. As a further modification, the socket member may be interengaged with the plug member by support rests located on each side of the latter.

In a manner somewhat similar to the previous patent, nonradially disposed pawl members are contemplated in at least one plane, interposed between the central controlling memberor members and the groups of detent members. Support means can additionally be in corporated for the detent members, with at least two symmetrical, spaced-apart planar sections. These sections may operate groups of two three or more of the pawl members, depending on the number of (three or two, respectively) support means which accordingly have two three or more lobes or corners.

The support means can be made with reentrant portions that are frictionally engaged by knife-edge shaped terminal portions of the pawl members. The latter are preferably disposed in symmetrical groups in at leastv BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a side elevation of an exemplary assembly of the improved ski binding according to the invention, two engaging members being shown in separated or exploded relation;

FIG. 2 is a plan view of FIG. 1, taken therein substantially along the line 2 2;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged partial exploded view of a' central controlling (rotating) mechanism of the plug mem ber shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, for independently applying load to groups of detent members therein, with parts omitted for the sake of clarity;

FIG. 4 is a horizontal section taken throughthe plug member of FIGS. 1 through 3, in a plane substantially parallel to that of the boot interface, along the line 4 4 of FIG. 5;

FIG. 5 is a vertical transverse section taken along the line 5 5 of FIG. '2, with lateral parts of the socket member added for clarity;

FIG. 6 is a view similar to that of FIG. 4 of a modified plug member;

FIG. 7 is a verticalsection similar to that of FIG. 5, similarly with parts of the socket-member added;

F IG. 8 is a horizontal sectional view of a load applying and removing mechanism, taken along the line 8 8 of FIG. 1, below the level of FIGS. 4 or 6, alternative operative positions of an actuating lever being shown;

portion, taken along the line 9 9 in FIG. 8;

FIG. 10 is a partial view of a load adjusting mechanism, constituting an enlarged portion of FIG. 8;

FIG. 11 is'a cross-section taken along the line 11 '11 in FIG. 10;

FIG. 12 is a side elevation, similar to that of FIG. 1, of a modified ski binding assembly, the plug and socket members being in engaged relation;

FIG. 13 is a plan view of FIG. 12, similar to FIG. 2, taken along the line 13 13 therein;

FIG. 14 is a vertical transverse section of FIG. 13, taken therein along the line 14 14 to show details of another modified plug member embodiment;

FIG. 15 is a section similar to that of FIG. 14 of a fur ther modified plug-member structure;

FIG. 16 is a horizontal longitudinal cross-section of parts of a modified lever mechanism, taken along line 16 16 of FIG. 12; and

FIG. 17 is a vertical cross-section taken along line 17 17 of FIG. 16, showing the operative positions of a modified actuating lever.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to the drawings, and partly to the features common to the previous patents, there is shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 a skiers boot 8 and a ski 10, with portions of the inventive improved binding or interengaging means constituted by a plug member 12 and a socket member 14, the former being removably se cured to the ski while the latter is associated with the boot. The socket member can be integrally formed with the sole of the boot or removably inserted in a recess formed therein. Suitable latching means can be used for the latter embodiment.

The socket member 14 is constituted in the present invention by a frame including two stamped frame por tions 70, 71 forming open-ended receiving channels 72 that are adapted to receive detent members of the plug member 12, as will be explained hereunder, and with which the channels constitute detent means. The number of channels of course corresponds to that of the detent members, e.g. six as shown in FIGS. 2, 4 and 6 (although four would also be recommended), with numerals 60, 60' to be explained later (balland plungershaped detent members).

The invention preferably includes two or three pairs of symmetrically disposed detent members, arranged in groups of two or three, and a corresponding number of channels in the socket member.

The channel arrangement of the socket member eliminates the effect of contaminants loaded in the socket member from preventing reliable connection of the mating parts.

In a preferred form, channels 72 are tapered out towards the sides of the ski to dislodge contaminants, away from the interconnecting surfaces.

The ski 10 is shown with two spaced-apart rests, 26 and 28, of which however it is possible to provide only one, preferably the rear rest, for supporting the skiers boot and providing at least one couple therefor. In FIGS. 1, 2 the assembly is shown in forward angulated position, with rear rest 26 substantially higher than the front, locating the rear rest platform of the boot above the heel while the front is low. These boot parts are respectively identified by numerals 81, 82. This allows the preferred skiing condition of having low ball-offoot and high heel positions.

The exemplary plug member 12 includes a housing 16 with a cut-out or opening on one side, for a tab por tion 18, which is rigid with or secured to an annular element which has freedom of at least partial angular movement within the housing 16. A front tab portion 17 is also provided, to be described later in more detail. The housing has an optional base plate 13. Tab 18 has a pivotal connection to an actuating lever 22 (see FIGS. 8 to 10), shown in FIG. 2 in its closed (loaded) position while the alternative, dotted-line open (unloaded) position is visible in FIG. 8. The housing may have an appropriate cover 23 (see FIGS. 1 and 8), attached to the top of the housing, and which can be opened for access to the inner mechanism.

FIG. 2 shows the artificial or imaginary axis of pivot under weighted conditions of the skier on the ski when rotating on the ball of the foot, as explained. A mark is applied in the area of the front rest 28, with both the normal and an offset axis being schematically shown by respective dot-dash lines extended toward the rear of the binding. The offset axis applies just before releasing occurs. This axis is shown for the front rest area while similar considerations apply when the skiers foot rotates about the rear rest 26.

Plug member 12 preferably has an oblong configuration, as shown in FIG. 4, with groups of the earliermentioned detent members 60 symmetrically arranged therein, which are ball-shaped; the plug member is characterized by a transverse pair of plunger-shaped members 60 which have a shorter radial distance r (see FIG. 4) as compared to the other detent members, the longer distance being shown at arrow R. As Can be seen from the indicator lines 44 and 5 5, respectively applied to FIGS. 5 and 2, FIG. 4 is turned about 90 with respect to FIGS. 2 and 5.

The same pair of transverse detent members 60 can be positioned at an elevation higher than that of members 60 (see FIG. 1). It will be explained later that this pair of transverse detent members, preferably in the plunger form, can be preloaded to an extent exceeding that of the preloading applied to at least one or all of the remaining detent members, preferably in ball or sphere form. p

Lever 22 has a second, double floating pivot 24 which is slidable in over-center slots of a portion 16a of housing 16 and in base plate 13 when actuated together with tab 18 and annular element 20 associatd therewith. I

I With reference to FIGS. 8 through 10, it will be clear that by the cooperation of the described elements, annular element 20 is moved in counterclockwise direction, to a small degree, when lever 22 is opened for purposes of unloading or disengaging the mechanism. The pivot between tab 18 and lever 22 is allowed the same rotational movement as pivot 24 moves lengthwise in the slots of housing portion 16a and of base plate 13. The over-center arrangement makes for easy yet secure locking of the lever in both terminal positions. As mentioned before, they are shown in FIG. 8 with respective full and broken lines.

Referring now to FIGS. 3 through 7, flat wound springs 30a, 30b, 300 are shown, inside annular element 20, in a vertical arrangement, having inwardly bent inner and outwardly bent outer ends, as best seen in FIG. 3. Housing 16 has a central, circular opening for springs 30a, 30b, 30c (see FIGS. 5 and 7). Inside the springs, substantially centrally of plug member 12, a corresponding number of central rotational-type controlling members 32a, 32b, 32c is arranged, transmitting the action of springs 30a, 30b, 30c, and other elements associated therewith, such as the annular element 20, to the detent members 60, 60'.

The arrangement of these parts will best be seen from FIGS. 3 through 5, wherein three springs are provided while the modification of FIGS. 6 and 7 has only two springs, also numbered 30a and 30b, this modification to be described separately. 7

Rotational members 32a, 32b, 32c are arbor-shaped and have an upwardly extending, preferably common central core 33 (or a separate portion attached thereto), carrying a corresponding number of plateshaped support members 77a, 77b, 77c (namely in FIGS. 3 through 5), while the modification of FIGS. 6, 7 has only two support members, identified as 77a, 77b. The former is shown here with two symmetrical, opposed lobes, while the latter is basically triangular.

Central core 33 terminates in bearing surfaces 34, which might be separate, e.g. threaded parts, acting as an axle for the central mechanism, inside housing 16, between its top and bottom covers (base plate 13).

In FIGS. 3 through 5, the three members 77a, 77b, 77c carry respective pairs of non-radially disposed pawls 62. The modification of FIGS. 6, 7 shows three of the pawls 62 associated with each of the two triangula-r members 77a, 77b.

FIGS. 5 and 7 show the support members 77a, 77b, 77c and 77a, 77b, respectively, in three and two planes, with the pawls similarly at different levels, although the detent members they engage (balls or spheres 60, plunger members 60and optional take-up or preloading elements 66, in the form of small springs) are preferably all in the same plane, as are the channels 72 of the socket member 14, with the exception however of the earlier-mentioned arrangement (see FIG. 1) where plunger members 60' are at a higher level than the ball members 60 of the other detent member pairs.

The body of the plug member 12 is shown in FIGS. 4 and 6 at 59, with a number of passages 54 therein, each for lodging one of the already mentioned detent members 60, 60' and optional pro -loading springs 66, interposed between pawls 62 and detent members 60, 60. Thedetent members are restrained to plug body 59 by separate gate elements 55 (FIGS; 1, 5 and 7). Rivets 57 and the like elements may be used to hold body 59 to housing 16. Optionally, thimble-shaped support members 67 can also be provided, namely outside springs 66 in FIGS. 4 and 5, or inside the same in FIGS. 6 and 7. i a

It can be seen from the preceding description that a continuous force-transmitting path is provided from lever 22 by way of annular element 20 to springs 30a, 3012, 30cand thence to .the pawls 62 (by the intermediary of rotational members 32a, 32b, 32c and respective supports 77g, 77b, 770 or 77a, 77b) and eventually to detent members 60, 60. (if desired, also through the interposed springs 66 and/or support members 67). Passages 54 guide the elements therein, preferably in a radial direction of the plug member, although it should be noted that they1might be provided in a non-radial arrangement, sloping away at a small angle from radial directions toward the center of the plug member.

It will be explained in connection with FIGS. 14 and that the passages can also slope downwardly and inwardly at a slight angle from the longitudinal direction of the ski, toward the center of the plug member.

Although the outeriface of the plug member body 59 cousnld be round, the preferred embodiment provides a flattened or polygonal outer surface, as shown in FIGS. 4 and 6, allowing additional clearance for the releasing action of the plug member with respect to the socket member. 7 I i The described mechanism allows detent members 60, 60 to be selectively loaded or unloaded by actuating lever 22. In the solid-line position of FIG. 8, springs 30a, 30b, 300 are urged in clockwise direction, and so are the outer ends'of pawls62, into tight engagement with members 60, 60'. In contradistinction, the brokenline position of lever 22, in the same figure, releases springs 30a, 30b, 300 to some extent in counterclockwise direction, relaxing the pressure on pawls 6 2, and

eventually decreasing the loading on the balls and plungers. In this condition the skier can easily engage or disengage the socket and plug members (that is, his or her boot with respect to the ski).

In the following other novel features of the improved ski binding will be de scribed in more detail, which are not common to the previous patents. In the embodiment of FIGS. 1 through 7, socket member 14 consists of the earlier-mentioned stamped frame portions 70, 71, preferably welded together along the seam midpoint longitudinal axis of the detent means, to form the separate engaging portions and to include the channels 72 that cooperate with detent members 60, 60. It might be added that gate elements 55 in plug member 12 are peripherally retained in a slot of body 59.

Rests 26, 28 engage boot 8 at platforms 81, 82 so as to permit a closer boot interface to the foot itself, thereby permitting more "efficient escape' angles as required for proper pivotal conditions. 7

Referring now to FIGS. 3 through 5 and 8 through 10', independently loadable rotational members 32a, 32b, 32c cooperate in activating detent members 60,

60. Each rotational member acts about the same common central axis, about core 3 3 and relative to bearings 34, and each is operatively connected to its individual flat spring 30a, 30b, 30c, inside annular element 20. The bottom rotational member 32a can also be considered as forming an axle on which the additional one or two members thereabove rotate, each having attached one of the corresponding supports 77a, 77b, 770. They in turn engage their sets of two or three pawls 62.

Referring to FIGS. 8 to 10, springs 30 (only the top spring 30c being visible in FIG. 8) are engaged at their outer ends about a common shaft or pin 25 which is mounted to top and bottom bracketed plates 21 in a frame assembly that is fixed to a pivot 27 at one end of annular element 20, and a selective adjustment assembly 95 at the otherend. As mentioned earlier, floating pivot 24 is provided in housing 16 of the plug member for lever 22, slidable in the over-center slots of housing portion 16a and base plate 13. i i

The modification shown in FIGS. 6 and 7 has only two pairs of three pawls 62, as mentioned before; and three detent members, shown here as balls 60, associated with each flat spring 32a, 32b. Plungers could also be used if applied uniformly :in all six positions. This embodiment is slightly less efficient in its selective loading response to the three-pair design shown in FIGS. 3 through 5 but is still preferred to non-selective mechanisms.

As detent members 60, 60 are loaded to overcome the effect of the respective springs 30 they are forced inwardly, displacing springs 66 and/or retainers or support members 67. Pawls 62 in turn rotate the respective members 32.

A load-range preadjusting mechanism shown in FIGS. 8 through 11 is explained as follows. Frame assembly with plate members 21 is pivotally attached to the top and the bottom of annular element 20. The other end of frame assembly 21 is pivotally pinned to the adjustment assembly shown in FIGS. 10 and 11. The latter includes a bracket 92 that lodges an adjusting screw 91, two side members, preferably threaded blocks93, and leaf springs 94 for securing the blocks against central screw 91. The latter holds the adjustment assembly 95 in position and therefore springs 30 in position with the annular elememt 20, as it is held against the side wall of rear tab portion 18 of annular element 20.

When screwing frame assembly 21 toward tab portion 18, the range of loaded to unloaded condition of plug member 12 is changed because this changes the position of the ends of springs 30 with respect to element 20. It has been mentioned before that annular element 20, having respective tab portions 17, 18 (toward the leftand right-hand sides as viewed in FIG. 8, namely toward the front and the rear of ski I0) is fixed to pin 25. The other end of frame assembly 21 is pivotally attached to the selective adjusting assembly 95 at the top and bottom ends of bracket 92, wherein adjusting screw 91 is inserted between blocks 93,

' forced against screw 91, with springs 94 to lock screw 91 in position against the wall of tab portion 18. Member 96 is a pivot for housing 92 and for frame-assembly plates 21.

FIGS. 12 through 17 illustrate a modified ski binding assembly with new features, including a vertical-action operating lever 122 for the load! applying and removing mechanism, in connection with a modified plug member embodiment'12', cooperating with a socket member 14' which is similar to 14 is shown and described in connection with FIGS. l, 2. Plug member 12 has a housing 16'. Lever 122 is pivoted at 120 against a small slot 119a (FIG. '12) of lever 122, on a pivot axle 118, restrained outside of the plug member for travel in a vertical slot 1 16 through a wall of the housing on either side.

Axle 1 18 passes through slot 116 for pivotal connection to a transfer arm 1 19 (see in FIGS. 16, 17, together with other parts of this mechanism to be described now), one on each side of the center of the axle. The opposite ends of arm 1 1 9 are pivotally attached at 113, l 15 to members 110, 112 made for sliding action in opposition to each other. The ends of the sliding members, one (110) inside and the other (112) outside, are inclined for frictional contact within an elevation platform 111 (see FIG. 14) constituting an alternative, elevating-type controlling member which in turn'loads equalizing spring members 166, taking the place of ear- Her-described springs 66.

These figures incorporate an alterante load applying mechanism which operates by moving platform 111 up or down by means of the inclined sides of plates 110, l'l2fOne plate is positioned inside the slot in the other for sliding action (see FIG. 16). Outside plate 112 has an incline that is positioned opposite the platform side of inside plate 110. Therefore when platform 111 is moved up theinclines are forced in, and conversely when moved down the inclines are forced out.

FIGS. 12 through 14 have rings 70, disposed in either horizontal direction (FIG. 14) or at an outwardly and upwardly directed slant (FIG. 15), with a view to supporting the detent members (balls 60 and the like).

FIG. 12 shows as a matter of example a strap 123 as mentioned earlier, engageable underneath or in an appropriate opening in the rearmost portion of lever 122 for disengaging the load applying mecchanism, as was explained earlier.

FIG. 14 and 15 are alternative vertical transverse sections of modified plug members, of which the former (FIG. 14), 12', corresponds to FIGS, 12, 13, and also relates to FIGS. 16, 17. It will be understood that these modified plug members can take the place of the structures shown in FIGS. 4, 5 or 6, 7 of the basic embodiment (FIGS. 1, 2).

A Belleville-type washer spring 132 is shown in FIG. 14 with a basket member 133 which latter forces pawl members 162, somewhat in the center of plug member 12', against the equalizing springs 166 (also in FIG. 13 Spring stops or supports 167 are similar to the elements 67 described earlier, all transmitting the forces to detent members 60, as shown. A central rotating screw member 134 (also shown in FIGS. 13 and is provided in the top of housing 16' (see also FIG. 12), in a threadedly adjustable manner so as to allow repositioning of pawl members 162 in their frictional contact with basket 133 and/or the earlier-mentioned washer spring 132. Portions of sliding member 112 are also shown in FIGS. 14 and 15.

It will be understood that an adjustment, like the one provided by screw member 134, can also be provided at the lever assembly portion, as with the previous example (of FIGS. 1 and 2 FIG. 15 illustrates a further modified plug member 12". Its structure has a somewhat different housing 16". his shown with base plate 13, as mentioned for FIGS. 1 through 7 (and this is also present in FIGS. 12 to 14,16 and 17). The structure will be understood from the preceeding description of FIG. 14, however with the difference that the central pawl members are substituted here by inner balls 162 which directly rest on a platform 111, omitting the intermediate washer spring, as used in thepreceding figure. The platform 111' performs in a manner similar to that of 111, namely in the capacity of an elevating-type controlling member (alternatives of the earlier-described rotational-type members 32a, 32b and 32c. Platform 111' can reposition balls 162 away from springs 166 by lowering said platform to relieve the spring load of plug member 12". The earlier-mentioned screw member 134 can regulate the load of the separate springs when platform 111 is positioned up in the loaded condition, otherwise similar to that of FIG. 14. I

In FIGS. 12 through 14 and 16, 17 means'are furthermore shown to automatically load plug member '12 when lever 122 is positioned at its upper, released position. As boot 8 is repositioned into interengagement with the ski binding, its heel portion, somewhat forward of platform 81 as shown in FIG. I, automatically forces lever 122 downward (see FIGS. 12 and 17) mainly by contact with a raised central tab 124 on lever 122, located forward of rear rest 26 on skilO, as viewed with respect to the skiing direction. This forces lever 122 over center, thereby applying the necessary load to plug member 12.

This action occurs as all detent members 60 are simultaneously seated into their respective engagement portions or detent means on the corresponding socket member, e.g. 14 as exemplified in FIGS. 12, 13. FIG. 17 shows the solid-line engaged and broken-line released positions of lever 122, together with the place (downward arrow) where the skiers boot acts on tab 124.

It was mentioned earlier that in FIGS. 12 to 14 rings are used for engaging and supporting the detent members from below their mid-points or horizontal axes. A further detail modification is shown'in these figures in that lateral support seats 126 are applied to either sides of plug member 12' to maintain a stable, engaged position of the corresponding socket member 14' with the detent members. The modification of FIG. 15 can also be provided with such lateral seats as being in the form of rests 26, 28, reaching however somewhat higher, to the upwardly slanted frame portions 70', if carefully aligned. I

The substantially firm if not rigid connection between the boot and the ski, the releasing action of the inventive ski binding, and further details have been fully described in the earlier US. Pat. Nos. 3,727,932 and 3,810,643 of which this is a continuation-in-part application. The invention provides a most efficient and useful means for reducing skiing accidents or inju ries since the binding will automatically separate in response to the applied torque or moment before the injury can occur.

The present invention is more sophisticated than the two earlier patents on account of the provision of its novel independent detent loading-mechanism, whereby the loading force is applied independently in pairs (or groups of three detent members). The invention also provides an improved loading and unloading mechanism which greatly facilitates the use of the binding, and other modifications and features which are of course fully compatible-and all contribute to the overall purpose.

Various alternatives. modified and combined'forms of the invention other than those specifically illustrated and described will be readily understood by those skilled in the art. i

What I claim is:

1. A ski binding for removably attaching a skiers bootto a ski, comprising: an interengaging mechanism between the boot and the ski, said mechanism having engaging portions forward of the heel portion of the boot and rearward of the toe portion thereof, operatively secured to coextensive but opposing portions of said interengaging mechanism; said engaging portions being constituted by a plug member and a socket member, the former removably secured to the ski, and the latter associated with the boot; detent means forming part of said plug and socket members for positive indexing therebetween in their respective planes as well as in angular directions with respect to the longitudinal axes of the boot and the ski; said plug member having at least two groups of symmetrically disposed, outwardly directed passages; said detent means including the same number of groups of captive first detent members protruding from said passages, and the same number of second detent members on said socket member; said engaging portions reacting by relative rotational movement, movement out of saidplanes of the engaging portions, and a combination of said movements, upon occurrence of a force of predetermined magnitude and duration acting on any one of said engaging portions, thereby allowing release of the latter from each other, and of the boot from the ski, when the skier encounters a major obstacle which results in said force; at least one central rotational member journaled in said plug member with freedom of at least partial angular movement,'associated with said groups of first detent members for symmetrically applying loading force thereto; and a mechanism associated with said plug member for selectively applying and at least partly removing the loading force to and from said groups of first detent members, including a common lever for actuating said mechanism when the skier attaches and removes the ski; wherein said lever has an extension above the ski, away from said plug member; further comprising at least one rest on the ski, in a position rearward from that of said plug, to provide at least one couple for the boot with respect to one of said engaging portions, said extension of the lever flanking said rest from at least one side.

2. A ski binding for removably attaching a skiers boot to a ski, comprising: an interengaging-mechanism between the boot and the ski, said mechanism having engaging portions forward of the heel portion of the boot and rearward of the toe portion thereof, operatively secured to coextensive but opposing portions of said interengaging mechanism; said engaging portions being constituted by a plug member and a socket member, the former removably secured to the ski, and the latter associated with the boot; detent means forming part of said plug and socket members for positive indexing therebetween in theirrespective planes as well as in angular directions with respect to the longitudinal axes of the boot and the ski; said plug member having.

at least two groups of symmetrically disposed, outwardly directed passages; said detent means including the same number of groups of captive first detent members protruding from said passages, and the same number of second detent members on said socket member; said engaging portions reacting by relative rotational movement. movement out of said planes of the engaging portions, and a combination of said movements, upon occurrence of a force of predetermined magnitude and duration acting on any one of said engaging portions, thereby allowing releaseof the latter-from each other, and of the boot from the ski, when the skier encounters a major obstacle which results in said force; at least one central rotational member journaled in said plug member with freedom of at least partial angular movement, associated with said groups of first detent members for symmetrically applying loading force 'thereto; and a mechanism associated with said plug member for selectively applying and at least partly removing the loading force to and from said groups of first detent members, including a common lever for actuating said mechanism when the skier attaches and removes the ski; wherein at least one of said groups of first detent members is non-planar with respect to other parts of the respective one of said engaging portions.

3. A ski binding for removably attaching a skiers boot to a ski, comprising: an interengaging mechanism between the boot and the ski, said mechanism having engaging portions forward of the heel portion of the boot and rearward of the toe portion thereof, operatively secured'to coextensive but opposing portions of said interengaging mechanism; said engaging portions being constituted by a plug member and a socket member, the former removably secured to the ski, and the latter associated with the boot; detent means forming part of said plug and socket members for positive indexing therebetween in their respective planes as well as in angular directions with respect to the longitudinal axes of the boot and the ski; said plug member having at least two groups of symmetrically disposed, outwardly directed passages; saidl detent means including the same number of groups of captive first detent members protruding from said passages, and the same number of second detent members; on said socket member; said engaging portions reacting by relative rotational movement, movement out of said planes of the engaging portions, and a combination of said movements, upon occurrence of a force of predetermined magnitude and duration acting on any one of said engaging portions, thereby allowing release of the latter from each other, and of the boot from the ski, when the skier encounters a major obstacle which results in said force; at least one central rotational member journaled in said plug member with freedom of at least partial angular movement, associated with said groups of first detent members for symmetrically applying loading force thereto; and a mechanism associated with said plug member for selectively applying and at least partly removing the loading force to and from said groups of first detent members, including a common lever for actuating said mechanism when the skier attaches and removes the ski; and wherein said second detent members are constituted by open channels.

4. A ski binding for removably attaching a skiers .boot to a ski, comprising: an interengaging mechanism .said interengaging mechanism; said engaging portions being constituted by a plug member and a socket member, the former removably secured to the ski, and the latter associated with the boot; detent means forming part of said plug and socket members for positive indexing therebetween in their respective planes as well as in angular directions with respect to the longitudinal axes of the boot and the ski; said plug member having at least two groups of symmetrically disposed, outwardly directed passages; said detent means including the same number of groups of captive first detent members protruding from said passages, and the same number of second detent members on said socket member; said engaging portions reacting by relative rotational movement, movement out of said planes of the engaging portions, and a combination of said movements, upon occurrence of a force of predetermined magnitude and duration acting on any one of said engaging portions, thereby allowing release of the latter from each other, and of the boot from the ski, when the skier encounters a major obstacle which results in said force; at least one central rotational member journaled in said plug member with freedom of at least partial angular movement, associated with said groups of first detent members for symmetrically applying loading force thereto; and a mechanism associated with said plug member for selectively applying and at least partly removing the loading force to and from said groups of first detent members, including a common lever for actuating said mechanism when the skier attaches and removes the ski; wherein said lever has a portion rearwardly extending above the ski, away from said plug member, said portion being adapted to be pulled upward by the skier, to facilitate the removal of the loading force from said first detent members, and thus the separation of the boot from the ski.

5. A ski binding for removably attaching a skiers boot to a ski, comprising: an interengaging mechanism between the boot and the ski, said mechanism having engaging portions forward of the heel portion of the boot and rearward of the toe portion thereof, operatively secured to coextensive but opposing portions of said interengaging mechanism; said. engaging portions being constituted by a plug member and a socket member, the former removably secured to the ski, and the latter associated with the boot; detent means forming part of said plug and socket members for positive indexing therebetween in their respective planes as well as in angular directions with respect to the longitudinal axes of the boot and the ski; said plug member having at least two groups of symmetrically disposed, outwardly directed passages; said detent means including the same number of groups of captive first detent members protruding from said passages, and the same number of second detent members on said socket member; said engaging portions reacting by relative rotational movement, movement out of said planes of the engaging portions, and a combination of said movements, upon occurrence of a force of predetermined magnitude and duration acting on any one of said engaging portions, thereby allowing release of the latter from each other, and of the boot from the ski, when the skier encounters a major obstacle which results in said force; at least one central rotational member journaled in said plug member with freedom of at least partial angular movement, associated with said groups of first detent members for symmetrically applying loading force thereto; and a mechanism associated with said plug member for selectively applying and at least partly removing the loading force to and from said groups of first detent members, including a common lever for actuating said mechanism when the skier attaches and removes the ski; wherein at least one pair of said first detent members has a shorter radial distance from the center of said plug member than at least one other group of said first detent members.

6. The ski binding as defined in claim 5, wherein at least one pair of said detent means is in a plane other than the other ones of said detent means.

7. A ski binding for removably attaching a skiers boot to a ski, comprising: an interengaging mechanism between the boot and the ski, said mechanism having engaging portions forward of the heel portion of the boot and rearward of the toe portion thereof, operatively secured to coextensive but opposing portions of said interengaging mechanism; said engaging portions being constituted by a plug member and a socket member, the former removably secured to the ski, and the latter associated with the boot; detent means forming part of said plug and socket members for positive indexing therebetween in their respective planes as well as in angular directions with respect to the longitudinal axes of the boot and the ski; said plug member having at least two groups of symmetrically disposed, outwardly directed passages; said detent means including the same number of groups of captive first detent members protruding from said passages, and the same number of second detent members on said socket member; said engaging portions reacting by relative rotational movement, movement out of said planes of the engaging portions, and a combination of said movements, upon occurrence of a force of predetermined magnitude and duration acting on any one of said engaging portions, thereby allowing release of the latter from each other, and of the boot from the ski, when the skier encounters a major obstacle which results in said force; at least one central rotational member journaled in said plug member with freedom of at least partial angular movement, associated with said groups of first detent members for symmetrically applying loading force thereto; and a mechanism associated with said plug member for selectively applying and at least partly removing the loading force to and from said groups of first detent members, including a commonlever for actuating said mechanism when the skier attaches and removes the ski; and wherein said second detent members engage said detent means from below the horizontal midpoint axis.

8. The ski binding as defined in claim 7, wherein said socket member is interengaged with said plug member by support rests located on each side of said plug member.

9. A ski binding for removably attaching a skiers boot to a ski, comprising: an interengaging mechanism between the boot and the ski, said mechanism having engaging portions forward of the heel portion of the boot and rearward of the toe portion thereof, operatively secured to coextensive but opposing portions of said interengaging mechanism; said engaging portions being constituted by a plug member and a socket member, the former removably secured to the ski, and the latter associated with the boot; detent means forming part of said plug and socket members for positive indexing therebetween in their respective planes as well as in angular directions with respect to the longitudinal axes of-the boot and the skipsaid plug member having at least. two groups of symmetrically disposed, outwardly directed passages, said detent means including the same number of groups of captive first detent members protruding from said passages. and the same number of second detent members on said socket member;

said'eng'aging' portions reacting by relative rotational movement, movement out of said planes of the engaging portions. and a combination of said movements, upon occurrence of a force of'predetermined magnitude and duration'acting on any one of said engaging portions, thereby allowing release of the latter from each other, and of the boot from the ski, when the skier encounters a major obstacle which results in said force; at least two central rotational members coaxially journaled in said plug member with freedom of at least partial angular movement, said members being respectively associated with said groups of first detent members for applying loading forces to the respective ones of said groups of first detent members, each group being independent from at least one other group; nonradially disposed pawl members in at least one plane, interposed between at least one of said at least two rotational members and the respective one of said groups of first detent members; and a mechanism associated with said plug member for applying and at least partly removing independent loading forces to and from at least two of said groups of first detent members by the intermediary of said at least two rotational members.

10. The ski binding as defined in claim 9, wherein said socket member is permanently attached to the boot.

11. The ski binding as defined in claim 1, further comprising at least one rest on the ski for the boot, defining a weight transfer range for the skier, in a location selectively spaced apart from said engaging portions in forward and rearward directions along the extension of the ski, allowing pivotal movement of the boot with respect to the ski, and providing at least one couple with respect to at least one group of said first detent members of which the common axis is transverse to the longitudinal axis of the ski.

12. The ski binding as defined in claim 9, further comprising first support means in said plug member for said pawl members, operatively associated with the respective one of two controlling members.

13. The ski binding as defined in claim 12, wherein said first support means has reentrant portions frictionally engaged by knifeedge shaped portions of said pawl members.

14. The ski binding as defined in claim 12, further comprising equalizing springs interposed between said pawl members and said first detent members.

15. The ski binding as defined in claim 12, further comprising second support means between said pawl members and said first detent members.

16. The ski binding as defined in claim 12, wherein said first support means has at least two symmetrical, spaced-apart planar sections, each for at least one of said groups of first detent members.

17. The ski binding as defined in claim 16, wherein said first support means includes two vertically spacedapart planar sections. each for a group of three of said first detent members.

18. The ski binding as defined in claim 12, wherein said load applying and removing mechanism includes a common lever for its actuation, to the extent of predetermined values of the independent loading forces. when the skier attaches and removes the ski; and further comprising a housing forming part of said plug member, and at least one annular element in said housing. in operative connection with said at least two rotational members, for selectively applying and removing the predetermined independent loading forces upon actuation of said common lever.

19. The ski binding as defined in claim 18, wherein said lever is pivotally attached to a protruding first tab portion associated with said at least one annular ele ment, further comprising means for adjusting the effective range of said load applying and removing mechanism, and a second tab portion pivotally connected to said common lever, which second tab portion at least partly lodges said adjusting means.

20. The ski binding as defined in claim 12, further comprising at least two flat wound loading springs interposed between said at least one annular element and said groups of first detent members.

21. The ski binding as defined in claim 20, wherein said at least two rotational members and said at least one annular element have therein respective means for receiving the inner and outer ends of said at least two flat wound springs.

22. A ski binding for removably attaching a skiers boot to a ski, comprising: an interengaging mechanism between the boot and the ski, said mechanism having engaging portions forward of the heel portion of the boot and rearward of the toe portion thereof, operatively secured to coextensive but opposing portions of said interengaging mechanism; said engaging portions being constituted by a plug member and a socket member, the former removably secured to the ski, and the latter associated with the boot; detent means forming part of said plug and socket members for positive indexing therebetween in their respective planes as well as in angular directions with respect to the longitudinal axes of the boot and the ski; said plug member having at least two groups of symmetrically disposed, out wardly directed passages; said detent means including the same number of groups of captive first detent members protruding from said passages, and the same number of second detent members on said socket member; said engaging portions reacting by relative rotational movement, movement out of said planes of the engaging portions, and a combination of said movements, upon occurrence of a force of predetermined magnitude and duration acting on any one of said engaging portions, thereby allowing release of the latter from each other, and of the boot from the ski, when the skier encounters a major obstacle which results in said force; at least one central elevating member journaled in said plug member with freedom of at least partial vertical movement, associated with said groups of first detent members for symmetrically applying loading force thereto; and a mechanism associated with said plug member for selectively applying and at least partly removing the loading force to and from said groups of first detent members, including a common lever for actuating said mechanism when the skier attaches and removes the ski.

23. The ski binding as defined in claim 22, wherein at least some of said groups of passages slope downwardly and inwardly at a slight angle from the longitudinal direction of the ski, toward the center of said plug member.

said pawl members. operatively associated with said at least one elevational member. said first support means having reentrant portions frictionally engaged by knifeedge shaped portions of said pawl members; equalizing springs interposed between the latter and said first'detent members; and second support means between said pawl members and said first detent members.

28. The ski binding as definedin claim 22, wherein said second detent members engage said detent means from below the horizontal midpoint axis.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION PATENT NO. 5,902,729

DATED September 2, 1975 rNvENToRm Barry L. Druss It is certified that error appears in the above-Identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column L, line 14, correct the spelling of 'coat";

column ll, line 22, change alterante to alternate Q Claim 11, line 1 (6011111111 17, line 55), change "1" to 9 claim 12, line 4 (column 17, line 47), after "of" insert said at least and claim 20, line 1 (column 18, line 17), change "12" to Signed and Sealed this ninth Day of December 1975 '[SEAL] Arrest:

8 RUTH C. MASON C. MARSHALL DANN Arresting Officer Commissioner oflatenrs and Trademarks

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
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Classifications
U.S. Classification280/613
International ClassificationA63C9/086
Cooperative ClassificationA63C9/003, A63C9/086
European ClassificationA63C9/086