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Publication numberUS3903707 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 9, 1975
Filing dateMar 20, 1974
Priority dateMar 24, 1973
Also published asDE2314703A1, DE2314703B2, DE2314703C3
Publication numberUS 3903707 A, US 3903707A, US-A-3903707, US3903707 A, US3903707A
InventorsFoik Adolf
Original AssigneeGewerk Eisenhuette Westfalia
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tunneling shields
US 3903707 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Foik Sept. 9, 1975 [54] TUNNELING SHIELDS 3,812,680 5/1974 Walbrohl 61/45 0 3,823,566 7 1974 H d 'th 61 85 [75] Inventor: Adolf Foik, Altlunen, Germany an ewl [73] Assignee: Gewerkschaft Eisenhutte Westfalia, I zn lgf zfigig ir OR 6l/85 ermany wethmar near Lumen Germany 1,370,148 7/1964 France 61/45 R [22] Filed: Mar. 20, 1974 [21] Appl. No: 453,125 Primary Exan irter Robert L. Wolfe Assistant Examiner-David H. Corbin Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Sughme, Rothwell, Mion, [30] Foreign Application Priority Data Zinn & k

Mar. 24, 1973 Germany 2314703 57 ABSTRACT [52] US. Cl. 61/85; 61/42; 61/84 1 51 Int. Cl. E2lD 9/06 A COmPnseS fmwad and [58] Field of Search 61/42 45 R 45 C 84 rearward suF'PQrt frames carrying Sharp ended Planks the frames being supported on shoes slidable along abutments. Each frame is constructed in two sections [56] References Cited :vhieh :re givozeg tofi etllerrzbciut an aiis ixtgnding ongrtu ma yo t es 1e .7 e oweren so t esec- UNITED STATES PATENTS tions of each pair are interconnected by an extensible 3,373,571 3/1968 Records 61/84 Strut or cross brace 3,558,193 1/1971 Howarth 61/85 X 3,800,549 4/1974 Lobbe 61 /85 5 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures PATENTEDSEP- 1915 3,903,707

SHEEI 1 UF 2 TUNNELING SHIELDS BACKGROUND OF INVENTION This invention relates to a cutter shield, particularly a roof shield for use in driving tunnels and like underground excavations.

It is known to drive tunnelsusing machinery working beneath a tunneling shield which has an arched configuration and is supported at its sides through the intermediary of sliders or rollers on prefabricated abutments which constitute the side walls of the tunnel.

It would be advantageous to construct such a shield in the form of a cutter shield consisting of sharpfronted planks which are supported on pairs of supports, each pair being displaceable relative to the other and supporting some of the planks. With such a shield, retraction of rams interconnecting the pairs of supports advances one pair relative to the other and drives the planks carried by the said one pair of supports into the face. This pair of frames is then anchored and the rams extended to drive the other frames and the planks carried thereby into the face. However, in attempting to apply such an arrangement to a tunneling shield sliding or rolling on abutments-forming the side walls of the tunnel, I encountered a substantial problem, namely, that it is very difficult to ensure during working-that the pre-fabricated abutments are disposed in exactly parallel relationship at the correct distance apart. If the abutments are positioned too far apart, the seal between the sides of the shield and the abutments will be lost, whereas if the abutments are too close together, the shield will become jammed.

To overcome this problem, 1 construct each of the support frames for the planks in a number of parts or sections pivotal relative to one another. The lower ends of each frame are therefore relatively displaceable and are interconnected by an extensible strut or beam which sets the distance at which these ends are spaced. In the preferred embodiment, each frame unit consists of two sections which are articulated at the crest or peak of the shield so as to pivot about a longitudinal axis. In the general case, however, there may be more than two sections (e.g. three or four sections) thus, two side sections may be pivoted to a third or cross-piece section. The cross-strut may be in the form of a simple telescopically slidable unit, such as a fluid-operated ram, or it may be in the form of a beam having a piston and cylinder unit at each end, interconnecting the beam to a respective frame section. Preferably, the cylinder is a double acting cylinder, and the piston rod or cylinder, as the case may be, is articulated to the end of the frame section about a longitudinal axis.

The ends of the frame sections may be supported on sliding or rolling shoes or the like by way of piston and cylinder units which are inclined to each other, the shoes being supportable on the pre-fabricated abutments.

DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a cross-section through a tunnel showing 'two pre-fabricated abutments in place and a shield in accordance with the invention supported on them,

FIG. 2 is a longitudinal section through the shield shown in FIG. 1,

FIG. 3 is a top plan view showing one side of the supporting frame arrangement.

2 piscalprl'on F PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to the drawings, a cutter shield comprises a number of sharp ended planks divided into two groups, 5, 6, alternate planks being in the same group, see particularly FIG. 2. The planks 5 are secured rigidly to forward and rearward frames 1, 2 while the planks 6 are secured to the forward and rearward frames 3, 4. Each frame is of two part construction, comprising sections (designated 1a, 1b; 2a, 2b; 3a, 3b; 4a, 412;) which are symmetrical (.when viewed longitudinally of the shield) about a horizontal longitudinally extending pivotll. i I

At each side of the shield is a pair of sliding shoes 10, one supporting sections of the frames 1, 2 and the other supporting sections of the frames 3, 4, The end of each frame section has a downwardly facing surface 7 between which and the associated shoe 10 are mounted two hydraulic rams 8, 9 which diverge in the upwards direction.

Projecting downwardly from each frame section on eachside ofthe surface 7 is a widened end portion, the two end portions of each section supporting a pivot pin 17 which passes through an eye in a head at the end of a piston rod 16 of a cylinder 13, which is set into the end of a tubular beam 12, interconnecting in this way the pair of sections (e.g. 1a, lb) of a support frame (e.g. 1). The cylinders 13 are double acting so that the strut or cross-brace which the cylinders and beam'form may, in effect, be shortened or lengthened to contract or'expand theshield, and move the shoes 10 towards or away from the centre line.

As can be seen from FIGS. 2 and 3, rams 19 extending parallel to the shield axis interconnect the frames 2 and 3 and, on retraction, will force the frames 1 and 2 forward, provided that the planks or shoes carried by the other frames are anchored in position. Likewise, on extension of these rams (assuming the planks or shoes of the frames 1 and 2 are now anchored), the frames 3 and 4 will be urged forward.

By adjusting the length of the strut or cross-brace 12, it is possible for variations in the spacing of the abutments 20, 21 to be compensated for within certain limits. In this way, the risk of the seal between the shield wall and abutments may be maintained while the risk of the shield being jammed between the abutments is avoided. Likewise, it is possible to adjust the width of the shield to take into account desired differences in the tunnel cross-section.

Although adjustments made during working cause an interruption in the continuous run of the roof arch, these variations are unimportant in practice both because they are small and because they are evened-out 'when a concrete lining is applied.

What I claim is: I

1. A cutter shield, particularly a roof shield for driving underground tunnels and like excavations, comprising:

Y first and second forward support frames each having a generally arched configuration and comprising two sections which are substantially symmetrical about the peak of the arch which they together form, said sections of the forward support frames being interconnected at said peak for pivotal movement about an axis extending longitudinally of the apparatus,

first and second rearward support frames each having a generally arched configuration, and comprising two sections which are substantially symmetrical about the peak of the arch which they together form, said sections of the rearward support frames being interconnected at said peak for pivotal movement about an axis extending longitudinally of the apparatus,

a first group of planks supported by said first support frames,

a second group of planks supported by said second support frames,

means for displacing said first frames relative to said second frames,

laterally spaced abutments with respect to which the ends of the support frames are to maintain a predetermined relationship, and

means associated with the lower ends of the sections of each support frame for adjusting the spacing of said sections to compensate for irregularities in the spacing of the abutments.

2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the means associated with the lower ends of the sections of each support frame is a strut and means is provided for lengthening and shortening said strut.

3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, further including a beam extending between the lower ends of the two sections constituting each support frame, and piston and cylinder means interconnecting each of said sections to said beam, the connection between each said piston and cylinder means and the respective frame section being pivotal about an axis extending longitudinally of the apparatus.

4. Apparatus as claimed in claim 3, further including sliding shoes bearing on said abutments, each frame section being supported on a respective shoe by means of a pair of piston and cylinder means inclined towards each other.

5. A cutter shield, particularly a roof shield for driving underground tunnels and the like excavations, comprising: I

first and second forward support frames each having a generally arched configuration and comprising two sections which are substantially symmetrical about the peak of the arch which they together form, said sections of the forward support frames being interconnected at said peak for pivotal movement about an axis extendinglongitudinally of the apparatus,

first and second rearward support frames each having a generally arched configuration and comprising two sections which are substantially symmetrical about the peak of the arch which they together form, said sections of the rearward support frames being interconnected at said peak for pivotal movement about an axis extending longitudinally of the apparatus,

a first group of planks supported by said first support frames,

a second group of planks supported by said second support frames,

means for displacing said first frames relative to said second frames,

:laterially spaced abutments with respect to which the ends of the support frames are to maintain a predetermined relationship,

sliding shoes bearing on said abutments, each frame section being supported on a respective shoe by means of a pair of piston and cylinder means inclined towards each other, and

means associated with the lower ends of the sections of each support frame for'adjusting the spacing of said sections to compensate for irregularities in the spacing of the abutments.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3373571 *Jan 6, 1966Mar 19, 1968Ewing Records & Associates IncApparatus for handling steel forms in tunnels
US3558193 *Feb 7, 1969Jan 26, 1971Greenside Machine Co LtdTunnelling or mining machine canopy with ventilation ducts
US3800549 *Aug 25, 1972Apr 2, 1974Gewerk Eisenhuette WestfaliaTunnelling apparatus
US3812680 *Apr 29, 1971May 28, 1974Walbrohl HShiftable support for use in tunnels, mines and the like
US3823566 *Dec 18, 1972Jul 16, 1974Ingersoll Rand CoEarth-supporting apparatus and method
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3979921 *Dec 9, 1974Sep 14, 1976Dresser Industries, Inc.Tunneling shield
US3989302 *Jul 25, 1975Nov 2, 1976Dresser Industries, Inc.Continuous roof support system for tunnel boring
US4048806 *May 10, 1976Sep 20, 1977Gewerkschaft Eisenhutte WestfaliaApparatus for, and a method of, driving tunnels
US4060992 *Apr 30, 1976Dec 6, 1977Gewerkschaft Eisenhutte WestfaliaMethod of and apparatus for laying a pipe-line
US4073153 *Oct 19, 1976Feb 14, 1978Gewerkschaft Eisenhutte WestfaliaDrive shields for tunnelling
US4099388 *Oct 18, 1976Jul 11, 1978Gewerkschaft Eisenhutte WestfaliaDrive shield for tunneling apparatus and a method for operating such a shield
US4173421 *Oct 7, 1977Nov 6, 1979Gewerkschaft Eisenhutte WestfaliaShield apparatus for use in tunnelling or mining
US4259030 *May 3, 1979Mar 31, 1981Raul MontoyaGround anchor
US4265565 *Sep 11, 1978May 5, 1981Gewerkschaft Eisenhutte WestfaliaTunnel drive shield
US6468000 *Jan 28, 2000Oct 22, 2002C & M Mcnally Engineering Corp.Method and apparatus for feeding a tunnel roof support system from the roof shield of a TBM
US20110103892 *Jan 30, 2009May 5, 2011Mcnally Michael PModifications to a tbm structure to provide roof support installation
CN102434178A *Dec 14, 2011May 2, 2012枣庄矿业(集团)有限责任公司滨湖煤矿Mining forepoling net
EP1033473A1 *Mar 2, 2000Sep 6, 2000C & M McNALLY ENGINEERING Corp.Method and apparatus for feeding a tunnel roof support system from the roof shield of a Tbm
WO2010003213A1 *Jan 30, 2009Jan 14, 2010Mcnally Michael PModification to a tbm structure to provide roof support installation
Classifications
U.S. Classification405/142
International ClassificationE21D19/04, E21D9/06, E21D19/00
Cooperative ClassificationE21D9/0692, E21D19/04
European ClassificationE21D19/04, E21D9/06Z