US 3904126 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
14 1 Sept. 9, 1975 FIRE SPRINKLER Primary E.tun1inerM. Henson Wood, Jr. Arvixlunr Examiner-Michael Mar  Inventor: Roger L. Allard. North Smithfield.
R'L Attorney. Age), 0r FirmJohn T. O'Halloran;
Menotti J. Lombardi Jr  Assignee: International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation, Nutley. NJ.
 ABSTRACT  Filed: Oct. II, 1973 An improved thermally responsive sprinkler having :1 l l Appl- N09 4053504 discharge nozzle for controlled distribution of a fluid in a confined area. The sprinkler is normally mounted I52] U.S. Cl. 239/502; l69/37; 239/513 =1 vertical side wall having a nozzle with an appro- ISII IL Cl H Bush [/26 priate orifice extending therethrough. A plurality of '58] Field of Search v 39 5 5 52 5 deflectors having substantially wedge SilllpGS are (.llS
239/5905; 169/26 37' g 16. 66v posed in the fluid discharge path. The wedge deflectors have their leading edges disposed at a substan  References Cited tially zero angle of attack relative to the fluid discharge path; the wedge deflectors are diametrically UNITED SFATES PA TENFIS positioned and effect the desired controlled distribu- IMNB Oysmn 239/502 tion of the fluid, Each deflector is fixedly attached to a separate yoke member mounted to and extending 21341.11, 11.936 K-..1 m;jii;;jjiijjii 131155111X axially from the The impmd I M944 Wilkins p I p V 239/522 mits the fabrication of a relatively thin line fire sprin- 2 772 74.'l l2/I956 Egglesmn g g kler producing an acceptable fluid distribution pattern 2 778 685 1/1957 Umhricht 4 v l l 239/5l8 h n mounted n 1 Side wallmexfml 10/1973 Cox to 169/37 X ll Claims, 5 Drawing Flgures H1 (g). V I? k Ll 1 1 1 PATENTEU SEP 575 sum 1 UF 4 H IO Fig!
Hllll I? PATENTED SEP 9 I975 SHEET 2 OF 4 runs SPRINKLER BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to an imprmcment in automatic thermally actuated sprinklers. and is particularly concerned with an improved crtical wall mounted sprinkler pro\ iding an acceptable fluid discharge distribution pattern. While the present in\ention is capable of use in a number of other applications. it is intended primarily for use in fire sprinkler systems and is there fore described in such context.
In the design and marketing of fire sprinkler systems. it is of essential and primary importance that the device meet or exceed standards established for the wetting of surfaces necessary to the extinguishment of existing or incipient fires. In the achievement ofthis goal. prior art devices have employed the pendent or upright type sprinkler extending vertically from the ceiling or the wall of the enclosure to be protected.
A primary objection to this prior art apparatus resides in the fact that a plurality of sprinklers are usually required to effectively protect the enclosure. Further. the prior art sprinklers are conspicuous and detract from modern architectural designs.
Concrete ceilings prohibit. for all practical purposes. the use of the ahovemcntioned CClllllgSpTllIklcl'S. and a side wall mounting requires the use of elbow connections.
It is. therefore. an object of the present invention to provide a thermally actuated fire sprinkler which pro vides a more efficient and effective distribution of fire extinguishing fluid.
It is a further object of the present invention that the inventive sprinkler be mounted normal to a side wall of the enclosure to be protected thereby eliminating the need for elbow joints.
It is a further object ofthc present invention that only a small portion of the sprinkler. the deflection nozzle. protrudes from the side wall in an effort to maintain the esthetic qualities of the enclosure.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a fire sprinkler having a relatively narrow transverse dimension.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In furtherance of the stated objects and improve ments. the present invention contemplates a sprinkler providing a controlled distribution of fluid in a con-- fined enclosure. It comprises a nozzle having an orifice through which the fluid is discharged under pressure. Deflector means of substantially wedge shape are disposed in the discharge path of the fluid. The deflector means includes a leading edge formed at the narrow in cluded angle having a substantially zero angle of attack relative to the discharged fluid. The deflector means effects the desired controlled distribution and are supported in the path of the fluid by yoke means opera tively associated with the nozzle.
In another aspect of the improvement provided by the present invention. the deflector means comprises two wedge shape members substantially diametrically positioned in the path of the fluid discharging from the no/zlc. Each wedge member is individually supported by separate yoke members fixedly mounted to and extending from the nozzle and configured to place the wedge members in the path of the fluid. In this configuration. the angle of attack of the respective leading c..- U a.
edges of the wedge members is approximately zero and the narrow included angle of each is in a range between approsimately I(J and approximately h(I.
For a better understanding of the present invention together with other and further objects thereof. reference is made to the following description taken in con nection with the accompanying drawings; its scope is ointed out in the appended claims.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a partial crossseetional side elevational view of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a typical wedge shaped member;
FIG. 3 is a schematic pictorial representation of a wetting pattern produced by a particular embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a plan view of a flat pan distribution of fluid produced by the same inventive embodiment as FIG. 3; and
FIG. 5 is a schematic pictorial representation of a netting pattern produced by another embodiment of the present invention.
The drawings are intended to he illustrative of the invention and not delimiting of its scope. Conventional symbols are used where appropriate. and the same numbers are used to identify similar parts in the various views.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIG. 1, there is displayed a typical em bodiment of the improved nozzle-deflector portion II) of the present invention. A nozzle member 11 is normally thread-ably engaged by means of thread portion 18 to a thermally actuated fluid control valve or line. The thermally responsive portion of the sprinkler is described in copending application Ser. No. 336.849. filed Feb. 28. I973 now US. Pat. No. 3.834.463 and entitled Sensitive Sprinkler and assigned to the assignee of the present invention. Nozzle 11 is of standard design including a shank section about which pcriphery threaded portion 18 is formed and an integral flange member extending axially and radially beyond the diameter of the shank section.
The fluid, indicated by arrows. passes through the internal chamber of nozzle 11, the dimensions and geometry of which chamber are designed to produce desired flow characteristics. That portion 19a of the internal chamber communicating with the fluid source is of frusto-conical shape having its largest diameter D at the input end and the smaller diameter C at its exit. The discharge orifice portion 19 is of cylindrical shape smoothly intersecting with the walls of frusto-conical portion 190. The diameter of orifice 19 is. of course. the same diameter C. Thus. the fluid entering frustoconical portion 191: ultimately exits through orifice I9 into the enclosure.
Extending substantially axially from the flange of noz/le II is the yoke means including yoke members 12 and I4. Yoke members 12 and 14 are attached to nozzle 11 by serrated portions at their respective ends engaging complementary through holes in nozzle 11 flange. The complementary through holes are of se lected dimension so as to provide the appropriate interference when erimped or fastened to yoke members 12 and 14 thus providing a locking function. It should be mac noted that yoke members l2 and I4 and edge mem bers l3 and I5 protrude from the wall.
Yoke members 12 and 14 generally extending anally are inclined tonard the center line of noz/le ll thereby placing wedge members 13 and 15. respectively. in diametrically opposed positions in the path of the fluid discharged through orifice l9. \Nedge member I5 is shown as having a leading edge formed by narrow included angle 13 disposed at a /ero angle of attack a relative to the fluid discharged from orifice I). The leading edge is dislocated from the center line of orifice I) by a distance A and from the plane of orifice I) by a distance B.
To better appreciate the configuration of wedge members l3 and IS, reference is had to FIG. 2 showing a perspective view of a typical embodiment. A leading edge 30 having a length L is formed by the intersection of the wedge surfaces determinative of narrow included angle B. Length L is determined both by orifice 1) size as well as the fluid distribution pattern desired and may be altered significantly to meet operating exigencies. The thickness W is shown as a constant throughout the length L. Again. however. thickness W may be varied as may the included angle B. By utilization of such vari ations. it is possible to refine the geometry of the distribution pattern. Protuberances 16 of substantially triangular shape are shown as extending above the top surface of wedge member 15 and are typical of the de' vices employed to further alter the distribution pattern. It should be noted that protuberances I6 may take on a variety of shapes and its shape is not limited to that of triangular. These alterations and modifications. however. are not considered necessary in the achievement of the principal goals and objectives of the present in vention but are intended only as refinements thereto.
Wedge member 13 is arranged similarly to member IS except that its angle of attack (r ofthe leading edge is shown as slightly greater than zero. In addition. the dimensions A and B from the center line and discharge plane or orifice 19, respectively, are ofslightly different dimension. These dimensional alterations are in many applications necessary to achieve the performance parameters required within a particular enclosure for which protection is sought. The means of attachment of wedge shape members 13 and 15 to yoke members 12 anti 14, respectively. are not of critical importance and may be achieved by welding. brazing. soldering. riveting. or threadable engagement. It is only necessary that the composite structure be of sufficient integrity to remain in the desired position during discharge of fluid through orifice I). Yoke members 12 and 14 are advantageously formed from rod stock but again may be formed of other materials having sufficient strength so as to permit that minimum dimensioning necessary to avoid disruption of the pattern provided by deflector means 13 and 15.
lugs ol this imention to arri\e at the deflector means array most appropriate to providing required operational characteristics. It is further pointed out that substantially variant yoke means may be employed. for example. yoke members 12 and I4 need not be attached to nozzle 11 flange but may be suitably engaged to other portions of the sprinkler assembly and even may be rotatably engaged so that the action of the discharge fluid causes placement of wedge members 13 and IS in the path of the discharge fluid. This latter approach in certain instances may allow for a design having further decreased transverse dimension and thus more esthctically pleasing.
In considering operation of this novel sprinkler ar rangement as well as typical configurations. recourse is bad to the following examples:
EXAMPLE I (See FIG. I)
Nozzle Dimensions C approximately 0.51 inch D approximately 0.75 inch E approximately (L62 inch F approximately 0.20 inch Wedge l3 Dimensions L 1.6 inches W (L40 inch A Iii/64 inch B 17/64 inch or 0 Wedge 15 Dimensions l. [.6 inches W 0.40 inch A 23/64 inch I3 [7/64 inch Fluid Pressure 40 PSI Results FIG. 3 shows the wetting pattern achieved after a ten minute test in an enclosure 20. The improved sprinkler [0 of the present invention wetted side walls 21 and 23, vertical wall 22, near wall 26, ceiling 24 and floor 25 in accordance with the pattern indicated by the wetting line indication of FIG. 3. Near wall 26 was 95% wet at the end of the test. FIG. 4 demonstrates the results of the standard flat pan pattern test similarly showing the improved operational performance of the present invention with respect to prior art devices. Six flat pans 27 are placed in the positions indicated in FIG. 4. Table I shows the amount of water gathered at each flat pan 27 in terms of total volume of water and gallonspcr minute per square foot.
It is noted that depending upon the desired distribution pattern. either a single deflector wedge or a plurality may be utili/ed in furtherance of the present invention It is considered well within the knowledge i if those of ordinary skill in the art when employing the tcaclr Table l 3' X 3' Pan 1 2 3 4 5 6 Vol. of Water Collected (Gals) 3.29 5.49 4.87 7.2l 633 L92 Gallons-Pcr-Minute Per Sq. Ft. .(136 .tlhl .054 .080 .071) .02!
EXAMPLE ll (See FIG. I
Noule Dimensions (Same as Example I) 4il-1.I-flI- -l* a vl -11 n.1- uw lid I-H vlwdIm-u-u. libivtl'rl an Wedge 13 Dimensions L 1.6 inches W 0.40 inch A A inch B 1/32 inch or Wedge 15 Dimensions L 1.6 inches W 0.40 inch A 21/64 inch B 1/8 inch Fluid Pressure 40 PSI Results The wetting pattern shown in FIG. demonstrates the improved performance of the present invention.
The wetting line indicates those portions of side walls 21 and 23, far wall 22. near wall 26 and ceiling 24 etted by the improved sprinkler during a 10 minute test. Near wall 26 achieved 95% wetting and side walls 21 and 23 achieved 84?! wetting.
As demonstrated by the foregoing examples represented in FIGS. 3. 4 and 5. the present invention achieves an improved fire sprinkler producing con trolled fluid distribution patterns meeting requisite standards of operation. it further provides a device of reduced transverse dimension. in the examples shown being no greater than approximately 1 /2 inches from the entry port of nozzle ll to the end of yoke members [2 and 14. This novel structure permits its utilization in vertical side wall mountings substantially hidden to the viewer. The distribution patterns are readily modifled to meet the varying dimensions of room configurations as well as to conform to variation in code requirements.
Thus. there is provided an improved thermally responsive sprinkler utilizing wedge shape deflectors in the path offluid ejected from a nozzle to provide a controlled distribution of tire extinguishing fluid. The design is comprised of mechanically simple parts. economical of fabrication and reliable in operation.
While there has been described what are at present considered to be the preferred embodiments of the invention. it is obvious to those of ordinary skill in the art that various changes and modifications may be made. Therefore, it is intended that the appended claims cover all such changes and modifications as fall within the scope of the invention.
l. A fire extinguishing apparatus for providing controlled distribution of a fluid within an enclosure having substantially vertical side walls. comprising:
a source of said fluid;
a nozzle having an orifice thercthrough mounted in at least one of said side walls through which said fluid is discharged under pressure. said nozzle having a substantially horizontal axis;
deflector meanscoupled to said nozzle; and
yoke means operably associated with said nozzle for disposing said deflector means in the path of said fluid discharge for effecting said controlled distribution whereby a fire in said enclosure is extinguished.
2. A tire extinguishing apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said deflector means comprises at least one wedgeshaped deflector disposed in said fluid discharge path.
3. A tire extinguishing apparatus according to claim 2, wherein said deflector means includes a plurality of wedge-shaped members. each member having a narrow included angle greater than approximately l0 and less than approximately 60 and each member having a leading edge having an angle of attack less than approximately 20.
4. The sprinkler of claim 2. wherein said deflector means consists of two wedge shape members substan tially diametrically positioned in said fluid discharge path.
5. The sprinkler of claim 3. further including protu berances extending above the top surface of said deflector means for altering the fluid distribution pattern.
6. The sprinkler of claim 3. wherein one of said wedge shape members has a narrow included angle of approximately 29 and the other wedge shape member has a narrow included angle of approximately 205: and both said wedge shape members have an angle of attack ofapproximately 0.
7. 'The sprinkler of claim 5. wherein said leading edges are axially displaced less than approximately 0.30 inch from said. orifice and transversely displaced less than approximately 0.31 inch from said orifice cen ter line.
8. The sprinkler of claim 6. wherein said wedge members have a length of approximately lb inches and a width of approximately 0.40 inch.
9. The sprinkler of claim 7, wherein said transverse dimension is less than approximately 1.25 inches. and said pressure is approximately 40 pounds per square inch.
10. The sprinkler of claim 1, wherein said nozzle is within said wall and only said yoke means and said deflector means extend beyond the plane of said wall.
11. The sprinkler of claim 17, wherein said nozzle has an inlet orifice threadably engaged to a thermally actu ated fluid source said inlet orifice diameter is approxi mately 0.75 inch and said nozzle internal through passage comprises a first frusto conieal portion smoothly connecting to a cylindrical portion forming said orifice. said cylindrical portion having an axial length of approximately 0.20 inch and said frusto-conical portion having an axial length of approximately 0.42 inch.
UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION PATENT NO. 3,904,126
DATED September 9 1975 TNVENTOR 3 Roger L. Allard H rs certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Claim 11, line 1, change "17" to --7.
Signed and Scalzd this A ttest:
RUTH C. MASON Attesting Officer LUTRELLE F. PARKER Acting Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks