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Publication numberUS3904515 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 9, 1975
Filing dateMay 1, 1974
Priority dateMay 1, 1974
Publication numberUS 3904515 A, US 3904515A, US-A-3904515, US3904515 A, US3904515A
InventorsHarold B Mackenzie, Ingvar G Anderson, Jr William T S Montgomery
Original AssigneeNew Life Foundation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
High yield refuse separation system
US 3904515 A
Abstract
Means are provided for assisting separation of the lightweight material from the heavier weight material of refuse material in a system wherein the refuse material is delivered into the upper portion of a vertical separating chamber to drop down past a spreader and through a venturi throat between the spreader and the wall defining the chamber. The separation assisting means takes numerous forms, i.e., bypass passage means through the spreader member, a steadying device for the spreader member suspending rod, a bounce-deflection device below the chamber outlet and above a heavy material receiver, air streams from within a hollow rod passage through a declumper, flushing air streams from the upper conical deflecting surface of the spreader member, a deflector venturi ring device within the chamber below the spreader member, and supplementary high velocity flushing air streams directed through the descending material from the walls of the chamber below the spreader member.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [191 MacKenzie et al.

[ Sept. 9, 1975 HIGH YIELD REFUSE SEPARATION SYSTEM [75] Inventors: Harold B. MacKenzie, Wheaton, 111.;

Ingvar G. Anderson, Dunedin; William T. S. Montgomery, Jr., Jacksonville, both of Fla.

[73] Assignee: New Life Foundation, Wheaton, 111.

[22] Filed: May 1, 1974 [21] Appl. No.: 465,765

[52] US. Cl. 209/3; 209/138; 209/150 [51] Int. Cl. B07B 4/02 [58] Field of Search 209/3, 115, 121, 138, 139,

Primary ExaminerAllen N. Knowles Attorney, Agent, or Firm1-1il1, Gross, Simpson, Van Santen, Steadman, Chiara & Simpson 57 I ABSTRACT Means are provided for assisting separation of the lightweight material from the heavier weight material of refuse material in a system wherein the refuse material is delivered into the upper portion of a vertical separating chamber to drop down past a spreader and through a venturi throat between the spreader and the wall defining the chamber. The separation assisting means takes numerous forms, i.e., bypass passage means through the spreader member, a steadying device for the spreader member suspending rod, a bounce-deflection device below the chamber outlet and above a heavy material receiver, air streams from within a hollow rod passage through a declumper, flushing air streams from the upper conical deflecting surface of the spreader member, a deflector venturi ring device within the chamber below the spreader member, and supplementary high velocity flushing air streams directed through the descending material from the walls of the chamber below the spreader member.

HIGH YIELD REFUSE SEPARATION SYSTEM This invention relates to a high yield refuse separation system, and is more particularly concerned with a pneumatic refuse material separation system for sepa rating lightweight material from heavier weight material.

Refuse materials, such as municipal garbage and trash, which are generally collected without discrimination, present problems of more than ordinary difficulty to effect efficient separation thereof for recovery of reusable lighter weight material from heavier weight material. For example, paper is an economically worthwhile salvageable product and a large percentage of municipal waste consists of paper. Where combustible materials are useful as a fuel source, it is desirable to separate as much as possible of lightweight material from municipal refuse including not only paper but also plastics, leaves and other combustible material all generally of lighter weight than relatively incombustible materials such as metal, glass and stones.

Feasibility of municipal refuse separation depends heavily upon the economics of the cost of separation versus the value of recoverable material. At the heart of the problem is the separation of the lighweight materials from the heavier weight materials. The volume of municipal refuse requiring processing, the character of the refuse which may vary greatly at different seasons of the year and in different communities within a municipality, the market value of recoverable material, and other considerations are important factors that must be considered. Whatever the factors present at any given time or place a large volume of refuse must be separated efficiently into lightweight and heavier weight material categories. Prior systems have not been as productive in proportion to equipment costs and expenditures of energy toward separation and recovery of material as desired.

An important object of the present invention is to overcome prior disadvantages, deficiencies, inefficiencies, shortcomings and problems and to attain important advantages and improvements in a high yield refuse separation system according to the present invention.

Another object of the invention is to provide new and improved method of and means for assisting separation of lightweight material from heavier weight material in treating refuse and more especially municipal refuse.

A further object of the invention is to provide a new and improved high yield pneumatic refuse separation system.

Still another object of the invention is to provide new and improved means in a gravity drop and countercurrent pneumatic separation system for improving the separation and recovery of lightweight material from heavier weight material.

Other objects, features and advantages of the invention will be readily apparent from the following description of certain preferred embodiments thereof, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings although variations and modifications may be effected without departing from the spirit and scope of the novel concepts embodied in the disclosure, and in which:

FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional detail view through apparatus embodying features of a pneumatic refuse material separation system according to the present invention including separation assisting means;

FIG. 2 is a sectional plan view taken substantially along the line Illl of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a sectional plan view taken substantially along the line III-Ill of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional detail view taken substantially along the line IV-IV of FIG. I;

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary vertical sectional elevational view showing another separation assisting means;

FIG. 6 is a fragmentary vertical sectional detail view showing a pneumatic separation assisting means;

FIG. 7 is a sectional plan view taken substantially along the line VIIVII of FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a fragmentary vertical sectional elevational view showing a modified pneumatic separation assisting means;

FIG. 9 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view showing combined mechanical and pneumatic separation assisting means;

FIG. 10 is a sectional plan view taken substantially along the line X-X of FIG. 9;

FIG. 11 is a fragmentary sectional elevational detail view showing a modification of the mechanical separation assisting means;

. FIG. 12 is a similar fragmentary vertical sectional elevational detail view showing a further mechanical separation assisting means; and

FIG. 13 isa sectional plan view taken substantially along the line XIII-XIII of FIG. 12.

In a pneumatic refuse material separation system for separating lightweight material from heavier weight material, as depicted in FIG. 1, loose refuse material 5 such as municipal trash, which may include garbage, is delivered as by means of an endless conveyor 7 into the upper end of a vertical, cylindrical tubular inlet 8 which is desirably provided with an upwardly flaring tunnellike mouth head structure 9. The material to be separated and which is thus received through the upper end of the inlet 8 is guided therein to drop downwardly, as shown by directional arrows, to discharge from the lower end of the inlet which comprises a discharge opening 10 directed freely downwardly. From the discharge opening 10, the material to be separated drops into a vertical separation chamber 11 defined by an elongated columnar or tower-like casing provided by an elongated tubular wall 12 of substantial diameter which is unconstricted throughout its length to a free outlet opening 13 at its lower end. It will be observed that the inlet 8 is of substantially smaller diameter than the chamber 11 within the wall 12 and extends concentrically downwardly to a limited extent through and below a top closure 14. It will be observed that the inlet 8 is of substantially smaller diameter than the chamber 11 within the wall 12 and extends to only a limited extent downwardly within the upper portion of the chamber 11. In a practical arrangement the chamber 11 may be on the order of eight feet in a diameter and 20 feet in length in a unit capable of handling on the order of tons per hour of refuse to be separated.

For breaking up descending clumped masses of the material to be separated, declumping means 15, hereinafter referred to as a declumper, may be provided adjacently below the discharge opening 10. As the material drops down on the declumper 15 larger masses or clumps of adherent material are broken up by radially extending vanes 17 of preferably triangular shape in elevation projecting radially from and disposed in orderly spaced relation concentrically about a supporting rod 18 of as small diameter as practicable, depending from supporting means 19 such as a ceiling above the receiving head 9 and extending down concentrically through the inlet 8 and to a suitable extent below the opening 10. Each of the vanes 17 is secured fixedly to the rod 18 at an elongated hypotenuse and projects to a maxi mum diameter about one-half that of the inlet diameter.

Adjacently below the declumper the supporting rod 18 carries thereon a venturi spreader member 20 of generally double cone shape mounted concentrically on and about the rod at a substantial distance above the outlet opening 13. An upper downwardly and outwardly sloping conical surface 21 of the spreader 20 meets convergently at a perimeter 22 a lower conical surface 23 which is desirably of greater length and thus a sharper angle to the axis of the supporting rod 18. Where the cone angle of the surface 21 may be about 45, the cone angle of the surface 23 is preferably about 60. The diameter of the perimeter 22 is preferably about the same as the diameter of the inlet 8 and thus smaller than the diameter of thesurrounding wall 12 whereby to define therewith an annular venturi throat 24.

Within the chamber 11, the descending material is subjected to pneumatic separation by forcing air upwardly through the descending material. Separating air flow is effected by means such as a blower or exhaust fan 25 connected with an exhaust duct 27 leading from an exhaust throat 28 communicating by means of an exit or exhaust opening 29 immediately below the top closure 14 and thus at a substantial height height above the lower discharge opening 10 from the i let 8. Thereby, material descending from the inlet 8 into the chamber 11 is subjected to high velocity and large volume of separating air which enters through the outlet opening 13 and moves up through the descending materialthrough the venturi throat 24 where the velocity of the air is substantially increased with an advantageous pressure drop above the throat for large volume air lifting and tumbling of the descending material for separation of the lighter constituents which are then sucked up the reduced-cross section chimney area between the inlet 8 and the wall 12. Downward movement of the material to be separated, and countermovement of the air and lifting of the lighter materials is graphically shown by means of directional arrows. The heavier weight materials separated from the lighter weight materials discharge from the outlet opening 13 and are collected as shown at 30 on a suitable conveyor 31 for transportation to a further separating apparatus or to a disposal point.

Although only one of the separating units has been shown in FIG. 1, it will be understood that there may be as many of such units as necessary to handle any given volume of refuse. There may be a battery of the separators in series for multiple raw product separa tion. Raw products such as paper, glass and metals may be segregated and collected, land fill refuse may. be packed into transporting and dumping apparatus, and such refuse or trash as cannot be reused or recycled may be burned in an incinerator or furnace which may provide heat for drying valuable raw products such as paper or for other industrial purposes. In some installations, it may be desired merely to separate combustible and therefore generally lightweight material from heavier and generally noncombustible material, thereby providing fuel and land fill fractions of the ma terial.

In order to attain maximum efficiency in operation of the apparatus, means are provided for assisting separation of the lightweight material from the heavier weight material.

For example, some lightweight material may escape with the heavier material through the venturi throat 24 into the area of the chamber 11 below the throat and even below the outlet opening 13 where inrushing air will subject the material to further flushing action and separate at least most of the remaining lightweight material from the heavier material. However, due to the rush of material down through the venturi 2 the lightweight material entrained in the air below the spreader 20 may find it difficult to rise up through the venturi throat. To this end, the lightweight material flushed from the heavier weight material below the spreader 20 is assisted in separation by conducting it up through the spreader into the area of the chamber 11 thereabove where enhanced upward suction flow of the lightweight material is in effect. For this purpose, the spreader 20 is desirably provided with a plurality of vertical bypass passages 32 (FIGS. 1 and 2) desirably four in number by which, as shown by directional arrows, the lightweight material can escape upwardly from below the spreader 20 into the chamber area above the spreader. Each of the passages 32 has its entry opening through the lower conical surface 23 and its exit opening through the upper conical surface 21 so that there is an upward draft from the area under the spreader 20 avoiding stagnation and trapping of light fraction mate rial, but permitting it to escape into the area above the spreader. The total cross sectional area of the bypass passages 32 is much less than the flow area of the venturi throat 24 so that only a small volume of air is diverted from the venturi throat. As the air and entrained lightweight material issue upwardly. from the passages 32 such air has a further flushing effect on material that is flushed upwardly by the air rushing through the throat 24. In order to avoid descending heavy material from interfering with the flushing action of the bypass passages '32, the declumper 15 is desirably constructed to provide shielding or deflecting means thereabove. Therefore the passages 32 are desirably spaced apart and of a size to open up under the declumper 15 between alternate pairs of the vanes 17 and such pairs of vanes are provided with intervening closure plate sur faces 33 along their downwardly sloping edges and intervening downwardly and inwardly sloping air deflector plate surfaces 34 closing off the spaces between such pairs of vanes, while the spaces between the alternate pairs of vanes are left unobstructed for dropping of material downwardly toward the spreader surfaces 21 and upward movement of material separating and flushing air toward the discharge opening 10 of the inlet 8 to effect preliminary separation of lightweight material from heavier weight material.

Another means for assisting separation of. the lightweight material from the heavier weight material comprises a steadying device 35 for the relatively small diameter and thus possibly flexible rod 18 having regard to its length and the weight of the declumper 15 and the spreader 20 suspended thereby and the possibility of the high velocity air moving up through the descending material about the spreader 20 causing a transverse vibratory movement interfering with efficientair stream material separation in the venturi throat 24. For this purpose the device 35 comprises a straightsteady' bar 37 (FIGS. 1, 3 and 4) which is of as small a diameter as practicable and is secured centrally thereof as by means of a bolt 38 to the lower end of the rod 18 which for this purpose extends a limited distance below the spreader 20. At its opposite ends the steady bar 37 at least closely approaches'the wall 12 and may be attached thereto as by means of bolts 39, although if pre-' ferred support by the rod 18 may suffice and engagement of the opposite ends of the bar 37 with the wall 12 may suffice to hold thebar. in a steadying position.

Thereby transverse vibratory or swinging movements of the rod 18 and the spreader 20 supported thereby are precluded at least to the extent of maintaining constant substantially uniform functional dimension of the venturi throat 24 and thus uniform air flushingaction in the large volume of descending refuse material. By having the steady bar 37 located substantially above the outlet opening 13, interference with inrushing flushing air is avoided.

Any tendency for material to collect on the upper side of the steady bar 37 is obviated by either mounting the bar to rotate or in a more simple fashion, as shown, having the bar of cylindrical form and encased in rotary sleeve means comprising, in this instance, a pair of sleeves 40 which extend between the lower endof the rod 18 and the wall 12 at each side of the rod. At their ends nearestthe rod 18, the sleeves 40 are protectively received in a shielding fixture 41. Attheir respective ends nearest the wall 12, the rotary sleeves 40 are received in shields 42 and are provided with suitable driving means such as respective pulleys 43 over which are trained flexible driving means such as belts 44 running over drive pulleys 45 on drive shafts 47 of differential gear devices 48 driven by suitable motors 49 whereby the sleeves 40 are solely rotated in operation of the system so that material which might tend to gather on the upper sides of the bar 37 is continually dumped off by rotation of the sleeves 40 and the lower sides of the sleeves constantly swept by the flushing air. Since municipal refuse may have stringy material including plasi tic that may tend to wrap around the sleeves 40, it may be desirably from time to time to dislodge such wrapped-on stringy material and, to facilitate this, each of the sleeves 40 may be provided with a longitudinal outer perimeter groove 50 along which a cutting instrument such as a knife may be run to sever and thus assist in dislodging of any wrapped-on material.

Additional or optional means for assisting separation of the lightweight material from the heavier weight material are depicted in FIG. 5 wherein a bouncedeflection device 51 is provided between the outl et end of the chamber wall 12 and the conveyor 31 The descending heavier material may tend to stratify tubularly to some extent along the inside of the wall 12 after leaving the venturi throat 24 and thus avoid as thorough final flushing action of the countercurrent air and laterally incoming air as might be desired. Accordingly, the device 51 comprises a funnel-like member 52 having its upper end of substantially greater diameter than the lower end of the wall 12 and its lower'end of smaller diameter and with the member supported on a frame 53. By having the member 52 centered a limited distance below the lower end of the wall 12, a substantial sweep of air sucked into the separating chamber can move in over the member 52 as shown by directional arrows. Additional air can move in through the lower end opening in the member 52 which is spaced substantially above the heavy material receiving conveyor 31 and respective side deflectors 54 carried by the frame 53 and associated with the sides of the conveyor below the member 52. As the rush of descending material, which may be unduly concentrated or tubularly stratified on leaving the outlet from the wall 12, strikes the member 52', the material is deflected toward the center, causing it to collide and agitateover the central drop-out opening in the bottom of the member 52 so that air sweepin g inwardly and upwardly therethrough will finally flush any remaining lightweight material therefrom. To improve agitation of the material as it strikes the member 52, 'its impact surface is provided with elastomeric qualities as by means of a covering or coating of elastomeric material 55. For example, where the body of the member 52 comprises a steel funnel, the material 55 may be heavy-weight rubber belting or conveyor material which will withstand rough usage and which may be easily replaced when worn out. Of course, the entire member 52 may, if preferred be made from a resilient, elastic material, butfor maximum bounce of the heavy refuse materials striking the surface 55, substantial rigidity in the member 52 and resilient, elastic impact surface is a desirable construction. The arrangement shown in full line is a generally median bounce angle. For greater bounce a shallower angle as exemplified in the upper dash position may be selected, and for less bounce a steeper angular slope of the member 52 as exemplified in the lower dash position may be adapted. The prevailing character of the refuse material being processed should govern the particular slope angle of the member 52 that may be selected.

Additional or optional means for assisting separation of the lightweight material from the heavier weight material, as depicted in FIGS. 6 and 7 comprise having the suspension rod 18' which supports the vanes 17 of the declumper l5 and which supports the spreader 20, formed as a tube providing a substantial passage 57 therethrough for air derived from any suitable source such as a blower (not shown). Such air under substantial pressure and provided in substantial volume is employed to improve the flushing of lightweight material from the descending stream of refuse material passing the declumper l5, by directing the air to issue from ports 58 opening through the wall of the tubular rod 18" between the'declumper vanes 17. There may be as many of the ports 58 opening between the respective pairsof vanes '17 as desired, two vertically spaced such ports being shown by -way of example.

The remaining air from the tubular rod 18 is utilized to improve flushing lightweight material at and above the deflecting surface 21 of the spreader 20. For this purpose-the lower end of the rod 18' extends down within the upper portion of the spreader 20 and is secured to a horizontal partition 59 which desirably joins the cone surface portions 21 and 23 at the convergence perimeter 22. This not only substantially reinforces the spreader 20' and provides an exceptionally solid anchorage thereof to the rod 18, but defines in the upper portion of the spreader 20' an air chamber 60. Air issues from the passage 57 through large vertically elongated openings 61 in that portion of the rod 18 which is within the chamber 60. From within the chamber 60 the air issues in flushing streams through a set of ports 62 in the cone surface 21 In a preferred arrangement at least one and preferably a plurality of the ports 62 are located to issue streams of flushing air generally upwardly between the declumper vanes l7,'

as best seen in FIG. 7. Through this arrangement, not only is improved flushing of lightweight material attained, but by virtue of the larger diameter and thus sturdier nature of the supporting rod 18, greater resistance to lateral vibratory deflection of the spreader is attained so that transverse bracing thereof can be avoided.

In the modification shown in FIG. 8, much the same structure as in FIGS. 6 and 7 is shown and common reference numerals depict identical elements. In this arrangement, in order to attain more direct upward flushing air streams from within the spreader 20, the lower end of the tubular rod 18' is in communication with ducts 63 whichhave vertically upwardly extending nozzle portions 64 from which air streams are directed substantially straight upwardly between the declumper vanes 17'.

On reference to FIGS. 9' and 10, means for assisting separation of the lightweight material from the heavier weight material comprise an annular deflector 65 secured to the inner side of the wall 12 which for this purpose has a substantial downwardly extending portiori 12a between the lower end of the spreader 20 and the outlet opening 13'. As shown, the deflector 65 is located a substantial distance below the lower end of the spreader 20 and deflects the descending material from adjacent the wall 12 toward the center of the passage within the chamber 11' for more efficient flushing by the inwardly and upwardly rushing flushing air. For convenience in optionally mounting the deflector ring 65 within thewall 12, the ring comprises cooperative matching segments 67 of generally triangular vertical cross section having their hypotenuse portions secured as by means of bolts 68 to the wall 12"to complete the deflector ring. On its upper side, the deflector ring 65 provides a downwardly and inwardly extending deflector surface 69 and, on its underside, the ring provides an upwardly and inwardly extending air deflecting surface 70. The surfaces 69 and 70 join at a venturi throat convergence 71. As the material drops down on the funnel surface 69 and is deflected toward the center of the passage, the upwardly rushing air stream is accelerated and effects thorough separation of lightweight material from the heavier material which drops on down through the venturi throat.

The means for assisting separation of lightwight material from the heavier material may comprise flushing air streams directed into the chamber 1 1 from ports 72 provided in the wall portion 12a substantially below the spreader 20 and below the ring 65 where it is used. The ports 72 are located at a plurality, such as three circumferentially equidistantly spaced locations to direct the streams therefrom inwardly and upwardly to converge at the center of the descending stream of material so as to effect maximum agitation and flushing of the. material. Large volume air under substantial pressure is supplied through the ports 72 by suitable ducts 73 from an air source such as a blower 74. Through this arrangement, the descending material is subjected to thorough additional flushing action after it leaves the venturi throat 24. The air streams from the ports 72 effect an injector action assisting flushing air intake flow through the opening 13.

In FIG. 11 a deflector and venturi ring is shown which is especially useful where over a period of time the apparatus may have to process refuse material of widely varying character such as predominantly lightweight material at certain times and predominantly heavy weight material at other times, dry material at times and wet material at other times, etc. Under such conditions it may be desirable to effect rapid changes wherein at times the deflector ring 65' may not be needed at all or the venturi effect need not be as strong. For this purpose, the ring 65"comprises a set of matching plates 75 which are connected by suitable hinge means 77 to the wall 12' along the upper side of an annular recess or storage protrusion 78 projecting outwardly annularly on the wall portion 12a. For movably adjusting the. plates 75 between the fully extended posi-.

tion as shown in full outline and a retracted, nonoperating position as shown in dash outline, means comprising respective adjustment rods 79 are connected with slotted couplings 80 at their inner ends to the backs of the plates 75 and extend outwardly through the wall defining the recess protrusion 78 and are adapted to be secured in any preferred reciprocal position by securing means 81 accessible at the outer side of the protrusion 78. V

In FIGS. 12 and 13 another arrangement is depicted comprising a venturi deflector ring 65 which is adjustable between a full ring position as shown in full outline and a retracted non-operating position as shown in dash outline. For this'purpose, the ring 65" is constructed in the form of a segmental matching complementary set of hollow shell members 82 which are provided with upper funnel surface portions 83 and lower upward and inward air deflecting surface portions 84,.

with outwardly projecting mounting flanges 85 extending from the portions 83 and lower outwardly extend-.

ing mounting flanges 87 from the portions 84. The flanges 85 and 87 are in sliding engagement with respectively an upper wall flange portion 88 and a lower wall flange portion 89 of an. annular inwardly opening channel shaped protrusion 90 inthe wall 12a and ofa depth sufficient to receive the segmental members 82 fully in the non-operating position as shown in dash outline. In order to effect radial adjustment of the members 82, the flanges 85 and 87 are provided with means comprising fixed bolts 91 which project outwardly through respective clearance slots 92 in the flange walls 88 and 89 and extending radially so that the members 82 can be adjusted between the extreme fully operating and the extreme non-operating positions and fixed by means of nuts 93.

It will be understood that variations and modifications maybe effected without departing from the spirit and scope of the novelconcepts of this invention.

We claim as our invention:

1. In a pneumatic refuse material separation system for separating lightweight material from heavier weight material:

means providing a vertical separation chamber defined by an elongated tubular wall of substantial diameter which is unconstricted throughout its length to a free outlet opening at its lower end;

a tubular inlet through which material to be separated is. received and which is of smaller diameter than the chamber and extends to a limited extent downwardly within the upper portion of the chamber, with a discharge end of the inlet opening freely downwardly within the chamber; means for supplying material to be separated into said inlet to drop therefrom through said discharge end to descend through the chamber toward said outlet opening; supporting rod suspended at its upper end above the point at which said means supplying material introduces the material into said inlet, said rod extending concentrically downwardly through the inlet with the lower end of the rod projecting substantially below the discharge end of the inlet;

a spreader member suspended from the lower end of said rod a substantial distance below and concentric with the discharge end of said inlet and a substantial distance above said outlet opening and being of substantially the same diameter as said discharge end of the inlet and of smaller diameter than said wall and having convergently related conical upper and lower surfaces, the upper surface providing a spreader surface and the lower surface providing an air deflecting surface;

said surfaces meeting in annularly spaced relation to said wall and defining an annular venturi throat with said wall;

said chamber providing an air flow passage upwardly through the chamber from said outlet opening to the top of the chamber;

means for effecting material-separating air flow upwardly through said outlet opening and said chamber passage and past said spreader member, through the venturi throat and then past said inlet and out from the top of the chamber, to separate the lightweight material from the heavier weight material;

means for receiving heavier weight material which drops from said outlet opening;

and means for assisting separation of the lightweight material from the heavier weight material including a steadying device connected to a lower end extension of said supporting rod which projects below said spreader member and comprising a transverse rod provided with a rotary peripheral surface and means for effecting rotation thereof.

2. A system according to claim 1, wherein said means for assisting separation comprise a bounce-deflection device located under said outlet opening and above said receiving means.

3. A system according to claim 1, wherein said peripheral surface is provided with a longitudinal groove to assist in guiding a knife for separating material that may become wound onto the surface.

4. In a pneumatic refuse material separation system for separating lightweight material from heavier weight material:

means providing a vertical separation chamber defined by an elongated tubular wall of substantial diameter extending to a free outlet opening at its lower end;

a tubular inlet through which material to be separated is received and which is of smaller diameter than the chamber and extends to a limited extent downwardly within the upper portion of the chamber, with a discharge end of the inlet opening freely downwardly within the chamber;

means for supplying material to be separated into said inlet to drop therefrom through said discharge end to descend through the chamber toward said outlet opening;

spreader member mounted a substantial distance below and concentric with the discharge end of 5 said inlet and a substantial distance above said outlet opening and being of smaller diameter than said wall and having convergently related conical upper and lower surfaces, the upper surface providing a spreader surface and the lower surface providing an air deflecting surface;

said surfaces meeting in annularly spaced relation to said wall and defining an annular venturi throat with said wall;

said chamber providing an air flow passage upwardly through the chamber from said outlet opening to the top of the chamber;

means for effecting material-separating air flow upwardly through said outlet opening and said chamber passage and past said spreader member, through the venturi throat and then past said inlet and out from the top of the chamber, to separate the lightweight material from the heavier weight material;

means for receiving heavier weight material which drops from said outlet opening;

and means for assisting separation of the lightweight material from the heavier weight material comprising a plurality of tubular bypass passages extending upwardly through said spreader member and having entry openings through said conical lower surface and exit openings from said upper conical surface, the total cross-sectional area of said bypass passages being less than the flow area of said venturi throat and permitting lightweight material to escape upwardly from the area under the spreader which might otherwise cause stagnation thereof due to the rush of heavier material cascading through said venturi throat.

5. A system according to claim 4, including deflection means above said exit openings of the bypass passages and below said inlet to avoid descending heavy material from interfering with flushing action of said bypass passages.

6. A system according to claim 5, wherein said deflection means comprise a declumper having a plurality of vane elements provided with deflecting surfaces overlying said exit openings in substantially spaced relation above said spreader.

7. In a pneumatic refuse material separation system for separating lightweight material from heavier weight material:

means providing a vertical separation chamber defined by an elongated tubular wall of substantial diameter which is unconstricted throughout its length to a free outlet opening at its lower end;

a tubular inlet through which material to be separated is received and which is of smaller diameter than the chamber and extends to a limited extent downwardly within the upper portion of the chamber, with a discharge end of the inlet opening freely downwardly within the chamber;

means for supplying material to be separated into said inlet to drop therefrom through said discharge end to descend through the chamber toward said outlet opening;

a Supporting rod suspended at its upper end above the point at which said means supplying material introduces the material into said inlet, said rod extending concentrically downwardly through the inlet with the lower end of the rod projecting substantially below the discharge end of the inlet;

a spreader member suspended from the lower end of said rod a substantial distance below and concentric with the discharge end of said inlet and a substantial distance above said outlet opening and being of substantially the same diameter as said discharge end of the inlet and of smaller diameter than said wall and having convergently related con ical upper and lower surfaces, the upper surface providing a spreader surface and the lower surface providing an air deflecting surface;

said surfaces meeting in annularly spaced relation to said wall and defining an annular venturi throat with said wall;

said chamber providing an air flow passage upwardly through the chamber from said outlet opening to the top of the chamber;

means for effecting material-separating air flow upwardly through said outlet opening and said cham ber passage and past said spreader member, through the venturi throat and then past said inlet and out from the top of the chamber, to separate the lightweight material from the heavier weight material;

means for receiving heavier weight material which drops from said outlet opening;

and means for assisting separation of the lightweight material from the heavier weight material comprising said rod being of hollow tubular construction to provide a passage for flushing air under pressure, there being air ports in said upper conical surface of the spreader member and passage means for air from the interior of the tubular rod to said ports to issue as flushing streams from the interior of the spreader member outwardly from the upper conical surface to promote flushing of fine material in the area of the chamber above said venturi passage.

8. A system according to claim 7, including a declumper comprising radially extending vertical circumferentially spaced vanes carried by the rod below said outlet opening and above said spreader member, and ports opening from said rod to issue air streams therefrom between said vanes.

9. In a pneumatic refuse material separation system for separating lightweight material from heavier weight material:

means providing a vertical separation chamber defined by an elongated tubular wall of substantial diameter which is unconstricted throughout its length to a free outlet opening at its lower end;

a tubular inlet through which material to be separated is received and which is of smaller diameter than the chamber and extends to a limited extend downwardly Within the upper portion of the chamber, with a discharge end of the inlet opening freely downwardly within the chamber;

means for supplying material to be separated into said inlet to drop therefrom through said discharge end to descend through the chamber toward said outlet opening;

a supporting rod suspended at its upper end above the point at which said means supplying material introduces the material into said inlet, said rod extending concentrically downwardly through the inlet with the lower end of the rod projecting substantially below the discharge end of the inlet;

a spreader member mounted a substantial distance below and concentric with the discharge end of said inlet and a substantial distance above said outlet opening and being of substantially the same diameter as said discharge end of the inlet and of smaller diameter than said wall and having convergently related conical upper and lower surfaces, the upper surface providing a spreader surface and the lower surface providing an air deflecting surface;

said surfaces meeting in annularly spaced relation to said wall and defining an annular venturi throat with said wall;

said chamber providing an air flow passage upwardly through the chamber from said outlet opening to, the top of the chamber; 7

means for effecting material-separating air flow upwardly through said outlet opening and, said chamber passage and past said spreader member,

throughthe venturi throat and then past said inlet and out from the top of the chamber, to separate the lightweight material from the heavier weight material;

means for receiving heavier weight material which drops from said outlet opening;

said supporting rod being of hollow tubular structure providing a pressure air passage;

a declumper comprising radially extending vertical circumferentially spaced vanes carried by the rod below said outlet opening and above said spreader member;

and ports opening from said rod for issuing air streams therefrom between said vanes for assisting separation of lightweight fractions of material from heavier weight fractions of material descending from said inlet onto, through and past the de' clumper.

10. A system according to claim 9, wherein said tubular rod communicates with the interior of the spreader member, said spreader member having air ports in said upper conical surface, and means for transferring pressure air from the tubular rod through the spreader member and out through said ports to issue as flushing streams.

11. In a pneumatic refuse material separation system for separating lightweight material from heavier weight material:

means providing a vertical separation chamber defined by an elongated tubular wall of substantial diameter which is unconstricted throughout its length to a free outlet opening at its lower end;

a tubular inlet through which material to be separatedis received and which is of smaller diameter than the chamber and extends to a limited extent downwardly within the upper portion of the chamber, with a discharge end of the inlet opening freely downwardly within the chamber;

means for supplying material to be separated into said inlet to drop therefrom through said discharge end to descend through the chamber toward said outlet opening;

a supporting rod suspended at its upper end above the point at which said means supplying material introduces the material into said inlet, said rod extending concentrically downwardly through the inlet with the lower end 'of'the rod projecting substantially below the discharge end of the inlet;

a spreader member suspended from the lower end of said rod a substantial distance below and concentric with the discharge end of said inlet and asubstantial distance above :said outlet opening and being of substantially the s'ai'ne diameter as said discharge end of the inlet'and'of smaller diameter than said wall and having convergently related conical upper'and lower's urface s, the upper surface providing a spreader surface and the lower surface providing an airde flecfin'g' surface; i

said surfaces meeting a nnularly spaced relation to said wall and defining anannular venturi throat with said well;

said chamber providirigan'air' flow passage upwardly through the chamber from said outlet opening to the top of the chamber; g V V means for effecting material-separating air flow upwardly through said outlet opening and saidcha'mber passage and past said spreader member, through the venturi throat and then past said inlet and out from the top of the chamber, to separate the lightweight material from the heavier weight material;

means for receiving heavier weight material which drops from said outlet opening;

and means for assisting separation of the lightweight material from the heavier weight material comprising an annular deflector and venturi ring device carried by said wall to project concentrically inwardly therefrom substantially below said spreader member and above said outlet opening.

12. A system according to claim 11, wherein said de-- vice comprises a plurality of matching segments attached to said wall.

13. A system according to claim 11, wherein said annular deflector and venturi ring device comprises a plurality of cooperating elements, and means for deflecting said elements into a nonoperating position.

14. A system according to claim 1 1, wherein said Wall is provided with an annular recess, said device comprising a plurality of cooperating segmental elements shiftably adjustably mounted in said recess, and means for securing the segments in adjusted position in said recess.

15. A system according to claim 11, including a plurality of flushing air stream ports in said wall below said venturi ring and adapted to direct air streams generally toward the center of the venturi passage provided by said ring, and means for driving flushing air under pressure through said ports.

16. In a pneumatic refuse material separation system for separating lightweight material from heavier weight material:

means providing a vertical separation chamber defined by an elongated tubular wall of substantial diameter extending to a free outlet opening at its lower end;

a tubular inlet through which material to be separated is received and which is of smaller diameter than the chamber and extends to a limited extent downwardly within the upper portion of the chamber, with a discharge end of the inlet opening freely downwardly within the chamber;

means for supplying material to be separated into,

said inlet to drop therefrom through said discharge end to descendthrough the chamber toward said outlet openingj i a spreader member mounted a substantial distance below and concentric with the discharge end of said inlet and a substantial distance above said outlet opening and being of smaller diameter than said wall and having convergently related conical upper and lower surfaces,.the upper surface providing a F spreader surface and'the lower surface providing su ace rneeting in annularly spaced relation to said wall and defining an annular venturi throat wi a W ll;

said chamber providing'an air flow passage upwardly throughthe charn be r from said outlet opening to theltop of the chamber;

means for effecting material-separating air flow upwardlythrough said outlet opening and saidchamber passage; and past said spreader member, through the venturi throat and then past said inlet and out from the top of the chamber, to separate the lightweight material from the heavier weight material;

means for receiving heavier weight material which drops from said outlet opening;

and means for assisting separation of the lightweight material from the heavier weight material, including an annular generally funnel-shaped bouncedeflection device of larger outside diameter than said outlet opening and spaced below said outlet opening and spaced above and converging toward said receiving means, said device having a resilient upper surface;

whereby material dropping from said outlet opening bounces toward a central position and air passing up through the device over said receiving means acts to flush fine material remaining in the material upwardly toward said outlet opening into which such air is drawn together with air drawn into the outlet opening through the space between said device and the outlet opening.

17. In a pneumatic refuse material separation system for separating lightweight material from heavier weight material:

means providing a vertical separation chamber defined by an elongated tubular wall of substantial diameter extending to a free outlet opening at its lower end;

a tubular inlet through which material to be separated is received and which is of smaller diameter than the chamber and extends to a limited extent downwardly within the upper portion of the chamber, with a discharge end of the inlet opening freely downwardly within the chamber;

means for supplying material to be separated into said inlet to drop therefrom through said discharge end to descend through the chamber toward said outlet opening;

a spreader member mounted a substantial distance below and concentric with the discharge end of said inlet and a substantial distance above said outlet opening and being of smaller diameter than said wall and having convergently related conical upper and lower surfaces, the upper surface providing a spreader surface and the lower surface providing an air deflecting surface;

said surfaces meeting in annularly spaced relation to said wall and defining an annular venturi throat with said wall;

said chamber providing an air flow passage upwardly through the chamber from said outlet opening to the top of the chamber;

suction means for effecting material-separating air flow upwardly through said outlet opening and said chamber passage and past said spreader member, through the venturi throat and then past said inlet and out from the top of the chamber, to separate the lightweight material from the heavier weight material;

means for receiving heavier weight material which drops from said outlet opening;

means for assisting separation of the lightweight material from the heavier weight material comprising a plurality of circumferentially spaced air stream ports in said wall substantially below said spreader member and oriented to direct air streams generally upwardly and inwardly toward the center of the chamber under said spreader mem ber whereby toiact within the descending stream of material to effect additional flushing action separating lighter material from heavier material after the material has passed through said venturi throat and also to effect an injector action to improve flushing air flow upwardly through said outlet opening;

and means for drivingair under pressure through said ports.

18. A system according to claim 17, including an annular deflector and venturi ring device carried by said wall to project concentrically inwardly therefrom substantially below said spreader member and above said outlet opening and above said ports and operative to cause material cascading from said venturi throat to be deflected toward the center of the chamber for flushing by the air streams from said ports as well as flushing air which enters through said discharge opening for material-separating flow upwardly through the chamber passage.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4166027 *Feb 8, 1978Aug 28, 1979Rader Companies, Inc.Apparatus and method for pneumatically separating fractions of a particulate material
US4204906 *Aug 25, 1977May 27, 1980Hsin LiuMethod of separating fusible plastics from solid waste
US4280903 *Aug 6, 1980Jul 28, 1981Brown & Williamson Tobacco CorporationApparatus for separating sand from botanical fines
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US6206202 *Mar 2, 1997Mar 27, 2001Hosokawa Mikropul Gesellschaft Fur Mahl-Und Staubtechnik MbhCyclone separator
US8051986 *May 26, 2005Nov 8, 2011Orchid LP LimitedBiomass material
DE102013103852A1 *Apr 17, 2013May 22, 2014Ambros Schmelzer & Sohn Gmbh & Co. KgReiniger für körniges oder granuliertes Schüttgut
WO2001039899A1 *Nov 18, 2000Jun 7, 2001Bueckmann GmbhConical sifter and method for sifting bulk material which cannot be poured easily or at all
Classifications
U.S. Classification209/3, 209/150, 241/DIG.380, 209/138
International ClassificationB03B9/06, B07B4/02
Cooperative ClassificationB03B9/06, Y10S241/38, B07B4/025
European ClassificationB07B4/02B, B03B9/06