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Publication numberUS3904713 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 9, 1975
Filing dateOct 10, 1972
Priority dateOct 10, 1972
Also published asDE2350636A1
Publication numberUS 3904713 A, US 3904713A, US-A-3904713, US3904713 A, US3904713A
InventorsBoler Leonard J
Original AssigneeCherne Ind Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Liquid cooling apparatus
US 3904713 A
Abstract
A liquid cooling apparatus projects drops of liquid above an open-air reservoir or conduit in trajectories, particle sizes, velocities and volume rates which provide a controlled directional wind effect in essentially one horizontal direction for improved cooling of the liquid on a continuous basis. The apparatus includes a plurality of liquid spray members, each adapted to project liquid drops having drop sizes of at least one millimeter in diameter in trajectories, substantially all of which have horizontal components extending in said one horizontal direction, at initial velocities in the range from 15 to 45 feet per second, and the spray members are spaced from each other generally cross-wise of the desired horizontal direction of projection and have a construction and relative spacing adopted to spray such drops in that direction at a collective volume rate corresponding to at least two pounds (2 lbs.) of water per second for each linear foot measured horizontally, along a line perpendicular to said one horizontal direction, between the endmost spray members of the apparatus.
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Elnited States Patent [191 oler 1451 .Sept.9,1975

[ LIQUID COOLING APPARATUS [75] Inventor: Leonard J. Boler, Minneapolis,

Minn.

[73] Assignee: Cherne Industrial, Inc., Edina,

Minn.

[22] Filed: Oct. 10, 1972 [21] Appl. No.2 296,777

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,233,119 7/1917 Parker 62/305 1,383,449 7/1921 Coles 239/550 1,586,083 5/1926 Greene 261/116 1,778,364 10/1930 Lewis 261/116 1,812,767 6/1931 Bergfeld. 261/92 1,848,202 3/1932 Scott 261/92 1,868,632 7/1932 Edge 239/521 2,019,922 11/1935 McLellan 239/550 2,098,152 ll/1937 Kessener 261/92 2,399,108 /1946 Feinberg 261/90 2,428,842 10/1947 Feinberg... 261/92 2,591,100 4/1952 Rouse 239/23 2,934,325 4/1960 Haglund.... 261/92 3,425,059 l/1969 Babington..... 23 /22O 3,719,353 3/1973 Cherne et a1. 261/92 3,785,626 l/l974 Bradley, Jr. et a1. 62/310 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 149,276 3/1955 Sweden 261/92 197,850 12/1938 Switzerland 239/221 406,192 8/1924 Germany 261/92 383,680 3/1908 France... 261/90 8,798 6/1908 France 261/90 Primary Examiner-Tim R. Miles Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Dorsey, Marquart, Windhorst, West & Halladay [57 ABSTRACT A liquid cooling apparatus projects drops of liquid above an open-air reservoir or conduit in trajectories, particle sizes, velocities and volume rates which provide a controlled directional wind effect in essentially one horizontal direction for improved cooling of the liquid on a continuous basis. The apparatus includes a plurality of liquid spray members, each adapted to project liquid drops having drop sizes of at least one millimeter in diameter in trajectories, substantially all of which have horizontal components extending in said one horizontal direction, at initial velocities in the range from 15 to 45 feet per second, and the spray members are spaced from each other generally crosswise of the desired horizontal direction of projection and have a construction and relative spacing adopted to spray such drops in that direction at a collective volume rate corresponding to at least two pounds (2 lbs.) of water per second for each linear foot mea sured horizontally, along a line perpendicular to said one horizontal direction, between the endmost spray members of the apparatus.

21 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures LIQUID COOLING APPARATUS A preferred form of apparatus includes a plurality of parallel disc-like spray members spaced from each other along a common horizontal axis of rotation. All the discs are simultaneously rotated around said axis in a common angular direction at peripheral speeds in the range from 2()l()() feet per second, and the liquid to be cooled is fed to at least one surface, and preferably both surfaces, of each spray member at limited areas from which the rotation of the spray members carries the liquid and projects it from a circular periphery of each spray member at the desired drop velocities and initial trajectories, substantially all of which have horizontal components extending in one common horizon' tal direction to generate the desired wind effect in that direction. The apparatus can be floated on the surface of a liquid reservoir or mounted on stationary supports in or along an edge of a suitable reservoir or conduit.

In one embodiment, means for selective rotation of such disc-like spray members in either angular direction provides a choice of the direction in which the wind effect is established. Additional features of construction and operation are also disclosed.

CROSS-REFERENCES TO OTHER APPLICATIONS Ser. lnvcntor(s) Title Nos.

Leonard J. Boler and Modular Liquid Mandel L. Desnick Cooling Spray (now U.S. Pat. No. 3,856,280) Units 29fi 778 Leonard J. Bolcr Liquid Cooling Assemblies 296.779

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Various forms of liquid cooling apparatus have been previously developed, which are designed to provide a desired cooling of heated liquids. For example, it has been customary in many cases to obtain cooling liquids for electric power generating plants by drawing such liquids from a nearby stream, lake or other natural waters. In some cases the liquid is returned to the natural source after the desired cooling operation is complete. Since such liquid has been used for cooling, its temperature at the point of discharge from such a plant is higher than the temperature of the original source. Thus there is a possibility of so-called thermal pollution of the natural waters by reintroduction of liquid at a higher temperature.

To avoid these problems, the heated liquid effluent from a cooling operation is customarily subjected to various types of cooling, and may even be recirculated to the particular plant and used repeatedly for the desired cooling effect within the plant, after the discharged heated liquid has been cooled in some manner. Thus some installations have been provided with extremely large and expensive cooling towers which introduce substantial cost factors in the generation of electric power, whether such towers are used for cooling of effluent for complete recirculation, or whether they are used to reduce the temperature of the cooling liquid to a point where it can be restored to the original natural source without undesirably raising the temperature of such source.

Large cooling ponds have also been used for receiving heated liquid effluent from the customary heatexchange apparatus of a plant, but the land area required for effective cooling of large quantities of water for an electric generating plant of substantial capacity makes this approach costly.

As shown in a copending U.S. Pat. application, Ser. No. 47,078, filed June 17, 1970, now issued as U.S. Pat. No. 3,719,353 and assigned to the same assignee as the present application, at least one system has been designed to provide the desired cooling effect by the use of apparatus which projects substantial quantities of liquid up into the atmosphere from the surface of a body of liquid, so that the drops of liquid are subjected to evaporative cooling as they move up in their projected paths or trajectories and then drop back into an appropriate section of a liquid-receiving reservoir or conduit. The cooling apparatus of that application, however, projected the particles of liquid upwardly in such a manner that they were sprayed somewhat uniformly throughout the area vertically above the spray members. Thus the drops moved in trajectories having horizontal components extending in a plurality of different horizontal directions, including at least two opposite directions.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to the present invention, it is recognized that the relative cooling effects of prior systems which depend at least in part on evaporative cooling of liquid particles or streams may be subject to substantial variations depending on the particular ambient conditions, and especially on the presence or absence and the direction of any prevailing wind .in the area. The present invention accordingly provides a liquid cooling apparatus for controlled projection of liquid drops in trajectories, particle sizes, velocities and volume rates which provide a substantial directional wind effect in essentially one horizontal direction for improved cooling of the liquid on a continuous basis above an open-air receiving reservoir or conduit. The directional wind effect is achieved by providing the apparatus with a plurality of liquid spray members, each adapted to project liquid drops having drop sizes of at least one millimeter in diameter in trajectories, substantially all of which have horizontal components extending in said one horizontal direction, at initial velocities in the range from 15 to 45 feet per second, and the spray members are spaced from each other generally cross-wise of the desired horizontal direction of projection and have a construction and relative spacing adapted to spray such drops in that direction at a collective volume rate corresponding to at least two pounds (2 lbs.) of water per second for each linear foot measured horizontally, along a line perpendicular to said one horizontal direction, between the endmost spray members of the apparatus.

The maximum wind effect is achieved by directing the liquid drops along trajectories which have very substantial horizontal components; in the desired wind direction. It is also necessary to select such trajectories, however, so that the drops will remain in the air long enough to achieve the desired degree of evaporative cooling. Thus when the drops are projected from a level at, or close to the surface of a receiving reservoir or conduit, or when a maximum cooling time is desired, the initial trajectories of most of the drops should be directed somewhat above the horizontal. When the drops are projected from a level sufficiently above the receiving surface, some horizontal wind effects can be achieved by orienting the spray members to project such drops initially along paths somewhat below the horizontal.

As a practical matter, the initial trajectories of substantially all of the drops should be directed within at least part of a diverging zone extending from a maximum of 70 above to a maximum of 70 below the desired horizontal wind direction, as measured at each spray member. For optimum wind effect and cooling time, each spray member should be oriented to project most of such liquid drops in trajectories extending above the horizontal within this diverging zone.

Preferably, each spray member should also be oriented to direct its liquid drops along trajectories which not only extend within such a vertically diverging zone, but which also have their horizontal components extending along or nearly parallel to the desired horizontal wind direction. Here again some lateral tolerance can be accepted, but as a practical matter, these horizontal components should not diverge laterally more than 70 from the desired horizontal wind direction. More specifically, each spray member is constructed and oriented according to the invention to project its liquid drops in trajectories initially extending from each spray member within at least part of a diverging conical zone having a maximum conical vertex angle of substantially 140 as measured at the spray member, said diverging conical zone having a central longitudinal axis of revolution extending from its spray member along the desired horizontal wind direction.

By insuring the projection of all or most of the drops of liquid in such a manner that all of them move to some degree in a single horizontal direction, even though the drops also move vertically upwardly or downwardly, or even somewhat laterally, depending on their initial direction of projection and the effect of gravity, the present invention makes it possible to generate a wind effect in that particular direction. In effect, the drops push or draw the surrounding air in the horizontal direction in which such drops are projected. Thus, as the immediately surrounding air provides evaporative cooling of the drops and gradually picks up a certain additional content of moisture vapor as the result of such cooling, the generated wind effect draws fresh air in from the opposite direction and thus maintains a constant current of ambient cooling air in the direction of projection of the drops. By proper selection of the direction, with reference to normal or expected ambient air current conditions, the apparatus of the present invention provides more effective cooling on a continuous basis, even where the ambient air currents are negligible and would not otherwise remove that portion of the ambient air which is gradually satu rated with water vapor as a result of the projection of liquid drops into such ambient air.

A preferred form of apparatus includes a plurality of parallel disc-like spray members spaced from each other along a common horizontal axis of rotation. The spray members are simultaneously rotated around said axis in a common angular direction of rotation at peripheral speeds in the range from 20-100 feet per second, and the apparatus includes means for feeding liquid to be cooled to at least one surface, and preferably both surfaces, of each spray member at a limited area from which the rotation of the spray members carries the liquid and projects it from a circular periphery of each spray member at the desired drop velocities and initialtrajectories, substantially all of which have horizontal components extending in only the one common horizontal direction of the desired wind effect.

In one form of the invention, the driving mechanism for rotation of the liquid spray members can drive such members selectively in either of two opposite directions of rotation, so that the desired wind effect from the apparatus can be selectively directed in either one of two opposite directions, depending on the ambient conditions. Also, by adjustment of the particular area to which liquid to be cooled is fed to the surface of each spray member, the liquid can be projected with horizontal components corresponding either to the tangential direction of movement of the uppermost part of each spray member or the opposite tangential direction of the movement of the lowermost part of each such rotary spray member. The invention further provides a mechanism for adjustment of the relative areas at which the liquid to be cooled is fed to such spray members.

In another form of the invention, rotary spray members are supported in an open-topped trough which has a main cylindrical bottom portion closely fitting the lower circular peripheries of the spray members, but with at least one bottom sump or drainage section in which a spray member of greater diameter projects from the common axis of rotation. The bottom of the trough is designed to provide a gutter or drainage channel from the trough portions immediately below the majority of the spray members of normal diameter, and the liquid which passes from the main trough portion to the sump portion is then projected centrifugally and thus removed from the sump portions of the trough by one or more spray members or rotors of greater diameter. In this manner, any accumulation of liquid within the trough is steadily removed during the operation, so that the spray members receive liquid only at the limited areas which are designed to insure projection of most' of the liquid in trajectories substantially all of which have horizontal components extending in only one common horizontal direction.

Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following more detailed description of the preferred embodiments.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the drawings which form a part of this application, and in which like members indicate like parts,

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a preferred liquid cooling apparatus according to the invention, in which the spray members are supported within a trough which in turn is adapted to be floatingly supported on the surface of a liquid reservoir or conduit;

FIG. 2 is a partial sectional view on line 22 of FIG.

FIG. 3 is a view similar to FIG. 2, taken on line 33 of FIG. 6;

FIG. 4 is a partial view on the line 4 4 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 is an end view of the device of FIG. 1, taken from the left of that figure;

FIG. 6 is a partial top view of the left end portion of the device of FIG. 1',

FIG. '7 is a side view of a modified liquid cooling apparatus according to the invention, in which the apparatus is designed for stationary support along the edge of a receiving reservoir or conduit for cooled liquid;

FIG. 8 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the line 8-8 of FIG. 7 showing details of the manner in which liquid is fed to a limited area of the rotary spray members and is centrifugally projected from such members with horizontal components in the tangential direction of movement of the uppermost peripheral portions of each spray member;

FIG. 9 is an enlarged view similar to FIG. 8 showing details of the manner in which liquid is fed to specific areas of the spray members to project such liquid with horizontal components in the tangential direction of movement of the lowermost peripheral portions of each spray member;

FIG. 10 is a schematic view similar to FIG. 9, showing the manner in which the horizontal direction of projection of liquid can be selectively changed by reversal of the direction of rotation of the spray members; and

FIG. 11 is an end view of another embodiment in which the spray members include a row of liquid spraying nozzles oriented to project liquid drops in paths which provide a desired directional wind effect accord ing to the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS A preferred embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIGS. 1-6. The liquid cooling apparatus 10, shown generally in FIG. 1, includes two parallel float members 11 and 12 secured to end frame or bridge members 13 and 14 respectively. Float members 11 and 12 are made with sufficient buoyancy to support the apparatus on the surface of a body of fluid, for ex ample in a conduit or reservoir. The end frame members are connected to each other by the floats and by reinforcing frame membes 16 and 17, with one or more' bridging reinforcements 18. Lifting bolts 20 are provided for convenient crane handling.

A plurality of spray members 19 are positioned between frame members 16 and 17. In this embodiment, the spray members are in the form of substantially flat circular disclikc plates secured to a rotary shaft 21 which has its axis of rotation extending horizontally and essentially parallel to frame members 16 and 17. Supporting shaft 21, and the spray members 19 which are carried by it, are rotatably supported and driven in angular rotation by an appropriate motor 22, which is preferably a hydraulic motor of substantially known construction. One or more such motors is supported at 23 on an end frame member 13, 14-. If desired, an appropriate flexible coupling (not shown) may be included between the shaft of motor 22 and the common supporting shaft 21 for the spray members. Thus the hydraulic motor 22 serves as means for simultaneously rotating the spray members 19 around the axis of shaft 21 in one common angular direction of rotation. In the embodiment shown in FIGS. l6 the spray members have individual diameters of 18 inches and are spaced from each other along their common axis of rotation by distances in the range from three to eight inches or more, preferably four inches. depending on other factors as discussed below.

The invention further provides means for feeding liquid to be cooled to at least one surface of each spray member at a limited area from which the rotation of the spray member carries the liquid and projects it in a plurality of trajectories, substantially all of which have horizontal components extending in one common horizontal direction from the spray members, as shown, for example, by the arrow 24 in FIGS. 5 and 6. For this purpose, a plurality of liquid supply conduits 26 extend into the spaces between adjacent discs 19, and a further supply conduit 27 extends into the space adjacent the disc 19 which is next to each end of the assembly as shown in FIG. 5. Conduits 26 have T-shaped ends with delivery nozzles 28 and 29 which feed the liquid to be cooled to only limited predetermined areas of the respective discs 19 and the inside surfaces of discs 19. Similarly, conduit 27 has a discharge nozzle 31 for delivering liquid to a similar area at the outside of its disc 19.

The opposite ends of liquid delivery conduits 26 and 27 are supported on the assembly in such a manner as to be open to the liquid within the reservoir on which the cooling apparatus 10 is adapted to float. Thus the liquid from the reservoir is constantly fed through conduits 26 and 27 to the selected limited areas of the spray members. Slidably adjustable valve plates 25 (FIG. 4) provide means for controlling and adjusting the rate of flow of liquid to the spray members.

In the specific floating apparatus of FIGS. 1-6, the present invention further provides mechanism for limiting the fluid delivery from the reservoir to only those desired limited areas of the spray members which will provide the desired path of projection for the drops of liquid centrifugally projected by such members. For this purpose, the apparatus 10 includes a longitudinally extending rotor trough, which is an open-topped trough with its upper edges secured to frame members 16 and 17 of the device. The trough includes a main body or rotor trough portion 32 (FIGS. 2, 3 and 5) which has a cylindrical main bottom portion 33 fitting closely around the lowermost peripheries of the spray members 19. The upper edges 34 and 36 of the trough member are suitably formed as shown in FIG. 2 to fit over the frame members 17 and 16.

Although most of the main bottom portion 33 fits closely around the bottom peripheries of the discs 19, the trough member 32 has a downwardly depressed gutter or drainage channel 37 which extends lengthwise of the trough parallel to and directly below the shaft 21. The gutter 37 is provided, according to the invention, to remove undesired liquids from the area of the spray members 19, so that the spray members will not dip into any such liquid within the trough, but will receive liquid only from the feeder conduits 26, 27 with their spouts 28, 29, 31. As shown particularly in FIGS. 2 and 4, the feed spout members 26 have open ends at 38 through which liquid from the reservoir can readily flow into the spout 26 and against the selected areas of the spray members 19, at volume rates controlled by valve member 25.

Since the feed spouts, such as 26, are constantly open at 38 to the liquid within the reservoir, there will be a constant flow of liquid against. the spray members 19 within trough 32. Thus, when spray members 19 are To achieve the desired wind effects. liquid is fed to the spray members at volume rates which, when the axial spacing of the rotary spray members is taken into account, sprays the drops in the direction of arrow 24 at a collective volume rate corresponding to at least 2 pounds of water per second for each linear foot measured, horizontally, along the axis of shaft 21, between the endmost spray member 19 and 19'. Thus the drops essentially fill a substantial cross-section or frontal area of the space above the reservoir, as they diverge vertically within the specified zone. The movement of the sprayed drops of liquid throughout such a frontal area in effect physically pushes or drags some of the air above the reservoir in the direction of arrow 24 and draws additional air from the other side of rotor axis 45 across the rotor in the same direction.

In this way, instead of projecting particles of liquid at random in each of two opposite horizontal directions perpendicular to the axis of the spray members, the present invention provides a unidirectional flow of liquid particles which are thus instrumental in establishing a definite directional wind effect parallel to arrow 24. This directional wind effect brings fresh air into the area of liquid projection to replace the original air which gradually becomes more saturated with moisture vapor as a result of evaporative cooling of the projected drops in the air above the reservoir. The projection of liquid particles in this special manner according to the invention thus tends to maintain the cooling efficiency of the apparatus even under conditions in which there is no natural wind or air current moving in the direction or arrow 24 to remove the air of higher moisture content and replace it with fresh and dryer air. The efficiency of cooling of the apparatus is thus maintained at a level more nearly comparable to that which can be achieved with the additional cooling effect of normal ambient winds above the reservoir. In this device the direction of rotation of the spray members and the par ticular location of the area of liquid feeding to the spray members are chosen and selected so as to project the liquid generally in the horizontal direction at which the uppermost periphery of each spray member is moving. This arrangement is particularly desirable in cases where the lower portion of such a rotary spray member does not have clear horizontal access to the atmosphere. In this case, for example, the lower portions of each spray member are substantially enclosed within the trough 32 of the floating apparatus, and it is very advantageous to utilize the gravity flow of liquid from the reservoir through the feed conduits 26 and 27 by maintaining the lower portions of the rotor below the reservoir surface 39.

Another embodiment of the invention is shown in FIGS. 7 to 9, in which the spray members are mounted on a stationary support above ground level at an edge of a suitable receiving reservoir of conduit for the cooled liquid. Thus, as shown in FIG. 7, a supply conduit 51 is supported above the ground level 52 by suitable supports 53. This supply conduit or header pipe 51 receives heated liquid, which is to be cooled by the present apparatus, through an inlet end 54 and may feed any excess of heated liquid through an outlet 56 to similar further units downstream along the conduit 51.

Supporting brackets 57 and 58 are secured on the upper surface of conduit 51 and provide bearings such as 59 for a horizontal rotary supporting shaft 61. On

this shaft, a plurality of spray members 62, essentially identical to spray members 19 previously described, are secured for rotation in a common angular direction by shaft 61. For this purpose, the shaft is suitably coupled to a driving motor 63, which is illustrated as an electric motor having an electric supply cable 64 con nected through a control panel 66 to a suitable source of electric current at 67. Control panel 66 includes suit able connections for a speed control knob 68 to adjust the rate of rotation of shaft 61 and spray members 62, as well as a reversing control knob 69 which can be operated to cause rotation of the shaft 61 selectively in either angular direction of rotation.

In this case, the means for feeding liquid to limited areas of the spray members 62 include the conduits 7E which are suitably connected at one end to the interior of supply conduit 51, and which have discharge spouts 72 for directing the liquid to be cooled against the desired limited areas of the circular, disc-like spray members 62. For convenience, conduit 71 has been shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 and projecting directly and rigidly upwardly from supply conduit 51. to the desired limited areas of liquid feeding. It should be understood, however, that conduit 71 and its outlet spout 72 may be movably supported in the manner more specifically shown in FIG. 9, for desired selective adjustment of the exact areas of spray members 62 to which liquid is to be directed for different directions of rotation, and/or for different desired points of liquid projectionv As shown in the embodiment of FIG. 8, the apparatus is again designed and operated to rotate the spray members 62 in the direction of arrow 73 and thus project the desired sized particles of liquid from the uppermost portions of the periphery 72 of members 62, i.e. a projection of liquid in the general horizontal direction toward which these uppermost spray member portions are moving. FlG. 8 shows some of the typicai trajectories of liquid particles projected in this manner. Thus essentially all of the projected particles will be projected toward the right of FIG. 8, and no substantial amount of liquid is projected to the rear, i.e. to the left of the perpendicular reference line 76. Moreover, the point of discharge of the liquid from supply conduit 71 is selected and adjusted so that essentially no portion of the liquid is carried all the way around by the spray member to a point extending rearwardly or to the left of the downward perpendicular reference line '77 at the opposite side of the disc. Thus essentially all of the liquid projected by this apparatus is adapted to be projected with some horizontal component of velocity toward the right. In some cases, as shown by the inclined path of projection at 78, particular drops will have a somewhat larger component 79 of horizontal velocity than the vertical component 81, which in this case is directed upwardly. On the other hand, some particles which are projected from peripheral points farther around the direction of rotation of members 62 may have an inclined path indicated at 32 in which the horizontal component of velocity at 83 is substantially less than the downward vertical component at 84. Those particles which are projected outwardly from the top of members 62 is a generally horizontal direction, will of course have the greatest horizontal component of velocity and initially a negligible vertical component.

The desired horizontal wind direction is shown in FIG. 8 by arrow 2. Dotted arrows @221 and 92b show the practical upper and lower limits of the vertically diverging zone within which substantially all of the projected drops should be initially directed. These maximum angles are 70 above and 70 below the desired horizontal wind direction 92.

As shown in FIG. 8, the cooling apparatus of this embodiment is supported along one edge 86 of a receiving reservoir or conduit defined by appropriate side walls 87 and bottom wall 88. The cooled liquid received in this reservoir is shown at 89.

By supporting the spray members 62 at a substantial distance above the ground 52, and by providing some appropriate vertical clearance at 91 below the supply conduit 51 and above the ground level, the liquid cooling apparatus shown in this embodiment makes it possible to draw desired directional air currents across the reservoir in the common horizontal direction shown by arrow 92, with some of the air currents passing above the spray members 62 and other air currents passing beneath the supply conduit 51 through space 91. Thus a greater vertical cross-section of sprayed particles and a correspondingly greater area of air movement can be achieved by supporting this embodiment above the ground, than is possible in the case of the partially submerged embodiment of FIGS. 16.

As illustrated in FIG. 9, it is also possible to operate this embodiment of the invention in such a manner that the desired sized drops of liquid are projected in a common horizontal direction shown by arrow 93 in which the horizontal component of movement of the particles is in the same direction as the tangential direction in which the lowermost portion of the periphery of each spray member 62 is rotated. The direction of rotation of the spray members in FIG. 9 is shown by arrow 94. In this case, the details of supply conduit 71 are shown in such a manner that the point of discharge from its discharge spouts 72 to the spray member surfaces can be readily adjusted from the area shown in FIG. 8 (and also shown in dotted outline at 95 in FIG. 9) to another limited area of the spray member surface as shown in heavy lines in FIG. 9. Thus, for purposes of projection in a horizontal direction corresponding to the tangential direction of movement of the lower portion of each rotary spray member 62, the preferred limited area for liquid feeding is located vertically below the shaft axis 61. Here again, some variation in the exact location can be tolerated, although I have found that good results are obtained at peripheral speeds in the range from to 100 feet per second, if the limited area of liquid discharge is located on the spray member surface within a radial angle measured at the axis of rotation and extending substantially 10 each way from the vertical. The radial distance of this liquid feeding area below the axis of shaft 61 may also be varied, and I have found that particularly good results are achieved when this limited area of liquid feeding is further located at a radial distance in the range from 0.6r to 0.9r below the axis of rotation, where r again is the radial distance from the axis of rotation to the circular periphery of the spray member.

The desired adjustment of the location of spray discharge point 72 is achieved by supporting the rigid supply conduit portion 71 on a tiltable support member 96 which is pivoted at 97 for rotation on an axis generally parallel to shaft 61. Member 96 is pivoted at 97 to a movable carrier 98, and members 96 and 98 have adjusting means for selectively positioning member 96 and conduit 71 at different angular positions around the axis 97. As illustrated, a plurality of adjusting openings 99 in member 96 may be provided for selective alignment with a corresponding opening in member 98. A locking key 101 is then pushed through aligned openings, after the desired angular adjustment is obtained, to hold the parts in the adjusted angular position. Thus the vertical location of the discharge spout 72 can be adjusted as shown in the heavy line and various dotted line positions of FIG. 8.

For horizontal adjustment of the limited area of liquid feeding, the carrier 98 is supported for horizontal movement toward and away from shaft 61 as shown by arrow 102. An appropriate rack portion 103 on carrier 98, and a driving pinion 104 on a stationary portion of the apparatus, can be used to move the carrier 98, conduit 71, and discharge spout 72 to the desired adjusted horizontal location. Thus a combination of adjustments at 104 and 97 can be used to position the discharge spout 72 at either of the limited areas previously described, as well as other adjacent areas. As further shown in FIG. 9, the fixed liquid supply conduit portion 71 is connected by a flexible conduit section 106 to the main supply conduit or header pipe 51.

FIG. 10 is a schematic view similar to FIGS. 8 and 9, which illustrates the manner in which selective rotation of spray member 62 in each of two opposite angular directions of rotation can be used to change the common horizontal direction in which the desired wind effect is obtained. Thus, with the liquid delivery spout 72 adjusted to a limited area of liquid feeding located directly below the axis of rotation of the spray members, rotation of the members 62 in a counter clockwise direction as shown by the full-line arrow in FIG. 9 will project liquid particles tangentially toward the right, i.e. along paths which have horizontal components extending in the direction of movement of the lowermost portions of the peripheries of spray members 62.

Conversely, rotation of spray members 62 in the opposite direction, i.e. clockwise, as shown by the dotted arrow in FIG. 9, will project the liquid particles along paths which have horizontal components extending toward the left of the figure. Here again, the common horizontal direction of movement of the particles is the same as the direction of movement of the lowermost portions of the peripheries of spray members 62.

Although the present invention has been described primarily with reference to a plurality of spray members which have been shown in the form of flat circular discs spaced along a common axis of rotation perpendicular to such discs, other spray members capable of providing its necessary drop sizes, projection velocities and volume rates of flow can be used to achieve the di rectional wind effect according to the present invention. Thus, as shown in FIG. 11, spray members in the form of spray nozzles 111 may be used. These spray nozzlels 1 11 are adjustably supported for pivotal movement at 112 on supporting members 113 somewhat above the ground level 114 at one edge of a suitable reservoir or conduit 116for receiving the cooled particles of liquid. Only one nozzle is visible in FIG. 11, the remaining nozzles'being located along the edge of reservoir 116 directly behind the visible nozzle 111.

Liquid to be cooled is supplied at appropriate pressure to such nozzles by appropriate pumping means 117 whichd'rawsheated liquidthrough a conduit 118 extending into a'nearby' reservoir or channel 119 in which heated liquid has .been discharged, for example,

from the heat exchangers of an operating plant, such as an electrical generating plant. By adjustment of the degree of atomization of the nozzle 111 and its vertical angle of projection of particles above reservoir 116., and by appropriate spacing of the additional nozzles 111 along the edge of receiving reservoir 116, the liquid cooling apparatus of FIG. 11 can project substantially all the desired liquid particles in paths which have their horizontal components extending in one common horizontal direction as illustrated by arrow 121. Thus the directional wind effect from left to right in FIG. 11 can be achieved in essentially the manner previously described. Whether a pump and nozzle system as shown in FIG. 11 or one of the rotary spray member systems as shown in FIGS. l-lti should be used will depend in part on the particular volumes of liquid to be cooled, the relative costs of pumping such liquid, the available vertical elevations which may provide adequate gravity feed of the heated liquid, and other factors which will be apparent to those skilled in the art now that the teachings of the present invention have been made available. The present specification has accordingly described the principles of operation of the present invention and disclosed some of the embodiments by which the invention may be practiced, including the best mode presently contemplated by the inventor for carrying out the invention.

1 claim:

1. Liquid cooling apparatus comprising an open-air receiving reservoir, a source of heated liquid and liquid projection means for controlled projection of liquid drops of said heated liquid above said open air receiving reservoir in trajectories, particle sizes, velocities and volume rates providing a directional wind effect in essentially one horizontal direction for improved cooling of said heated liquid on a continuous basis, said liquid projection means comprising a plurality of liquid spray members each adapted to project liquid drops having drop sizes of at least one millimeter in diameter in trajectories, substantially all of which have a very substantial horizontal components extending in said one horizontal direction, at initial velocities in the range from 15 to 45 feet per second, and said spray members being Spaced from each other generally crosswise of said one horizontal direction and having a construction and relative spacing adapted to spray such drops in said one horizontal direction in trajectories substantially all of which are initially directed within a zone extending above the open-air reservoir and below a maximum of 70 above the horizontal, as measured at each spray member, and at a collective volume rate corresponding to at least 2 lbs. of water per second for each linear foot measured horizontally, along a line perpendicular to said one horizontal direction, between the endrnost spray members of said apparatus, and thereby essentially filling a substantial frontal cross section area of the space above the reservoir in said one horizontal direction beyond said spray members, said liquid spray members comprising a plurality of rotatable spray members mounted for rotation around a generally horizontal common axis of rotation, means for simultaneously rotating said spray members around said axis in one common angular direction of rotation, and means for feeding liquid to be cooled to at least one surface of each spray member at a limited area from which the rotation of the spray members carries the liquid and projects it from each spray member in said trajectories, substantially all of which have horizontal components extending in one common horizontal direction.

2. A liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 1 in which said spray members are constructed and oriented to project the liquid drops in trajectories, substantially all of which are initially directed within at least part of a diverging zone extending from a maximum of above to a maximum of 70 below the horizontal as measured at each spray member.

3. A liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 2 in which each spray member is oriented to project most of said liquid drops in trajectories which extend above the horizontal within its diverging zone.

4. A liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 3 in which substantially all of said trajectories have horizontal components extending in only said one horizontal direction.

5. A liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 1 in which each spray member is constructed and oriented to project its liquid drops in trajectories initially extending from each spray member within at least part of a diverging conical zone having a maximum conical vertex angle of substantially 140 as measured at the spray member, said diverging conical zone having a central longitudinal axis of revolution extending from its spray member along said one horizontal direction.

6. A liquid cooling apparatus for controlled projection of liquid drops above an open-air receiving reservoir in trajectories, particle sizes, velocities and volume rates providing a directional wind efiect in essentially one horizontal direction for improved cooling of the liquid on a continuous basis, said apparatus comprising a plurality of liquid spray members each adapted to project liquid drops having drop sizes of at least one millimeter in diameter in trajectories, substantially all of which have very substantial horizontal components extending in said one horizontal direction, at initial velocities in the range from 15 to 45 feet per second, and said spray members being spaced from each other generally crosswise of said one horizontal direction and having a construction and relative spacing adapted to spray such drops in said one horizontal direction in trajeetories substantially all of which are initially directed within a zone extending above the open-air reservoir and below a maximum of 70 above the horizontal, as measured at each spray member, and at a collective volume rate corresponding to at least 2 lbs. of water per second for each linear foot measured horizontally, along a line perpendicular to said one horizontal direction, between the endrnost spray members of said apparatus, and thereby essentially filling a substantial frontal cross section area of the space above the reservoir in said one horizontal direction beyond said spray members, said liquid spray members comprising a plurality of parallel disc-like members spaced from each other along a common axis of rotation and having circular peripheries concentric with the axis of rotation, said axis of rotation being generally horizontal and perpendicular to said spray members, means for simultaneously rotating said spray members around said axis in one common angular direction of rotation at peripheral speeds in the range from 20 to feet per second, and means for feeding liquid to be cooled to at least one surface of each spray member at a limited area from which the rotation of the spray members carries the liquid and projects it from each spray member periphery in said trajectories, substantially all of which have horizontal components extending in one common horizontal direction.

7. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 6 having means for supporting said spray members with said axis of rotation extending along one edge of a reservoir adapted to receive cooled liquid and with said common horizontal direction extending from said axis across said reservoir, thereby projecting said liquid into said reservoir in a manner providing a directional wind effect from said apparatus across said reservoir for effective continuous projection and cooling of the liquid.

8. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 6 in which the means for feeding liquid is selectively adjustable along the spray member surface to adjust said limited area both horizontally and vertically with respect to the axis of rotation.

9. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 6 having means for selectively rotating said spray members around said axis in each of two opposite angular directions of rotation.

10. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 6 in which said one common horizontal direction is the tangential direction in which the uppermost portion of each spray member periphery is rotated.

11. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 10 in which said limited area of liquid feeding is spaced horizontally from the axis of rotation on that side of the axis at which the direction of rotation of said spray member surface is directed upwardly.

12. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 11 in which said limited area of liquid feeding is further located on said spray member surface within a radial angle measured at the axis of rotation and extending substantially 10 above and below the horizontal.

13. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 12 in which said limited area of liquid feeding is further lo cated on its spray member surface at a radial distance in the range from 0.6r to 0.9r from the axis of rotation, where r is the radial distance from the axis of rotation to the circular periphery of the spray member.

14. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 6 in which said one common horizontal direction is the tangential direction in which the lowermost portion of each spray member periphery is rotated.

l5. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 14 in which said limited area of liquid feeding is spaced vertically below the axis of rotation.

16. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 15 in which said limited area of liquid feeding is further located on said spray member surface within a radial angle measured at the axis of rotation and extending substantially 10 each way from the vertical 17. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 16 in which said limited area of liquid feeding is further located on said spray member surface at a radial distance in the range of from 0.6r to 0.9r below the axis of rotation, where r is the radial distance from the axis of rotation to the circular periphery of the spray member.

18. Liquid cooling apparatus for controlled projection of liquid drops in trajectories, particle sizes, velocities and volume rates providing a directional wind effect in essentially one horizontal direction for improved cooling of the liquid, said apparatus comprising a plurality of liquid spray members each adapted to project liquid drops having drop sizes of at least one millimeter in diameter in trajectories, substantially all of which have horizontal components extending in said one horizontal direction, at initial velocities in the range from 15 to 45 feet per second, and said spray members being spaced from each other generally crosswise of said one horizontal direction and having a construction and relative spacing adapted to spray such drops in said one horizontal direction at a collective volume rate corresponding to at least 2 lbs. of water per second for each linear foot measured horizontally, along a line perpendicular to said one horizontal direction, between the endmost spray members of said apparatus, said apparatus and spray members further comprising a plurality of parallel disc-like spray members spaced from each other along a common axis of rotation and having circular peripheries concentric with the axis of rotation, said axis of rotation being generally horizontal and perpendicular to said spray members, means for simultaneously rotating said spray members around said axis in one common angular direction of rotation at peripheral speeds in the range from 20 to feet per second, and means for feeding liquid to be cooled to at least one surface of each spray member at a limited area from which the rotation of the spray members carries the liquid and projects it from each spray member periphery in said trajectories, substantially all of which have horizontal components extending in one common horizontal direction, and in which apparatus said spray members are supported for rotation within an opentopped trough having a main cylindrical bottom portion generally concentric with said axis of rotation and fitting closely around at least the lowermost portions of the spray member peripheries, means for supporting said trough and spray members in a body of liquid to be cooled, with the limited area of liquid feeding positioned below the expected normal liquid level in said body and with the top of the trough extending above such expected liquid level, said means for feeding liquid including a conduit extending to each such limited area from a point outside the trough and below the expected normal liquid level, said conduit at least partly filling the trough when said spray members are stationary, said trough having at least one bottom sump portion at a greater radial distance below the axis of rotation than said main cylindrical bottom portion, and at least one of said spray members having a greater radius than the remaining spray members and extending downwardly into said bottom sump portion for substantially emptying the trough by centrifugal projection of liquid from the sump portion during rotation of the spray members.

19. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 18 in which the means for supporting said trough and spray members includes at least one float member having a buoyancy supporting the apparatus on the surface of said liquid at a first partially submerged level when the spray members are rotating to empty said trough and at a second more deeply submerged level when the spray members are stationary.

20. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 19 in which said trough has a sump portion at each end, and in which one spray member at each end of the axis of rotation has a greater radius than the remaining spray members and extends into the corresponding sump portion at its end of the trough.

21. Liquid cooling apparatus according to claim 20 in which the main cylindrical bottom portion of the trough has a common drainage channel extending between the sump portions below the remaining spray members for removal of liquid from the main bottom portion during rotation of the spray members.

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Referenced by
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Classifications
U.S. Classification261/90, 239/224, 62/305, 261/116
International ClassificationF28C3/00, F28C3/06
Cooperative ClassificationF28C3/06
European ClassificationF28C3/06