US 3905172 A
A wooden floor is laid by placing preformed groups of end cuts of timber on a base, pouring adhesive between the groups of end cuts and polishing the hardened surface of the floor to expose the cross grain of the timber. The groups of end cuts are formed by securing length of timber in a vertical bundle, pouring liquid adhesive into the top of the bundle to fill the gaps between the lengths of timber, and, when said adhesive has hardened, cutting the bundle transversely into slices.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Blackburn Sept. 16, 1975  METHOD OF LAYING WOODEN FLOORS 1,028,703 6/l9l2 Fulton 52/313 2,1 18,84l 5/1938 Elmendorf...  Invent: Jifck 103 Portland 2,151,505 3/1939 Elmendorf 52/389 x Blrmmghami England 3,700,533 10 1972 Schmitz 161 6 x  Filed: Nov. 12, 1973 Primary Examiner-Price C. Faw, Jr. Pp 414,684 Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Scrivener Parker Scrivener and Clarke  Foreign Application Priority Data Nov. 13, 1972 United Kingdom 52215/72  ABSTRACT Sept. 6, 1973 United Kingdom 41940/73 A Wooden floor is laid y Placing Preformed groups of I end cuts of timber on a base, pouring adhesive be- 52 us. c1. 52/741; 52/390; 264/158; tween the groups of 9nd cuts and polishing the hard- 404/46; 52/390;388;389;384;741 ened surface of the floor to expose the cross grain of 51 m 3323 3/10; 1332 5/1 13323 21/02 the timber. The groups of end cuts are formed by se-  Field of Search 404/46, 44, 34; 264/158 curing length of timber in a vertical bundle, p g li uid adhesive into the top of the bundle to fill the q 56 R f ren Ci gaps between the lengths of timber, and, when said ad- UNITED STATES PATENTS hesive has hardened, cutting the bundle transversely 134,492 12/1872 Smith 404/46 mm Shoes 794,672 7/1905 Gutwasser 52/390 6 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures METHOD LAYING WOODEN FLOORS SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION This invention relates to methods of laying wooden floors.
Hitherto wooden floors have been made from wooden blocksor tilesor rectangular or regular shape so that considerable care hasto be taken in laying the blocks to ensure that the joints between the blocks are in a straight line or in a definite pattern. Also the blocks are usually made with the longitudinal grain of the timber exposed and with the exposed surface at least partially prepared so that again care has to be taken in laying the'blocks not to damage the prepared surfaces.
According to the present invention a method of laying a wooden floor on a solid base comprises securing together lengths of timber in a vertical bundle by bands, pouring a liquid adhesive into the top of said bundle to fill the gaps between the length of timber, and, when said adhesive has hardened, removing said bands and cutting the bundle transversely into slices, each slice exposing a group of end cuts; placing said slices of timber on said base; applying an adhesive to fill up gaps between said slices; and, when the adhesive has hardened, polishing the surface of the floor to even out surface irregularities and expose the cross grain of the timber.
Throughout this specification and claims end cuts are defined as pieces of timber cut from a trunk or branch in a direction transverse to the longitudinal axis of the trunk or branch.
When the base does not include a damp-proof course preferably a layer of waterproof material is placed on the base before the preformed slices of end cuts. Where the base is concrete, the waterproof material may be a liquid, such as bitumen, which can be poured over the base to provide a damp-proof course, and at the same time, an adhesive layer on which the end cuts can be firmly located. Where the base is consolidated hardcore the waterproof material may be a sheet of plastics material.
Conveniently the adhesive used to fill up the gaps between the slices is a liquid adhesive and is poured over the slices of end cuts to flow into all the small spaces between the slices. Very coarse sawdust or small pieces of timber may be brushed into the larger spaces be tween the slices and fine sawdust may be incorporated in the adhesive.
Preferably, the adhesive used to make the preformed slices of end cuts and the adhesive used to fill the spaces between the slices when they are laid on the base, are the same. It is then immaterial whether any of the adhesivve exudes to the outside surface of the bundle in forming the slices as this is indistinguishable from the adhesive used in laying the floor and no joints are therefore apparent between the slices of end cuts.
Preferably, after polishing which may include planing, sanding or the like, the floor is treated with a transparent sealer.
Further details of methods of laying a floor according to this invention will be described in relation to the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a broken away, plan view of a wooden floor;
FIG. 2 is a vertical section of the floor in FIG. ll;
FIG. 3 is a view of a bundle of timber held together by bands;
FIG. 4 is a view of the bundle held together by adhesive and being sliced; and
FIG. 5 is a end plan view of two slices being laid for a floor. I
Lengths of seasoned timber '7 are tightly secured together into a bundle 8 by steel bands 9. Bands of rope or wire can also be used. A glue/resin mix is poured into the top of the bundle to fill up all the gaps between the lengths of timber. Some adhesive may exude to the outer surface of the bundle through gaps leading to the surface.
When the glue/resin mix has hardened the bands are removed and the bundle sawn into slices 10 of the required thickness, each comprising a group of end cuts 1,2. The periphery of each slice will be irregular in shape and be different from each other, from one end of the bundle to the other. Also part of the periphery may be wood and part may be adhesive.
After a tree has been felled, the trunk and main branches, say down to 3 inches diameter, and even minor branches, say down to Va inch diameter, can be used to produce preformed slices of end cuts 10 as described above. The bark 3 need not be removed from the trunk or branches. Timber baulks, joists, etc, which have already been shaped can also be used with or in place of branches. The sawdust from the sawing operations can be saved for use as explained later.
If the timer has not been kiln dried or otherwise seasoned, it is cured by storing or other means. During the curing process cracks may appear in the end cuts, ex tending from the heart to the periphery. Also it is possible that the softer heart wood will shrink and fall away. This cracking and shrinkage are normally regarded as timber defects but are of no consequence in the floor laying method of the present invention. Indeed the socalled defects make the appearance of the floor more attractive.
The performed slices of end cuts 10 are then secured to a level concrete base 4 by means of a suitable damp proof course 5 such as bitumen, asphalt etc. (see FIG. 5). Large straight boards can be temporarily placed on top of the slices immediately after they have been laid to ensure that all the slices have the same surface level.
This will even out minor variations in the thickness of the slices and minimise the final sanding required. If the slices are thick enough they can be laid on compacted hardcore, dispensing with the concrete base which is essential with the relatively thin blocks normally used for wood block floors.
At this stage the slices being of various sizes and shapes exhibit a pattern of gaps of differing widths and the wider gaps may be partially filled by brushing in timber hogging (very coarse sawdust without fines). Then a liquid adhesive o is poured, brushed and scraped over the whole floor to fill all the gaps between the slices and between the hoggings, if these are used (see FIGS. 1 and 2). The adhesive is preferably the same glue/resin mix which is used to manufacture the preformed slices. Preferably, the adhesive does not shrink on setting. Water can be added to the mix to promote easy flow without detriment to the ultimate strength of the mix, only delaying the setting time. The hardness of the mix when set will be approximately the same as the hardness of the timber so that sanding and wear of the floor is even. Sawdust can be incorporated in the mix as can a slight expanding agent such as polyurethane in order to make sure that the gaps are completely filled, any surplus mix being sanded off.
When the adhesive has hardened the floor is sanded or planed to expose the cross grain of the timber. The exposed floor surface is then treated with a transparent hardwearing sealer.
It will be clear that the method of this invention produces a floor having no apparent joints, simply a random pattern of timber end cuts embedded in a matrix of hardened adhesive.
The advantage of the method of laying a wood floor according to the invention are:
1. Timber does not have to be specially selected. Even household or estate trees, which have to be felled and burned because of the possible presence of nails can be used. There is far less chance of damage to equipment when only cross cut sawing is involved.
2. The method makes use of practically all the timber in a tree.
3. Laying of the slices of end cuts is simpler, quicker and easier than laying normal blocks, where much attention has to be paid to straight lines.
4. It is easier to polish across the grain than with the grain, and there is no possibility of slivers or grain lift- 5. The final sealer penetrates more easily into the cross grain, giving a deeper, hardened surface.
On account of the above advantages the cost of a floor prepared by the method described is considerably less than the cost of normal wood block floor.
1. A method of laying a wooden floor on a solid base comprising securing together lengths of timber in a vertical bundle by bands, pouring a liquid adhesive into the top of said bundle to fill the gaps between the lengths of timber, and, when said adhesive has hardened, removing said bands and cutting the bundle transversely into slices, each slice exposing a group of end cuts; placing said slices of timber on said base; applying an adhesive to fill up gaps between said slices; and when the adhesive has hardened, polishing the surface of the floor to even out surface irregularities and expose the cross grain of the timber.
2. Method as claimed in claim 1, wherein a layer of waterproof material is placed on said base, said slices being placed on said waterproof material.
3. A method as claimed in claim 2, wherein said waterproof material has adhesive properties and locates said slices on said base.
4. A method as in claim 1, wherein said adhesive which is used to fill up the gaps between said slices is a liquid which is poured over said slices...and which hardens to substantially the same hardness as the timber use. 1
5. A method as in claim 4, wherein said adhesive incorporates sawdust.
6. A method as in claim 1 further comprising treating the polished floor with a transparent sealer.