US 3906757 A
The apparatus for continuously dyeing a yarn includes a plurality of U-shaped dye applicators angularly offset from each other about the axis of the yarn and each having a dye discharge aperture for discharging a dye onto said yarn.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Arimoto et al.
[451 Sept. 23, 1975 APPARATUS FOR CONTINUOUS DYEING OF YARNS Inventors: Heiji Arimoto, Kyoto; Tokuji Goto,
Uji; Kunio Amemiya, Uji; Tunekatu Seki, Uji, all of Japan Assignee: Unitika Ltd., Amagasaki, Japan Filed: Nov. 2, 1973 Appl. No.: 412,520
Related U.S. Application Data Division of Ser. No. 262,846, June 14, 1972, Pat. No. 3,808,618.
Foreign Application Priority Data June 14, 1971 Japan 46-42316 U.S. Cl. 68/20; 68/200; 118/67; 118/410 Int. Cl. D068 l/08; D06? 5/00 Field of Search 68/19, 19.1, 20, 200, 202, .68/203, 205 R; 101/172; 118/67, 643, 410, 411, 412, 420
Primary ExaminerHarvey C. Hornsby Assistant ExaminerPhilip R. Coe
Attorney, Agent, or FirmSughrue, Rothwell, Mion, Zinn and Macpeak ABSTRACT The apparatus for continuously dyeing a yarn includes a plurality of U-shaped dye applicators angularly offset from each other about the axis of the yarn and each having a dye discharge aperture for discharging a dye onto said yarn.
2 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures US Patent Sept. 23,1975 Sheet 1 of 2 3,906,757
FIG I US Patent Sept. 23,1975 Sheet 2 on 3,906,757
APPARATUS CONTINUOUS DYAEING 0F 7 I .vARNs This is a division of application Ser. No. 262,846, filed June 14, 1972, and now U.S. Pat. No. 3,808,618.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION yarns in multicolors.
2. Description of the Prior Art It has previously been a wide spread practice to dye yarns in the form of skeins or packages such ascheese' or cone in order to obtain uniform dyeing, and a number of apparatuses used for this dyeing are known. One of the prior methods of continuously dyeing yarns comprises dipping a yarn in a dye bath while passing it therethrough, removing the excess dye liquor from the yarn using nip rollers to adhere a prescribedamount of the dye liquor to the surface of the yarn, and then heating the yarn to effect dye exhaustion. Another methodinvolves bringing a yarn into contact with a revolving roller partly immersed in a dye bath to transfer the dye liquor on the roller to the yarn, and then heating the yarn. The former method has the disadvantage that the, yarn tends to become flattened when held by the nip. rollers, and it is difficult and inefficient to revolve'thev nip rollers at high speed yet to squeeze the yarn uniformly. According to the latter method, the dye liquor is scattered when the roller for applying the dye is retated at high speed, and therefore it is difficult to dye the yarn at high speed.
The methods generally known to dye intermittently" colored yarns or multicolored yarns include, for exam ple:
mersion in a dye bath, and then another part of the skein is dyed by immersion in a dye bath of a different color.
mittent contact along its length with a revolving roller partly immersed in a dye bath to transfer the dye liquor I tance, thereby to transfer the dye liquor intermittently to the yarn, followed by a heat-treatment to effect dy'e exhaustion.
4. A method in which a yarn is knitted, and a desired pattern is printed on the resulting knitted fabric. The.
fabric is then treated with steam or a dry heat to fix the l. A method in which a part of a skein is dyed by im-"4O 2. A method disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,218,654 in 1 which running yarn is vibrated and brought into interspeed,.-.the.dye liquor scatters. According to method (4), fuzzesor fluffs tend to occur during the knitting and de'knitting operations, and moreover, the productivity of this method is low.
It is an object of this invention to provide an apparatus for dyeing yarns, which is free from the above described disadvantages of the prior art. It is another object of this invention to provide an apparatus for continuously dyeing yarns in desired forms composed of various fibrous materials at very high speed.
It is still another object of this invention to provide an apparatus for obtaining intermittently colored yarn or multicolored yarn.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides an apparatus for continuously dyeing a yarn. The apparatus comprises means for heating a running yarn to a temperature abovethe boiling point of a solvent in a dye and dyeing the yarn by contacting the yarn with one or more dyes discharged from a plurality of dye applicators each havingan aperture for discharging the dye.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWINGS The invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings. I
dye then the fabric is deknitted.
operate the dye applicator at high speed, and at high 'FIG. 6 is-a side elevation of the yarns obtained by the .method of this invention.
- FIG. 7 is a sectional view of one embodiment of a means for discharging the flow of dye intermittently.
FIG. 8 is a sectional view of the principal parts of one dye applicator device from which three different dyes 'are discharged.
'7 DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS -.Referring to FIG. 1, a yarn 2 is unwound from a cone -1, passed over a guide roller 3, heated by a heater 4,
and then contacted with a dye applicator device 5. A dye is applied to the yarn 2 using this dye applicator 5. Thedyeis stored in a tank 6, and supplied to the dye applicator 5' by a metering pump 7. The dye is then discharged from a small aperture provided in the applicator '5. After application-of the dye, the yarn 2 is dried in a dryer 8, passed over a guide roller 9, and is taken up on a winder 10.
The details of the dye applicator device 5 in FIG. 1 are-shown in FIG. 2. In FIG. 2, the reference numeral 13- represents *a- U-shaped groove through which the yarn 2 runs in contact therewith. A dye discharge aperture 11 is provided near the central portion of the bottom of the U-shaped groove. The dye which is supplied through a pipe 12 is discharged from this aperture in the appropriate amount, and applied to the yarn 2 which is running'through the groove 13 in contact with the bottom of the groove including the discharge aperture 11. The diameter of the dye discharge aperture and the opening angle of the U-shaped groove differ somewhat according to the thickness of the yarn to be dyed. Generally, however, it is desirable that the diameter of the discharge opening ranges from about 0.1 to 1 mm, and the opening angle of the groove through which the yarn passes ranges from about to 145.
In FIG. 1, only one dye applicator device is shown. By providing two or more dye applicators, it is possible to dye a yarn with more than one color. The use of two applicators is illustrated in FIG. 3.
Referring to FIG. 3A, the running yarn 2 comes in contact with one of the dye applicators 5, and the dye is applied to one side of the yarn from the aperture 11. This yarn then comes in contact with the other applicator device 5' disposed opposite to the applicator 5, and a dye the same color as or a dye a different color from that applied by the applicator 5 is applied to the opposite side of the yarn 2. When different dyes are applied, the yarn is dyed in two colors as shown sectionally in FIG. 4, and the two colors are separately continuous along the length of the resulting yarn. FIG. 3B illustrates the arrangement in which two dye applicator devices S, 5' are provided on the same side of the running yarn, in which the same or different dyes can be applied to the yarn from the respective discharge apertures in the applicator devices. Likewise, when three applicator devices are provided around the yarn, the yarn can be dyed in three colors as shown in FIG. 5. When such a yarn is used for conventional knitting or weaving, torsion occurs in the yarn during the knitting or weaving process, and therefore, a random colored fabric is obtained as a result of the weaving or knitting.
Various multicolored yarns as shown in FIG. 5, A, B and C can be obtained by changing the amount of the dye or the position of the dye applicator, as desired. FIG. 5A illustrates a section of a multicolored yarn obtained by discharging small amounts of the dye. FIG. 5B shows a section ofa multicolored yarn in which two adjoining colors are mixed with each other as a result of discharging large quantities of the dye. FIG. 5C shows a section of a multicolored yarn which contains undyed portions as a'result of arranging the dye applicators around the yarn at unequal intervals.
When a yarn is dyed using one or more of the dye applicators shown in FIG. 2, it is possible to obtain variously dyed yarns by changing the amount of the dye discharged. Thus, the yarn can be uniformly dyed similar to conventional dip dyeing, or it can be dyed randomly to obtain a yarn having intermittent dyed portions along its length, i.e., intermittently colored yarn or to obtain multicolored yarns. For example, when the dye is continuously discharged from the aperture of the dye applicator, it is possible to obtain a yarn having a continuous dye portion along its length as shown in FIG. 6A. If, on the other hand, the dye is fed intermittently and discharged, a yarn colored intermittently along its length can be obtained as shown in FIG. 6B. Any desired means can be employed to obtain an intermittent flow of the dye. One method involves the incorporation of air bubbles in the dye. For example, an air pump can be provided somewhere in the pipe for feeding the dye in order to introduce air bubbles thereinto. By changing the amount of air bubbles fed by the air pump, the distances between the colored portions can be varied as desired. In order to prepare very fine bubbles, a gas such as air or carbon dioxide gas is dissolved under pressure in the dye and the bubbles of these gasses may be generated in the dye in the vicinity of the discharge openings where the pressure approaches normal atmospheric pressure. Or these gasses dissolved in the dye may be converted into bubbles by heating in the vicinity of the discharge openings. Alternatively, a chemical generating a gas upon heating, such as sodium bicarbonate, can be incorporated in the dye, and by heating it near the discharge openings, bubbles are generated.
The interruption in the flow of the dye can also be effected using an apparatus of the structure shown in FIG. 7. Referring to FIG. 7, a piston 22 is moved reciprocatingly in the direction of A by an electromagnet 21. When the electromagnet is inoperative, the piston 22 is held in contact with a dye liquor discharge opening 26 using a spring 23, thereby to stop the discharge of the dye liquor. The reference numeral 24 represents an inlet for the dye, and 25, an outlet for the dye. An electric wire is shown at 27. The flow of the dye which enters the apparatus through the inlet 24 and the outlet 25 is interrupted by actuating the electromagnet 21 intermittently thereby reciprocating the piston 22 and closing and opening 26 intermittently.
By discharging two or more dyes from one dye applicator device alternately or randomly using such an apparatus, there can be obtained a yarn which is dyed continuously or intermittently in two or more colors along the length, as shown in FIG. 8. Referring to FIG. 8, a yarn 31 runs in contact, with dye applicator device 32 which is shown in detail as reference numeral 5 in FIG. 2. From a discharge aperture 33, dyes a, b and c of different colors are continuously or discontinuously discharged at varying intervals, and applied to the yarn 31 repeatedly in any order of a, b and c, or in a random sequence. The dyes which have been fed into dye intermitting devices 34, 34 and 34 through delivery pipes 35, 35' and 35" are intermitted here, and discharged from the discharge opening alternately or in a random sequence, and thus applied to the yarn 31. At this point, the dyed portions may be rendered continuous; or discontinuous, that is, undyed portions may be formed.
In conventional pad-dyeing the yarn to which the dye has been applied is steamed or subjected to a dry heattreatment in the form of a package such as a cone or cheese, or in the form of a skein thereby to fix the dye to the fibers. However, the steaming method has the disadvantage that longer periods of steaming time are needed to achieve sufficient dyeing, and the efficiency is poor. The dry-heat-treatment has the advantage that the treatment can be completed within shorter periods of time but still poses the problem of the decomposition and sublimation of the dye because of the hightemperature treatment. Accordingly, in the present invention, the yarn is preheated to a temperature above the boiling point of a solvent in the dye prior to the application of the dyeto the yarn, and then the dye, which can also be preheated if desired, is applied to the yarn, followed by a drying and a winding up of the yarn. This preheating of the yarn contributes to an activation of the molecular movement of the fibers, and the dye is applied to the yarn in the condition in which the internal structure of the fiber is relaxed. Thus, it is possible to dye the yarn instantaneously, and to dye at high speeds.
The heating temperature applied to the yarn prior to the application of the dye varies depending upon the type of the fiber but,.usually, it is higher than the boiling point of the solvent employed in the dye and not higher than the point at which the physical and chemical properties of the yarn drastically change. The temperature of the dyes applied to the yarn is controlled within the range of 30C below the boiling point of the solvent of the dye up to its boiling point. For example, when water is used as a solvent for the dye, temperature of 70 to 100C are suitable. At a temperature below 70C., long periods of time are needed for drying, and is impossible to dye the yarn at high speed.
The yarn to which the dye has been applied is dried by passage through a dryer, and wound up to complete the dyeing operation. Usually, the dyeing operation is completed at this point, and post-treatments such as washing or soaping are unnecessary. A great advantage of this invention is that the dyeing is completed in this state. Where a darker color and a high fastness are desired, the wound up yarn may further be steam set.
The yarns that can be dyed by the method of this invention may be any yarns, such as spun yarns, continuous filament yarns or crimped yarns, composed of natural fibers such as cotton, wool or silk, synthetic fibers such as polyester, acrylics, polyamides and the artificial cellulose fibers such as viscose rayon, cellulose acetate or mixtures of these fibers.
The dye to be used in this invention can be chosen according to its suitability for the fibers to be dyed. If desired, a swelling agent for the fibers, a carrier or a solvent may be added to the dye in order to achieve the objects of this invention more effectively.
The dyeing according to the method of this invention can be carried out at a speed as high as 500 to 1,500 meters per minute without changing the tension of a running yarn, irrespective of whether the yarn has a non-uniform thickness or whether it contains knots.
The present invention will be illustrated in greater detail by reference to the following Examples.
EXAMPLE 1 A false-twisted nylon 6 yarn (70den/24fil/2ply) was passed at a speed of 600 m/min. through an apparatus shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 using a hot plate held at 200C as the heating means. A dye of the following formulation was passed through an applicator and discharged from an aperture having a diameter of 0.25 mm, and applied to the yarn, and after drying, the yarn was wound up on a cheese. The wound-up yarn was formed into a skein, and steamed for 5 minutes at l C. A intermittently colored yarn having good quality was obtained.
Amount (parts by weight) Dye Formulation A false-twisted nylon 6 yarn (1260den/80fil/3ply) was passed over through an apparatus of the type shown in FIG. 1 using a heater held at 200C and 0.1
cc each of the following three dyes A, B and C was intermittently discharged alternately 900 times per minute. Each of the dye was applied to the yarn which was running at a speed of 350 meters per minute. A tufted carpet having a uniform multi-colored pattern was produced using the resulting dyed yarn.
Dye Component Dye Formulation (parts by weight) A B C Cl Acid Yellow 1 l4 5 8 16 Cl Acid Black 64 l 2 6 Benzyl Alcohol 60 6O 6O Ethyl Alcohol 200 200 200 Water 734 730 718 EXAMPLE 3 A crimped nylon 6 yarn (840den/fil/2ply) was passed at a speed of 500 m/min. through an apparatus of the type shown in FIG. 1 using a heated plate held at 200C, and a dye of the following formulation was applied to the running yarn at a discharge rate of 20 cc/min. During transit of the dye through a discharge pipe, air was introduced using an air pump into the dye times per minute to form bubles, whereby the discharging of the dye was intermittingly interrupted. After drying, the dyed yarn was wound up on a cheese. An intermittently dyed yarn of good fastness was obtained.
Amount (parts by weight) Dye Formulation Cl Acid Black 58 30 Benzyl Alcohol 30 Water 940 EXAMPLE 4 face of the yarn. The yarn was then passed through a non-contact heater held at 150C., and wound up. The would-be cheese was formed into a skein, and steamed for 5 minutes at C. The surface of the yarn obtained was dyed three separate colors of very. high fastness. Such a yarn has not been available heretofor.
Amount (parts by weight) Dye Formulation Dye A:
Cl Disperse Yellow 42 10 Water 990 Dyc B:
Cl Disperse Orange 13 20 Water 980 Dye C:
Cl Disperse Red 100 5 Water 995 EXAMPLE A spun yarn of wool (worsted count 40/3; 100% wool) was passed over a heated plate held at 160C at a speed of 700 m/min., and the following three dyes heated to 65C were discharged each at a rate of 16 cc/min. from three dye applicator devices, and applied to the surface of the yarn. The yarn was passed through a non-contact heater held at 140C to dry it, and wound up. The wound-up cheese was formed into a skein, and steamed for 10 minutes at 105C. A weft knitted fabric being of a sprinkled pattern of extreme clearness was produced using the resulting multi-colored yarn.
Amount (parts by weight) Dyc Formulations Dye A:
Cl Acid Yellow 141 6 Benzyl Alcohol 60 Ethyl Alcohol 400 Water 534 Dye B:
Cl Acid Orange 56 5 Benzyl Alcohol 60 Ethyl Alcohol 400 Water 535 Dye C:
Cl Acid Red 131 3 Cl Acid Blue 138 2 Benzyl Alcohol 60 Ethyl Alcohol 400 Water 535 EXAMPLE 6 Amount Dye Formulations (parts by weight) Dye A:
Cl Basic Yellow 1 l 6 Ethyl Alcohol 400 Water 594 Dyc B:
Cl Basic Orange 33 12 Ethyl Alcohol 400 Water 588 Dye C:
Cl Basic Violet 26 15 Ethyl Alcohol 400 Water 585 EXAMPLE 7 Amount (parts by weight) Dye Formulation Dye A:
Cl Reactive Orange 5 10 Soda Ash 10 Urea Water 880 Dye B:
Cl Reactive Blue 17 25 Soda Ash 10 Urea 100 Water 865 Dye C:
Cl Reactive Black 6 20 Soda Ash [0 Urea 100 Water 870 While the invention has been described in detail and in terms of preferred embodiments thereof it will be apparent that various changes and modifications can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope thereof.
1. An apparatus for continuously dyeing a yarn comprising means for providing a running yarn, means for heating said running yarn, means for applying a dye to said running yarn, means for drying said dyed yarn and means for winding up said dyed yarn; said means for applying a dye comprising a plurality of dye applicators disposed in sequence along said running yarn and angularly offset from each other about said yarn, each of said applicators having a U-shaped groove, a dye discharging aperture disposed at the bottom of said groove and means for supplying a dye through said aperture.
2. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 further comprising means for selectively controlling the supply of dye through the aperture of each applicator.