US 3908851 A
There is disclosed herein a filament wound vessel in which an imperforate liner is wrapped with a plurality of polar windings and one or more girth windings. The outlet of the liner is provided with a neck portion and a girth winding is provided about the neck portion for receiving attaching means to attach equipment to the bottle.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Jacobs 1 1 Sept. 30, 1975 [5 1 FILAMENT WOUND VESSEL 3.112.234 11/1963 Krupp 220/3 ux 3,303,079 2/1967 Carter  Invent Eugene Jambsi Tulsa Okla- 3,449,182 6/1969 Wiltshire 22.0 3 x  Assignee: Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company, Youngstown, Ohio Pliflltll) E.\-aminerDonald F. Norton I Attorney, Agent, or Firm-M. H. Gay; Jack R.
 Flled' Jul! 1974 Springgate; Joe E. Edwards  Appl. No.: 493,269
 ABSTRACT  U.S. Cl 220/3; 156/170; 220/63 R T e s sclosed here n a filament wound vessel in  Int. C1. B65D 25/14 whi h an imperforate liner is wrapped with a plurality  Field of Search 220/3, 63 R; 156/169, 170, Of polar windings and one or more girth windings. The
156/172 outlet of the liner is provided with a neck portion and a girth winding is provided about the neck portion for  References Cit d receiving attaching means to attach equipment to the UNITED STATES PATENTS bottle- 3 057.509 10/1962 Bernd 220/3 X 10 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures US. Patant Sept. 30,1975 Sheet 1 of2 3,908,851
USO Patsnt Sept. 30,1975 Sheet 2 of 2 3,9Q8fi5i FILAMENT WOUND VESSEL This invention relates to filament wound bottles or vessels. Filament wound bottles are old and well-known in the art. They may be readily fabricated, utilizing a tumble winding machine such as shown in the patent to Krupp 3,112,234, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. As taught in this patent, a liner or bladder is supported on a mandrel for rotation about the axis of the mandrel and for rotating or tumbling the mandrel end over end, to apply polar windings to the liner. By rotating the liner about the axis of the mandrel, girth windings may be applied to the liner.
While the general method of making the bottle is old, problems have been experienced with connecting of equipment to bottle. Generally speaking, the liner has not included a neck portion and a clamping arrangement has been utilized to clamp the liner and winding within a fitting to provide a fluid-tight connection. (See the patent to Bernd U.S. Pat. No. 3,057,509) Sometimes this connection leaks and fluid makes its way between the liner and filament windings thereabout.
The Wiltshire U.S. Pat. No. 3,449,182 is the only known teaching of a liner having an integral neck. During the development of the bottle shown in this application, it became apparent that the structures such as shown in Wiltshire inherently have a weak area at the juncture of the fitting 11 and the filament windings. The effect of pressure on the area of the fitting 11 tends to lift it from the bladder 10, inducing failure at this point. i
It is an object of this invention to provide a filament wound vessel with a liner having a neck portion for sealing with equipment to be attached to the bottle and a built-up rigid structure about the neck portion pro viding attaching means for attaching equipment which does not pull away from the liner when the bottle is pressurized.
Another object is to provide a filament wound bottle with a liner having a neck and a built-up portion about the neck for attaching equipment to the bottle in which polar windings are applied to the bottle in a manner to lock the rigid built-up section around the neck to the polar windings so that the strength of the polar windings is imparted to the built-up section about the neck and prevents it from pulling away from the liner.
Another object is to provide a filament wound bottle with a liner having a neck portion and a built-up filament section about the neck in which the built-up section is locked to the polar windings about the bottle.
Other objects features and advantages of this invention will be apparent from the drawings, the specifications and the claims.
In the drawings wherein an illustrative embodiment of this invention is shown and wherein like parts are indicated by like reference numerals:
FIG. 1 is a view in cross-section of a filament wound vessel constructed in accordance with this invention shown on the mandrel of a filament winding machine with the mandrel shown in elevation.
FIGS. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are fragmentary views on an enlarged scale showing successively the steps carried out in manufacturing the vessel.
The bottle indicated generally at 10 comprises a liner I1 and a number of windings which will be explained hereinbelow.
The liner 11 may take any desired form and may be fabricated of any desired material. The illustrated liner is blow moulded polyethylene. The liner shape will be controlled'by the desired configuration of the finished product. The illustrated bottle is spheroidal in shape and therefore a spheroidal shaped liner is utilized. In accordance with this invention, the liner has a neck portion 12 extending away from the liner. The neck portion 12 is integral with the liner 11 and terminates at its free end in a groove 13 to receive a seal to seal between the bottle and the equipment to which the bottle is attached after it is fabricated. Such equipment is not shown herein and may take any desired form.
The liner 11 is first made up on the mandrel of the winding machine which is indicated generally at 14. The mandrel and its manner of attachment to the liner may take any desired form. The mandrel forms no part of this invention except that the flange 15 provides an abutment for the neck winding as will be explained hereinafter. If desired, the seal section 13 of the liner could be extended outwardly to provide this function, but it is preferred that the flange 15 of the mandrel be utilized.
The windings are applied to the liner in the conventional manner, that is, polar windings and girth windings. The manner of application of these windings is well-known in the prior art and is exemplified by the above identified Krupp patent, which shows both polar and girth type windings being applied to a liner by a tumble winding machine.
The windings may comprise any desired filament material and any desired resin material as will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Preferrably the filament material is provided by a plurality of strands of fiberglass. As is well known to those skilled in the art, each wrap of material may be a number of threads of filament coated with uncured resin or a strap of filaments in a partially cured resin may be utilized. The filament fibers may be impregnated with a thermosetting resin such as polyester resin so that the bottle may be rapidly cured by heat after it has been formed. Of course, other resin may be utilized as will be apparent to those skilled in the art.
Through the application of polar and girth windings, the bottle may be reinforced against bursting at all points, except the mouth of the bottle, which includes the neck 12. In many instances, the neck 12 of the bottle must be of substantial size to permit the insertion of equipment into the bottle. The neck thus provides a pressure responsive area which must be tied to the remainder of the bottle in a manner such that the filament windings absorb the forces applied within this neck area.
It has been found that there is a tendency for the bottle to shear at the juncture of the neck winding 16 and the polar windings. To overcome this shear tendency, a mat of reinforcing material 17 is applied to the liner 11 about the neck 12. Preferably, this mat is provided by several layers of woven fiberglass impregnated with resin. The mat 17 extends from the neck outwardly a suitable distance beyond the neck winding to reinforce the bottle in this area. (see FIG. 2)
The first winding applied is the neck girth winding which is applied in the manner shown in FIG. 3. The mandrel 14 is rotated about its axis and the filament guide 18 is moved back and forth longitudinally of the rotational axis of the mandrel 14 in the space between the liner 11 and the flange 15 to build up the neck winding 16 as a solid mass of fibers and resin surround- I ing the neck 12. The movement of the filament carrier 18 is controlled so that the outer circumferential surface 16a of the neck winding is built up more adjacent to the liner 17 than to the flange in the manner shown. The angle of the surface 16a controls to some extent the amount of polar windings which will overlay the neck winding 16 to hold it against movement away from the liner 11 as will more fully appear hereinbclow.
The neck winding 16 provides a means for attachment of equipment to the bottle, While not shown in the drawings, holes are bored in the neck winding at the surface adjacent to flange 15 after the bottle is removed from the mandrel 14. These holes are spaced in a circle about the seal groove 13 and equipment to be attached to the bottle is secured in these holes in the conventional manner. It will be appreciated that the large mass of the neck winding 16 provides a rigid sur face to which equipment can be attached. By underlying the seal groove 13 the neck winding provides a rigid backup for this groove so that a seal member within the groove will seal between the neck 12 and equipment to be attached to the bottle. While the neck winding is preferably wound in place, it is apparent that it could be prefabricated in segments and attached to the liner with resin.
In order to provide strength to the bottle, a first polar winding 19 is applied as illustrated in FIG. 4. This winding is applied at the neck end of the bottle at the point 21 as illustrated in the figure. At the lower end of the bottle, the winding is applied adjacent the mandrel 14 and results in the bulge 22 due to crossing of the several fibers as they are applied. At the neck end of the bottle, the crossing of the several fibers results in the formation of the bulge 19a and the groove 19b between the bulge 19a and the neck winding 16. The groove 19b is fortuitous in that it normally occurs in the application of a winding to a liner and it serves a useful function in assisting in causing the second winding to overlie the neck winding 16 as will be explained hereinbclow.
As noted above, the angle of surface 16a of the neck winding controls the extent that the outer winding 22 overlies the neck winding. This surface 16a should form with the portion of the liner 11 extending away from the neck winding an included obtuse angle. The greater the angle, the more the outer winding will overlie the neck winding.
The second winding 22 is applied in the manner shown in FIG. 5. The rotational axis of the mandrel 14 is adjusted and the position of the filament guide 18 is adjusted in the manner shown in FIG. 5 so that the filament is applied to overlie the neck winding 16. The filament will tend to slide down into the groove 19}: as it is applied, but continued application of winding to the bottle as it is slowly rotated will result in the winding 22 building up in groove 19]; as shown in FIG. 5 to a point at which the second winding over-lies a portion of the neck winding 16. The overlying winding locks the neck winding in place and prevents it from pulling away from the liner when the vessel is pressurized.
The second winding is also preferably applied at a greater angle than the first winding so that the fibers at the end of the bottle remote from the neck 12 are applied at a distance from the mandrel and cross each other and result in a built-up annular bulge 23 at this end of the bottle which is spaced from the mandrel. With a spheroidal shaped bottle, this end of the bottle will tend to bulge out under pressure and the application of the second winding in this manner provides the desired strength to prevent bulging of the bottle. Also, this increased angle helps to build up the second winding fibers over the neck winding 16 and the direction of application of forces exerted by the polar winding is favorable to preventing the neck winding from shearing free of the second winding and pulling away from the liner. This angle is not critical. It is only necessary that the angular relationship of the outer circumferential surface of the neck winding and the second polar winding are such that the second polar winding builds up over a portion of the outer circumferential face of the neck winding.
If desired, a finish winding 24 may finally be applied over the neck winding 16. This winding is a girth winding and provides a smooth finish to the surface for appearances only.
Also, if desired, one or more girth windings 25 may be applied about the central section of the bottle to support the bottle at this point.
From the above, it will be seen that the objects of this invention have been attained. The employment of the neck 12 prevents any possibility of fluid leaking to an area between the liner and the filament windings which might result in a breaking down of the bottle. The neck winding 16 provides a substantial anchorage for equipment to be atttached to the bottle. The polar windings lock the neck winding 16 in place so that it cannot pull away from the liner when the vessel is pressurized. There results a bottle which is not subject to breaking down as such bottles have in the past in the neck area and which may be directly and firmly attached to equipment to be utilized with the bottle. The gradual change in section from the thin wall to the neck winding provided by the reinforcing mat and buildup portions of the inner and outer winding provide a reduced stress concentration in the area of the bottle adjacent the neck.
The foregoing disclosure and description of the invention are illustrative and explanatory thereof and various changes in the size, shape and materials, as well as in the detail of the illustrated construction, may be made within the scope of the appended claims without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What is claimed is:
l. a filament wound, generally spherical bottle comprising,
a liner having a neck extending outwardly and providing an opening into the liner,
a girth neck winding of filaments and resin about said neck providing an anchorage for securing equipment to the bottle,
the outer circumferential surface of said neck winding forming with the surface of the liner extending away from the neck winding an included obtuse an gle,
an inner polar winding of filaments and resin over said liner and lying adjacent said neck winding, and an outer polar winding of filaments and resin overlying said neck winding and preventing the neck winding from pulling away from the liner.
2. The bottle ofclaim 1 wherein alayer of reinforcing filaments and resin is provided over the liner and underlying said neck winding and a portion of said polar windings.
3. The bottle of claim 1 wherein the bottle is spheroidal in shape and said outer winding at the end of the bottle opposite the neck is positioned in a circle spaced from the central axis of the bottle.
4. A filament wound, generally spherical bottle comprising,
a liner having a neck extending outwardly and providing an opening into the liner,
a neck girth winding of filaments and resin about said neck providing an anchorage for securing equipment to the bottle,
the outer circumferential surface of said neck winding forming with the surface of the liner extending away from the neck winding an included obtuse anan inner polar winding of filaments and resin over said liner lying adjacent said neck winding,
said inner winding providing a trough adjacent said neck winding,
and an outer polar winding of filaments and resin filling said trough and overlying said neck winding and preventing the neck winding from pulling away from the liner.
5. The bottle of claim 3 including a layer of reinforcing filaments and resin over the liner and underlying said neck winding and a portion of said polar windings.
6. The bottle of claim 3 wherein the bottle is a spheroid and said outer winding at the end of the bottle opposite the neck is positioned in a circle spaced from the axis of the bottle.
7. The bottle of claim 3 wherein the neck of the bottle at its free end extends radially outwardly and a seal groove is provided in said extension.
8. A method of manufacturing a filament wound, generally spherical bottle comprising,
mounting a liner having a neck on the mandrel of a tumble winding machine,
and operating the machine to rotate the mandrel end over end and rotate the mandrel about its axis to:
1. apply a girth winding of filaments and resin about the neck of the liner to provide an anchorage for securing equipment to the bottle, the
outer circumferential surface of said neck winding forming with the surface of the liner extending away from the neck winding an included obtuse angle,
2. applying an inner polar winding of filaments and resin over said liner and lying adjacent said neck winding, and
'3. applying an outer polar winding of filaments and resin over said inner winding, said outer winding overlying said neck winding and preventing the neck winding from pulling away from the liner.
9. The method of claim 8 wherein the bottle is sphe roidal in shape and the outer winding is applied to the end of the bottle remote from the neck in a circle spaced from the center of rotation of the mandrel to reinforce the end of the bottle.
10. The method of claim 9 wherein a layer of reinforcing material is first placed on the liner in a position to underly the neck winding and a portion of the polar windings.