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Publication numberUS3909815 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 30, 1975
Filing dateJan 16, 1974
Priority dateJun 1, 1973
Publication numberUS 3909815 A, US 3909815A, US-A-3909815, US3909815 A, US3909815A
InventorsGacogne Jean-Marie
Original AssigneeGamma Electronic
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Detector for fumes and combustion gases
US 3909815 A
Abstract
An ionization detection means is disclosed having a housing, a reference ionization chamber and a sensing ionization chamber located in the housing. A radioactive source is also positioned in the housing and is arranged for causing ionization of particles within the chambers. A means is provided for establishing a flow path to the sensing chamber for atmospheric constituents such as fumes, vapors or aerosols. An electrical output signal is provided upon the occurrence of fumes, vapors or aerosols in the sensing chamber. A means is provided for storing information representative of the time elapsed between the initiation of the output signal and a subsequent point in time. A circuit means is also provided for indicating a defective condition in the operation of the detector. A predetermined atmosphere of pollutants is established within the reference chamber for precompensating for existing environmental pollutants.
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United States Patent 1191 Gacogne 1 1 Sept. 30, 1975 DETECTOR FOR FUMES AND [73] Assignee: Societe Gamma Electronic, Paris.

France [22] Filed: Jan. 16, 1974 [21] Appl. No.: 433,621

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data June 4. 1973 France 73,201 l0 [52] US. Cl 340/237 8; 250/381 [51] Int. Cl. G08B 21/00; 6088 17/10 [58] Field of Search 324/33; 340/237 S, 408;

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3.500.368 3/1970 Nagao Abe 340/237 8 3.530.450 9/1970 Waltharcl et al. 340/237 S 3.767.917 10/1973 Lainpart et al. 340/237 S X Primary lituminer-Alfred E. Smith Assistant E.\'uminerRolf Hille Attorney Agent. or Firm-'Kaufman & Kramer [57] ABSTRACT An ionization detection means is disclosed having a housing, a reference ionization chamber and a sensing ionization chamber located in the housing. A radioactive source is also positioned in the housing and is arranged for causing ionization of particles within the chambers. A means is provided for establishing a flow path to the sensing chamber for atmospheric constituents such as fumes, vapors or aerosols. An electrical output signal is provided upon the occurrence of fumes, vapors or aerosols in the sensing chamber. A means is provided for storing information representative of the time elapsed between the initiation of the output signal and a subsequent point in time. A circuit means is also provided for indicating a defective condition in the operation of the detector. A predeter mined atmosphere of pollutants is established within the reference chamber for precompensating for existing environmental pollutants.

13 Claims. 2 Drawing Figures I I +1 m 3 I ii 1 i ?!v I i L e0 I W 62 [1?4 102 s al xts or P07625702- 63 l I l 06 94 I I I M US. Patent Sept. 30,1975

Sheet 1 0f 2 US. Patent Sept. 30,1975 Sheet2of2 3,909,815

DETECTOR FOR FUMES AND COMBUSTION GASES The present invention relates to a detector for sensing the occurrence of fumes, gasesor aerosols which may, for example, beindicative of the existence of a fire. The invention relates more particularly to an improved form of ionization detector for detecting fumes, gases or aerosols.

Ionization detectors adapted for sensing the occurrence of fumes, gases or aerosols which may be indicative of the existence of a fire are known. In one form of ionization detector, a reference ionization chamber and a sensing ionization chamber are electrically coupled in series. An electrode of the ionization chambers is common to each of the chambers and the potential of this common electrode will vary as gases, fumes or aerosols occur in the locale of the detector. The potential of the common electrode is applied to a circuit means which includes, for example, a vacuum tube, a gaseous tube or a transistor. This circuit means is adapted for altering the state of an electrical signaling circuit thereby providing an indication of the presence of the gaseous fumes or aerosols. lonizationdetectors of this type can be used in the various locations such as factories, shops, warehouses, archives, dwellings and the like for detection and monitoring of fumes and combustion gases. v

Prior ionization detectors of the type referred to exhibit several limitations. They are, for. example, undesirably susceptible to external influences such as envivide an improved form of ionization detection means which is adapted for sensing fumes, gases or aerosols.

Another object of the invention is to provide an ionization detection means for sensing fumes, gases or aerosols and having means for providing an indication of the origin and propagation of a tire or combustion.

Another object of the invention is to provide an ionization detection means for sensing fumes, gases or aerosols and which includes improved means for compensating environmental pollutants in the atmosphere.

Another object of the invention is toprovide an ionization detection means which provides the indication of a defective condition existing in the detector.

A further object of the invention is to provide an ionization detector means which provides for reducing false indications caused by emissions accompanying the initiation of a tire.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved ionization detection means which provides a quantitative and relative estimate of the magnitude of the fire or combustion. i v

In accordance with features of this invention, an ionization-detector is provided having a housing, a reference ionization chamber and a sensing ionization chamber located in said housing, a radioactive source arranged for causing ionization of particles within said chambers, means for providing access to said sensing chamber of atmospheric constituents such as fumes,

vapors or aerosols, means for providing an electrical output signal from said chamber indicative of the presence of a fume, vapor or aerosol, and means for providing and storing information representative of the time elapsed between the initiation of said output signal and a subsequent point in time. The stored information therefore provides data which, in conjunction with data from similar detection means, enables a determination of the place of initiation and progress of a fire or other eliminates the need for electrically correcting for the alarm level of the detector. I

These and other objects and features of the invention will become apparent with reference to the following specification and to the drawings wherein:

FIG 1 is an elevation view, partly in cross section, of anembodiment of an ionization detector constructed in accordance with features of this invention; and

' FIG. 2 is a circuit diagram, partly in schematic form, of a circuit arrangement employed with the detector of FIG. 1. I

Referring now to FIG. 1 of the drawings, the detector is shown to include a housing comprising a rosette shaped base 1 and casing S. T he base 1 is preferably formed of a high temperature, electrical insulating material. such as ceramic while the casing 5 is formed of ,an electrical conductingmaterial such as aluminum, steel, etc. A plurality of bores are formed in the base I and there is positioned in each of the bores a female junctionconnector 2, An indicating means comprising 1 v and 32 are provided and extend into the base through I an aperture 33 formed thereinand are coupled through screw terminals to the female connectors 2.

v The casing 5 comprises the'principal body of the detector and is threaded at one end 34 for engaging a threaded shoulder segment of the base 1. A disc shaped plate 6'is mounted to the'walls of the casing 5 and supports male connectors 4 which extend from this plate and which engage the female connectors 2 in the base 1. In addition, electronic circuitry in the form of componentsand a printed circuit as described in greater detail hereinafter is mounted to the plate 6 as is an inner or' reference ionization chamber 7. l

The inner or reference ionization chamber 7 includes a positive electrode 13 which is connected to a printed circuit mounted on the plate 6 by a centrally located rod 114. A cathode electrode 15 of the reference chamber is positioned about the anode electrode 13.

' This cathode electrode along with a disc 16 formed of an electrically insulating material is positioned in the casing 5 in a manner for providing an enclosed chamber within the confined volume defined by the electrode l5 and the disc 16. This arrangement inhibits access of moist air to the electronic parts.

A radioactive source 17 is mounted within the reference chamber 7 and the radiation from this source causes, ionization of particles within the chamber and a resultant current flow between the electrodes 13 and 15. The radioactive source 17 is preferably an alpha emitter which does not emit radioactive gases such as plutonium-239 or americium-24l or equivalent. The electrodes 13 and 15 may be spaced relatively close to one another thereby enhancing the creation of an ionization current of significant magnitude yet requiring only a relatively small operating potential between the electrodes.

An outer or analysis" ionization chamber 23 is provided and is defined by the electrode 15 of the inner chamber, a wall segment of the casing 5, a plurality of fins extending about the circumference and surface of the casing 5 and which provide access for fumes, aerosols and vapors to the analysis chamber through a grating 19. The grating 19 is secured in position against the fins by belts or rings 20 and 21. The electrodes of the analysis chamber include the electrode 15 which is common to both the reference and analysis chamber and which functions as a relatively positive electrode in the analysis chamber. The negative electrode comprises a disc 12 which is mounted from a surface 10 by an adjustment screw 36 and which provides for varying the spacing between the disc 12 and the electrode 15. Adjustment of the position of electrode 12 compensates for manufacturing tolerances and, in addition, provides for optimum spacing between electrodes 12 and 15; particularly when the analysis chamber is subjected to strong air currents. A radioactive ionization source 18 similar to a source 17 is also mounted in the chamber and is positioned for causing ionization of the particles and establishment of a current between the electrodes 12 and 15. The casing body 5, the fins and the grating are conductively intercoupled and are connected to a negative terminal of a source of operating potential. This results in a Faraday-cage form of protection which shields or removes the electric components and particularly field effect transistors within a device from the influence of external electric fields.

It is noted that the fin and grid structure operate to reduce the adverse effect of substantial air currents and resulting false alarms. Gases or fumes which enter the analysis chamber flow between the fins which are relatively thin and which are spaced relatively close together. These fins are shaped and sizedfor providing that the flow passage presented to air currents is reduced with respect to the cross section of the analysis chamber. In addition to maintaining the grid in position, the belts 20 and 21 also reduce the effective surface area of the grid which is presented to the surrounding environment. Thus, air currents, which tend to disturb the distribution of ions in the analysis chamber and to alter the potential of the common electrode is substantially neutralized.

A relatively low potential difference is applied between the elcctrodes l3 and 12 of the reference and measuring chambers respectively. This potential is on the order of 50 volts or less. The potential at the electrode 15. which is common to both chambers, is coupled to an electronic circuit which is provided for modifying the state of an electric or an electronic signaling circuit in accordance with changes occurring in ionization within the outer or analysis chamber.

In accordance with a feature of this invention, an atmosphere is established within the reference chamber for compensating for environmental pollutants. This is accomplished in one manner by placing a container containing a solid mixture of sodium carbonate, nickel carbonyl and an alkali sulfide in an enclosure. A partial vacuum is then produced and atmospheric pressure is then re-established. The CO level, which should correspond to 3 mg/m of CO, is then measured. The finished unsealed ampoules are then stored in this enclosure for several days prior to the final assembly. This process can be shortened at times by contamination of the ampoule in situ.

Referring now to the circuit arrangement of FIG. 2, operating potential for the detector is derived from an external source 40 which may comprise a battery pack and is applied via input leads 30 and 31 to the female connectors 2 which are located in the base 1. A relatively positive potential is also coupled to the indicator lamp 3. The output potential of the source 40 which may for example comprise 25 volts is applied to the various components of the circuit arrangement through a stabilizing network comprising a resistor 42 and a zener diode 94. This stabilized positive potential is applied to the electrode 13 of the reference chamber and a negative potential to the electrode 12 of the analysis chamber. When a substantially constant potential difference is established between the positive electrode 13 of the reference chamber and the negative electrode 12 of the analysis chamber, both of which chambers are rendered conductive by the radioactive ionization means, then a small ionization current circulates and the potential of the common electrode 15 will attain an equilibrium magnitude which depends on various factors including the level of ionization created by the radiation sources, the shape of the electrodes, and the relative dimensions of the two chambers. This potential is applied to a gate electrode 44 of a junction field effect transistor 46. The positive operating potential is also applied to an electrode 48 of this transistor while the negative potential is applied to an electrode 50 of the transistor 46 through a series resistive network which includes resistors 52 and 54 and a potentiometer A control circuit is provided for causing energization of the lamp 3 when vapors, fumes or aerosols are detected or when a defective condition in the ionization chambers results in a detector fault. A lead 58 of the lamp 3 is coupled to the positive input line 30 while a lead 60 of the lamp 3 is coupled through a terminal 62 and the female and male connectors of the detector to an anode electrode 64 of a thyristor 66. A negative electrode 68 of the thyristor is connected to the negative input potential. When a trigger signal is applied to a gate electrode 70 of the thyristor 66, the thyristor is switched into a conductive state and the lamp 3 is thereby energized providing an indication of the presence of fumes, gases or aerosols of the existence of a faulty condition in the detector.

Trigger signals which are applied to the gate electrode 70 are applied through alternative circuit means, depending on whether a defect or fault in the installation or operation of the chambers occurs or whether during proper operation of the chambers a vapor, gas

or aerosol is detected ln the former case, the defect is indicated by a potential at the junction of the resistors 52 and 54. This potential is applied through a resistance 72 to the base electrode 74 of an NPN transistor 76. Operating potential is applied to the transistor 76 through a resistor 78 which is coupled between the resistor 42 and a collector electrode 80 of the transistor 76 while a negative potential is applied to an emitter electrode 82 of this transistor. A diode 84 is provided for coupling a triggering signal from the transistor 76 to the gate electrode 70 of the thyristor. The diode 84, under ordinary operating conditions and in the absence of defective operation of the chamber is back-biased as a result of the potential established at this diode by a resistor 86 and by the potential of the collector electrode 80 of the transistor 76. The potential at the collector electrode 80 is established at a relatively low positive value by selecting a base resistive impedance 72 which provides for conduction of the transistor when a potential, which is indicative of proper operation of the chambers, exists at the junction of the resistors 52 and 54.

Alternatively, the thyristor 66 is triggered into conduction when vapors, gases or aerosols are detected by a signal which is derived from a wiper arm 88 of the potentiometer 56 and is applied to the gate electrode 70 through a zener diode 90.

In operation, the reference and analysis chambers under no fault, no vapor, gas or aerosol conditions provide a potential at the common electrode which results in a potential at the junction of the resistors 52 and 54 having a magnitude for causing conduction of the transistor 76. The diode 84 is therefore backbiased. Similarly, the potential at the wiper arm 88 under these conditions has a magnitude insufficiently high for causing conduction of the zener diode 90. In this regard, the sensitivity of the detector to vapors, gases and aerosols is adjustable by adjustment of the wiper arm 88 of the potentiometer 56. In FIG. 1, an aperture 92 is formed in the casing 5 for providing access to the potentiometer for a sensitivity adjustment of the wiper arm 88. A defective installation or operation or abuse of the detector can result in a defect in insulation. In the analysis chamber this defect in insulation will be reflected as an abnormal drop in the equilibrium potential of the electrode 15 resulting in a decrease in the base current to the transistor 76. The collector voltage of this transistor then rises causing forward bias and conduction of the diode 84. The forward biased diode 84 provides a current passage through the resistance 78 to the gate electrode 70 of the thyristor 66, thereby switching the thyristor into a conductive condition and causing energization of the lamp 3. The lamp will then remain energized until operating potential is interrupted to the thyristor 66.

In the alternative and principal mode of operation, the entry of a vapor, gas or aerosol into the analysis chamber results in an appreciable decrease in the magnitude of the ionization current, thereby increasing the impedance of this chamber and causing an increase in the potential of the electrode 15 from its equilibrium value. The voltage at the potentiometer wiper arm 88 will accordingly increase from the corresponding equi-- librium potential to a magnitude at which the zener diode 90 becomes conductive and thereby triggers the thyristor 66 into conduction. The lamp 3 is then energized and remains energized until operating potential to the thyristor 66 is interrupted.

It is beneficial at times to provide an indication of the initiation or of the progress of a fire or other disaster.

In accordance with another feature of this invention, the detector includes a memory for establishing such an indication. The distribution of a number of such detectors about the site of a fire or disaster, then renders it possible to determine the initiation and duration of the fire at each detector station and to consequently trace the progress of the fire or disaster. An integrating circuit means is provided by the use of a field effect transistor 94 which is coupled to an operational amplifier 96 having a feedback loop and arranged as an integrator. In FIG. 2, the anode electrode 64 of the thyristor 66 is coupled to a gate electrode 93 of a field effect transistor 94. The field effect transistor 94 is coupled in series with an integrator 96. The integrator 96 comprises a solid state integrated circuit. One such integrated circuit suitable for'the use indicated is SN521 manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. This integrator is thermally insulated with asbestos for example in order to protect the integrator from the effects of the fire or disaster. An output from the integrator 96 is applied via the line 29 to a remote electronic storage means 98. The storage means 98 comprises for example a totalizer counter or a binary counter. During the interval of time in which vapors, fumes or aerosols are detected or a fault condition exists, the integrator 96 provides a periodically recurring output voltage. Either the analog representation of the integrator output or the digital representation which are indicative of the total time during which the faulty condition existed can be used subsequently to determine the intensity and duration of the faulty condition. This information in turn is employed to obtain geographical indications of the origin of the faulty condition. This is accomplished for I example by obtaining the different records from a number of detectors located at the fire or disaster site and correlating these records to establish a map of the location and distribution of the disaster.

A circuit arrangement comprising resistors 100 and 102 and a diode 104 are provided for generating a signal for coupling to a central location. This signaling is particularly useful when defects such as an interruption in the application of power to the unit from the source 40 occurs. This may occunfor example when the casing 5 is separated from the base 1. The conduction of the thyristor 66 upon the occurrence of a defect results in a relatively low potential at the terminal 62. The resistor 102 is selected to have a relatively low resistance with respect to the resistor 100. When a relatively low potential occurs at terminal 62 and since a positive potential is applied to the resistor 100, the diode 104 will be conducting and a relatively low potential will appear on the output line 106. It is noted that other detectors sensing for similar or other conditions may be coupled to the line 106. When the supply to the unit is interrupted such as through the removal of a detector from its base, the potential at the point 106 will rise and this rise can be utilized for indicating or control purposes at a main panel.

An improved form of ionization detection means for gases, vapors or aerosols has thus been described. The detection means advantageously compensates for a level of pollution in an environment where the detector is to be utilized. In addition, the detection means provides means for recording the duration of a false alarm or of the detection of vapors, gases or aerosols and provides an indication which can be stored in a counter. The detection means further is adapted for indicating a faultcondition in the detector. 7

While particular embodiments of the invention have been described herein, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that variations may be made thereto without departing from the spirit of the invention and the scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is: 1. An ionization detector for detecting fumes, vapors or aerosols comprising:

a reference ionization chamber and a sensing ionization chamber positioned within a housing; a radioactive means arranged for causing the ionization of particles within said chambers; means for providing a flow path for atmospheric 7 fumes, vapors or aerosols from an environment within which the detector is located to said sensing chamber; means for providing an electrical output signal from said chambers indicative of the presence of a fume, vapor or aerosol in said sensing chamber; and circuit storage means coupled to said latter means and means responsive to said electrical signal for providing an indication of the elapsed time between the initial occurrences of the fumes, vapors or aerosols in the sensing chamber and a subse-' quent instant of time.

2 An ionization detector for detecting fumes, vapors or aerosols comprising:

a reference ionization chamber and a sensing ionization chamber positioned within a housing:

a radioactive means arranged for causing the ionization of particles within said chambers;

means for providing a flow path for atmospheric fumes, vapors or aerosols from an environment within which the detector is located to said sensing chamber; means for providing an electrical output signal from said chambers indicative of the presence ofa fume, vapor or aerosol in said sensing chamber; and

electrical circuit storage means and circuit means responsive to said output signal for causing said electrical circuit storage means to continuously accumulate a sum after an initial occurrence of said output signal and providing an indication of the elapsed time between the initial occurrences of the fumes, vapors or aerosols in the sensing chamber and a subsequent instant of time.

3. The detection means of claim 2 wherein said electrical storage means comprises a counter.

4. The detection means of claim 3 wherein said circuit means for causing said storage means to accumulate a sum comprises a circuit arrangement for generating periodically recurring impulses.

5. The detection means of claim 4 wherein said circuit means for generating periodically recurring pulses comprises an operational amplifier having a feedback network coupled thereto for causing said amplifier to function as an integrating means.

6. An ionization detector for providing an indication of the presence of fumes, vapors or aerosols comprising:

a reference ionization chamber and a sensing ionization chamber positioned in a housing;

each of said ionization chambers having an anode electrode and a cathode electrode; said ionization chambers coupled electrically in series and having a cathode electrode of one of said chambers and an anode electrode of the other of said chambers which is common to each of said chambers; a switching circuit means; electrical storage means coupled to said switching circuit means and de-energized by said switching means when said switching circuit means exists in a first of two states and energized when said switching circuit means exists in a second of two states;

circuit means coupled between said switching circuit means and said storage means for providing a continuous entry to said storage means when said switching means exists in said second state; and

circuit means coupled between said common electrode and said switching circuit means for causing said switching circuit means to exist in said first state during the absence of vapors, fumes or aerosols within said sensing chamber and for causing said switching circuit means to switch to said second state when vapors, fumes or aerosols exist in said sensing chamber.

7. The detection means of claim 6 wherein said indicating means comprises an electrically energized indicator which provides an indication which is perceptible by the human senses.

8. The detection means of claim 7 wherein said indicating means comprises a visual indicator mounted on said housing.

9. The detection means of claim 6 wherein said indicating means comprises an electrical storage means and circuit means for providing a continuous entry to said storage means when said switching means exists in said second state.

10. An ionization detector for sensing vapors, fumes and aerosols comprising:

a reference ionization chamber and a sensing ionization chamber positioned within the housing;

each of said ionization chambers having a cathode and an anode electrode;

radioactive means arranged for causing ionization of particles within said chambers;

means for providing access to said sensing chamber for environmental constituents such as fumes, vapors or aerosols which are to be detected.

said reference chamber adapted to inhibit the entry of environmental constituents into the reference chamber and to maintain a predetermined environment established therein; said reference chamber containing a predetermined level of environmental pollutants corresponding to the level of pollutants existing in the environment within which as detector is to be located; and

means coupled to said chambers for providing an indication of the existence of fumes, vapors or aerosols in said sensing chamber.

11. The detection means of claim 10 wherein said reference chamber contains carbon monoxide at a concentration of 3 mg/m.

12. An ionization detector for providing an indication of the presence of fumes, vapors or aerosols comprising:

a reference ionization chamber and a sensing ionization chamber positioned in a housing;

each of said ionization chambers having an anode electrode and a cathode electrode;

said ionization chambers coupled electrically in series and having a cathode electrode of one of said chambers and an anode electrode of the other of said chambers which is common to each of said chambers; a switching circuit means; electrical storage means coupled'to said switching circuit means and de-energized by said switching means when said switching circuit means exists in a first of two states and energized when said switching circuit means exists in a second of two states;

circuit means coupled between said common electrode and said switching circuit means for causing said switching circuit means to exist in said first state during the absence of vapors, fumes or aerosols within said sensing chamber and for causing said switching circuit means to switch to said second state when vapors, fumes or aerosols exist in said sensing chamber; and,

circuit means for causing said switching means to alternatively switch to said second state upon the occurrence of a fault in the operation of said ionization chambers.

13. An ionization detector for providing an indication of the presence of fumes, vapors or aerosols comprising:

a reference ionization chamber and a sensing ionization chamber positioned in a housing;

each of said ionization chambers having an anode electrode and a cathode electrode;

said ionization chamber coupled electrically in series and having a cathode electrode of one of said chambers and an anode electrode of the other of said chambers which is common to each of said chambers;

a first switching circuit means including a thyristor having an input trigger electrode;

indicating means coupled to said switching circuit means and de-energized by said switching circuit means when said switching circuit means exists in a first of two states and energized when said switching circuit means exists in a second of two states;

circuit means coupled between said common electrode and said switching circuit means for causing said switching circuit means to exist in said first state during the absence of vapors, fumes or aerosols within said sensing chamber and for causing said switching circuit means to switch to said second state when vapors, fumes or aersols exist in said sensing chamber, said circuit means comprising a field effect transistor amplifier circuit arrangement having an impedance coupled in an electrode circuit of the field effect transistor, and a voltage sensitive switching means coupled between said impedance and said input trigger electrode of said thyristor; and,

amplifier circuit means having an input thereto coupled from the impedance of said field effect transistor circuit arrangement and switching means coupled between said amplifier and said input trigger electrode of said thyristor, said switching means operative to couple said amplifier to said thyristor input trigger electrode upon the occurrence of a fault in said sensing ionization chamber.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3500368 *Aug 18, 1966Mar 10, 1970Nittan Co LtdAutomatic ionic fire alarm system
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4037106 *Jun 24, 1976Jul 19, 1977Cerberus AgIonization-type fire or smoke sensing system
US4171486 *Aug 31, 1977Oct 16, 1979Emhart Industries, Inc.Ionization smoke detector with controlled sensitivity
US4194120 *Nov 21, 1977Mar 18, 1980Cerberus AgAdjustable ionization chamber
US4238677 *Mar 31, 1978Dec 9, 1980Societe Gamma-ElectronicSmoke detector by ionization associated to a velocimetric measurement electronic circuit
US4238788 *Jan 3, 1978Dec 9, 1980Teledyne Industries, Inc.System for detecting a combustion process
US4306229 *Jun 23, 1980Dec 15, 1981Nohmi Bosai Kogyo Co., Ltd.Smoke detector having an integral piezo-electric buzzer
US4336454 *Aug 27, 1979Jun 22, 1982The Radiochemical Centre LimitedSmoke detector ionisation chamber using nickel-63 source
US4401979 *Feb 11, 1981Aug 30, 1983General Signal CorporationElectrical controls for ionization smoke detector
US4488044 *Nov 20, 1981Dec 11, 1984Pittway CorporationIonization chamber for smoke detector and the like
US5298223 *Aug 10, 1993Mar 29, 1994Esser Sicherheitstechnik GmbhConnecting common electrode with gate terminal of transistor
USRE30117 *Feb 13, 1978Oct 16, 1979Cerberus AgIonization-type fire or smoke sensing system
Classifications
U.S. Classification340/629, 250/381
International ClassificationG08B17/10, G08B17/113, G08B17/11
Cooperative ClassificationG08B17/113, G08B17/11
European ClassificationG08B17/11, G08B17/113