US 3910290 A
A tubular hair setting roller is formed of at least two layers of sheet material, including an inner paperboard layer and an outer hair-contacting layer consisting of an embossed metal foil providing an irregular or textured non-absorbent outer surface. A dry film coating of a water-soluble hair treating agent is distributed over the embossed outer surface, preferably being sufficiently thin that the coated surface remains rough to the touch. In a preferred method of use of the roller, it is coated with a water-soluble hair setting resin, and the coated surface is moistened with water, and then employed to set strands of dry human hair by wrapping them around the moistened outer surface of the rollers.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1191 Litman HAIR SETTING ROLLER AND METHOD OF USE  Inventor: Marvin W. Litman, 8209 Rosewood Drive, Prairie Village, Kans. 66208  Filed: Oct. 31, 1973  Appl. No.: 411,286
Stein "161/7 Primary Examiner-G. E. McNeill  ABSTRACT A tubular hair setting roller is formed of at least two layers of sheet material, including an inner paperboard layer and an outer hair-contacting layer consisting of an embossed metal foil providing an irregular or textured non-absorbent outer surface. A dry film coating of a water-soluble hair treating agent is distributed over the embossed outer surface, preferably being suf ficiently thin that the coated surface remains rough to the touch. In a preferred method of use of the roller, it is coated with a water-soluble hair setting resin, and the coated surface is moistened with water, and then employed to set strands of dry human hair by wrapping them around the moistened outer surface of the rollers.
8 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures US. Patent Oct. 7,1975 3,910,290
HAIR SETTING ROLLER AND METHOD OF USE BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY In the home setting of hair to impart a set or wave to the hair, the most commonly followed procedure involves application of a setting lotion to the hair, wrapping of hair strands about molded plastic rollers, securing of the strands to the rollers by clips or fasteners provided as part of the rollers, and leaving the rollers in the hair long enough for the rolled hair to dry. This process may require a number of hours to complete, and where the plastic rollers are left in the hair over-night, a wearer may experience considerable discomfort. Further, this process is satisfactory only for the wet setting of hair, as where used following washing of the hair, or where the hair is moistened with water as part of the preparation for setting, or where the setting lotion itself contains sufficient water to moisten the hair. For satisfactory dry" setting of hair, the application of heat or steam is normally required. Such dry setting has the dis advantage of requiring relatively expensive equipment, and the application of heat may be harmful to the hair, drying out the hair, producing so-called split ends, etc.
Disposable hair rollers formed of paper and other materials have been proposed. For example, in US. Pat. No. 3,108,604, disposable hair rollers are described which have the inner or outer surface of the rollers provided with deep longitudinal corrugations, similar to those of corrugated cardboard. The corrugations are described as providing channels for bobby pins to obtain a more secure temporary attachment of the hair to the roller. This patent also discloses that when the corrugations are on the outside surface of the roller, they have the further advantage of tending to prevent the hair from slipping off the rollers. In the preferred forms of these rollers, as described in the patent, the outer surface of the roller is formed of an absorbent paper material, which permits it to be impregnated with a hair treating agent. However, the patent also discloses other forms of the rollers in which the outer surface may be made of plastic sheet material.
As far as is known, none of the forms of disposable rollers described in the cited US. Pat. No. 3,108,604 have been used commercially. During the experimental work leading to the present invention, attempts were made to set hair using rollers made of porous absorbent paperboard, the outer surfaces of which had been impregnated with a water-soluble hair setting resin. Such rollers were found to be unsatisfactory. When used with wet hair, the rollers absorbed water from the hair. Although such water absorption dissolved the hair setting resin, it did not result in satisfactory transfer of the resin to the hair as it was being set. Apparently, the absorbed water caused the dissolved resin to penetrate further into the rollers. Moreover, the damp rollers and the strands of hair wrapped thereon took an excessive time to dry. Unsatisfactory results were also obtained when attempts were made to utilize such impregnated absorbent rollers for the dry setting of hair, the outer surface of the rollers being moistened with water, and the dry strands of hair wrapped therearound. Although the results were somewhat better than with wet hair, there was still an unsatisfactory transfer of the resin to the hair, and an excessive drying time was still required. Moreover, what little value the rollers had in setting hair was lost during the first use, that is, the absorbent paperboard rollers although preimpregnated with the setting resin, appeared to completely lose their ability to transfer the setting resin to the hair after a single use.
The present invention is therefore believed to provide for the first time an answer to the problem of how a disposable roller can be satisfactorily adapted for applying a hair treating agent while the hair is being set, and, particularly for repeated or multi-time use prior to disposal. From the method standpoint, the invention also provides for the first time a satisfactory method of setting dry hair without using steam or other forms of heat. Further objects and advantages will be indicated in the following specification.
The multi-time use disposable hair setting rollers of the present invention are characterized by having an outer surface of an embossed or textured metal foil, such as aluminum foil. The embossing should be such as to provide a rough surface with a multiplicity of indentations distributed thereover. To the embossed metal foil surface, there is applied a dry film coating of a watersoluble hair treating agent, such as a hair setting resin. Initially, the coating is distributed over the entire outer surface, but thicker portions of the film coating are in the indentations of the embossing. Preferably, the film coating is thin enough so that the coated surface remains rough to the touch. The strands of hair can therefore be more readily wrapped around and clipped to the rollers, and the hair may either be wet or dry when applied to the rollers. When used with dry hair, the outer surface of the rollers can be premoistened with water, such as by dipping the rollers in water or spraying water onto the coated surface. Since their surface is non-absorbent, the solubilized resin is transferred to the hair rather than penetrating into the rollers. Further, since the thicker portions of film within the indentations are only partially solubilized on the first use of the rollers, these indentations, in effect, provide reservoirs of the treating agent, which permit the rollers to be reused for a plurality of times.
THE DRAWINGS Disposable hair rollers constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, FIGS. 1 to 3 illustrating a first embodiment, while FIGS. 4 and 5 illustrate an alternate embodiment. More particularly,
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a preferred form of a hair roller embodying the present invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged plan view of a fragment of the outer surface of the roller of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged side sectional view of a fragment of the roller of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged plan view of a fragment of the surface of a modified form of the hair roller, the outer metal foil surface being provided with a different embossed pattern than the form of FIGS. 1 to 3; and
FIG. 5 is an enlarged side sectional view of a fragment of the modified hair roller, having the embossed pattern of FIG. 4.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION Looking first at FIGS. 1 to 3, there is shown a multitime use disposable hair setting roller adapted for applying a hair treating agent while the hair is being set, the composite roller being designated by the letter R. As there shown, the roller R comprises a hollow openended tube 10 around which the strands of hair are wound and temporarily secured. As shown more clearly in FIG. 3, the tube is formed of at least two layers of sheet material. The outer hair contacting layer, which is designated generally by the number 11, consists essentially of an embossed metal foil providing a textured non-absorbent outer surface 12, as shown more clearly in FIGS. 1 and 2.
Outer surface 12 is provided with a multiplicity of indentations 13 distributed thereover. With the form of embossing of FIGS. 1 to 3, the indentations are continuous depressions or valleys, which extend around and between the raised portions or mounds 14. The embossing is such as to give the outer surface 12 a crinkled appearance. In the embodiment shown, both the valleys l3 and the raised portions 14 are provided with a multiplicity of score lines 15, which add further roughening, but may be omitted. The embossing is applied to the metal foil by standard embossing procedures, wherein smooth metal foil, or, more commonly, paperbacked smooth metal foil, is passed between embossing rollers, at least one of which is designed to impart the desired pattern.
Tube 10 also includes a paper or paperboard layer 16, as shown more clearly in FIG. 3, which provides structural support. The supporting layer 16 is positioned inwardly of the metal foil layer 11. If desired, other layers of sheet material can be interposed between the paperboard layer and metal foil layer but these are not required.
As shown in FIG. 3, the paperboard layer 16 is directly bonded to the underside of the metal foil layer 11 by an adhesive 17. Adhesives of the kind used for laminating spiral wrapped tubes are suitable. Waterresistant, high-tack synthetic resin adhesives are particularly desirable. Where the undersurface of the metal foil is bonded directly to the outer surface of the paperboard layer, the adhesive should have good bonding properties for both paper and metal foil. However, in preferred embodiments, paper-backed metal foil is employed, so that the underside of the foil layer 11 comprises a thin layer of paper which is bonded to the supporting paperboard layer 16.
As shown in FIG. 3, the embossed foil composite 11, comprises an outer layer of metal foil 1 la backed by an inner layer of paper 11b. Paper-backed aluminum foils are available commercially, and are sold in a wide variety of embossed patterns, which vary in design and depth of the embossing. Such embossed foils have the advantage of being more economical than the corresponding thickness of unbacked metal foil, and permit the use of ultra-thin metal foils, such as aluminum foils having thicknesses of 0.3 to 0.4 mils. Such metal foil may be backed by paper of from 1 to 5 mils thickness, thereby providing a paper-backed metal foil which may be more readily embossed, and which has improved handling properties and durability. Typically, 0.3 to 0.4 mil aluminum foil is backed with paper of about 3 to 4 mils thickness. The paper is usually specified on a pound weight basis, such as 40 to 45 lb. paper, based on 500 24 X 36 inch sheets. It will be understood that the metal foil layer is adhesively bonded to the tissue layer, as indicated by the number 11c in FIG. 3. Waterresistant, high-tack synthetic resin adhesives are used. Under the existing commercial practice, the ultra-thin metal foil is first adhesively bonded to the paper backing, and the paper-backed foil is then embossed. The
embossed pattern thereby extends from the outer foil surface through the inner paper surface.
From the standpoint of cost and availability, the preferred metal foil is aluminum foil, but other metal foils might be used, either as such. or as paper-backed foils. However, since metal foils other than aluminum foil such as stainless steel foil, are not normally available commercially in ultra-thin gauges. such as in thick-.
nesses ofless than 1 mil, it will not usually be necessary to employ the foil in paper-backed form. Such thicker foils are more expensive. It is therefore preferred to employ aluminum foils in thicknesses less than 1 mil, such as thicknesses ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mils.
A wide variety of embossed patterns, such as grid patterns, herringbone patterns, etc. can be employed to provide a rough indented outer surface. In general, the indentations should be sufficiently deep and numerous so that the outer surface of the metal foil sheet material feels rough to the touch. Commercial foils classified as heavily embossed are suitable. The exact depth of the embossing is usually not specified but the indentations are believed to average about 1 to 2 mils in depth with respect to the plane of the tops of the raised portions. More generally, the indentations may range in depth from 0.5 to 5 mils.
The thickness of the paperboard layer 16 and of the other layers of the tube 10 are subject to considerable variation. In general, the total tube assembly should be shape-retaining while being subject to local flexing when pressed between the thumband fingers. By having the tube 10 relatively flexible or yieldable, it will provide greater comfort, or at least less discomfort, when the rollers are left in the hair overnight. For this purpose, the paperboard layer 16 may range in thickness from about 20 to 40 mils, and may be built up from a plurality of plies of paper, such as by a spiral wrapping process. The term paper-board as used herein is intended to designate a paper material of sufficient thickness to be shape-retaining when formed into a tube.
In the embodiment of FIGS. 4 and 5, it will be understood that the roller has essentially the same construction as the roller R of FIG. 1. For convenience of comparison of FIG. 4 with FIG. 2 and FIG. 5 with FIG. 3, the corresponding elements have been given the same numbers, except that the numbers have been primed. The paper-backed metal foil 11 includes the outer foil layer 11a which provides the outer metal foil surface 12'. The embossed pattern on this surface is in the form of a wavy grid, providing a multiplicity of depressions 13 enclosed by the raised portions or ridges 14'. The embossing is such that the metal foil surface prior to coating is rough to the touch.
In accordance with the present invention, the embossed, rough, non-absorbent metal foil outer surface 12, 12' is coated with a dry film 18, 18' of a watersoluble hair treating agent. As indicated more clearly in FIGS. 3 and 5, the film 18, 18' of the hair treating agent is distributed over the outer surface 12, 12' with thicker portions of the film within the indentations 13, 13'. When initially applied, the coating of hair treating agent, will usually extend as a continuous film, being applied over the raised portions, such as the mounds 14 or the ridges 14, as well as within the indentations, such as within the continuous valleys 13, or the separated depressions 13. As indicated in FIGS. 3 and 5, however, most of the coating material will be within the indentations 13, 13, which serve as reservoirs for the hair treating agent during repeated use of the rollers. Consequently, after the rollers have been used one or more times, substantially all of the coating may be expected to have been removed from the raised portions 14, 14, while only portions of the coated material remain within the depressions l3, 13'.
in order that the strands of hair may be more readily wrapped upon and secured to the rollers, it is desirable, although not essential, that the coated outer surface remain somewhat rough to the touch. From what has been said, however, it will be appreciated that the surface may be relatively smoother when initially coated, as for the first use of the rollers, than after portions of the coating have been dissolved. In applying hair setting resins to the rollers, as preferred, the film-forming character of such resins, will result in a continuous film of resin over the entire outer surface of the roller. However, the coating can be applied thin enough-so that the coated surface still remains rough to the touch. As the applied coating dries to a non-tacky condition, the resulting resin film will follow the irregular contours of the outer surface 12, 12, the film being thinner over the raised portions l4, l4, and thicker in the indentations l3, 13, while still forming a coated surface which is irregular and somewhat rough to the touch. Should the film coating be built-up to a sufficient thickness on the outer surface 12, 12, excessive resin may be transferred to the hair during the initial use of the rollers. However, after the first use, the rollers would be expected to perform in a similar manner to the preferred form of preparation where the initially coated rollers provide a film which is sufficiently thin and the coated surface remains rough to the touch.
While other water-soluble hair treating agents can be applied to hair by means of the rollers of this invention, the rollers achieve their greatest utility in the application of hair setting resin, particularly those resins which have both hair setting and hair conditioning properties. Such water soluble hair setting and conditioning resins are well-known in the art, and the specific chemistry of such resins does not form a part of the present invention. Among the water-soluble resins which are used as hair setting resins are the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) resins, the polyvinylpyrrolidone and vinyl acetate (PVP-VA) copolymer resins, cellulosic resins, particularly cationic cellulosic resins, and modified PVP and PVP-VA resins, such as cationic forms thereof including quaternize PVP resins. Among commercially available hair setting resins which can be used in practicing the present invention are the following:
rude Designation ether of maleic acid Carboxylated Vinyl acetate terpolymer Carboxyluted acrylic resin Resyn 28-2930 National Starch Amphomer National Starch For purpose of the invention, hair setting resins, such as those listed above, can be prepared as water solutions, such as 5 to 25% by weight solutions, depending on the solubility of the particular resin, and the water solution applied as a coating to the embossed metal foil outer surface of the completed tubes, which are to be used as the hair rollers of this invention. Standard tube coating equipment can be used, such as roll coaters. Usually, it will be desirable to contact the coated outer surface while still wet with a distribution means, such as a distribution roll, a doctor knife, etc. Thereafter, the coated tubes may be dried to evaporate the water, using normal paper coating drying techniques. The drying is continued until the coating is in a non-tacky condition and feels dry to the touch. A relatively heavy wet coating may be applied since the greater amount of the solution will settle in the embossed indentations.
If desired, an additional layer or layers may be provided inwardly of the paperboard layer 16, 16. For example, as indicated in FIGS. 3 and 5, an inner layer 19, 19' is provided, which is bonded to the inner surface of the paperboard layer by an adhesive, as indicated at 20, 20. The layer 19, 19' may be a colored paper for improving the appearance of the rollers, or it may be a layer of plastic film, wax-coated paper, or the like, which will tend to prevent water from being absorbed into the supporting paperboard, if the rollers are dipped in water before use, as may be desirable. Alternatively, the inner surface of the paperboard layer 16, 16 can be coated with a coating reducing the water absorbency of the paperboard. In practice, however, it has not been found necessary to utilize such a coating or water proofing layer inwardly of the paperboard layer, since quick dipping of the rollers in water is sufficient to moisten the outer coating of hair setting resin without prolonged exposure of the paperboard layer to the water.
Paper-backed embossed aluminum foil suitable for use in the hair setting rollers of this invention are available from many commercial sources. For example, embossed foil manufactured by the l-lazen Paper Company of Holyoke, Mass. are distributed by the Lachman-Novasel-Owens Paper Corporation, of New York City. The embossed foils are available in natural aluminum, or as colored aluminum foils. The aluminum foil is specified as approximately 0.35 mil caliper. Specific embossing patterns which are suitable for the purposes of the present invention, include Stipple, No. 18, Doralee, No. 43, Whipcord, No. 45, Floradora, No. 58, Garland, No. 67, Inweave, No. 104, Valhide, No. ll4, Levant, No. 118, and Swerve, No. 119. In addition to performing the resin retaining function described above, the embossing may also serve a decorative purpose, that is, the embossing may be selected to provide an attractive pattern or appearance to the exterior of the rollers.
While other methods of manufacture can be used, the complete rollers can be manufactured on spiralwrap paper tube machines. The paperboard layer will be formed first, according to standard procedures for manufacturing paperboard tubes. Usually from two to four plies of paper are wrapped to form a tube of 25 to 35 mils thickness. If desired, at the same time, an inner layer can be applied. After'the tube has been formed, the embossed paper-backed metal foil is applied to the outside of the tube. Following this application. the water solution of the resin can be applied to the outside of the embossed surface on the same machine. All that is required is to utilize an additional coating applicator, such as a standard roll coater, as used on such paper tube machines. After the resin coating has been applied to the outside of the tubes, they are then passed through the standard drying equipment associated with such machines, which will dry the interior glue layers, such as the layers 17, 20, of the embodiment of FIG. 3, and, at the same time, the coating of hair setting resin -will be dried on the outer surface. As a final step in the manufacture, the tubes can be cut to the desired length for use as hair setting rolls. For example, the rolls may range from 2 to 3 inches in length when cut to size, and may have diameters ranging from 1 to 2 inches.
Although not essential, the tubes may be provided with perforations such as the perforations P as shown in FIG. 1. These perforations may be cut or punched after the tube has been manufactured, and before, or while it is being cut to the desired length to form the completed hair rollers.
METHOD OF USING ROLLERS.
Resin coated hair rollers prepared in accordance with the present invention, as described above, can be used in a variety of ways. Where the hair is wet, as when it has just been shampooed, the rollers can be used without any preliminary step. The strands of damp hair are simply wound around the rollers in the usual manner for hair rollers, and are temporarily secured thereto by suitable attachment means, such as bobby pins, or other types of clips. However, the hair rollers of the present invention are particularly adapted for use in the dry setting of hair.
In the preferred method of use, the hair of the user is in its normal dry condition. The rollers are then prepared for use by moistening with water the outer filmcoated surface of the rollers. For example, the rollers may be dipped quickly in water, or an atomizer may be used to spray water over the outer surface of the rollers. Several rollers may be moisturized at a time, but it will usually be preferable to apply the rollers within a few minutes after the outer surfaces are moistened with water. At the time the dry hair is wrapped around the rollers, it is preferable that the outer surface of the rollers be damp to the touch.
After the strands of hair have been temporarily secured to the rollers, they should be left in the hair until a set or wave has been imparted to the hair. This may require to minutes, or longer, depending on the character of the particular users hair, and the amount of moisture on the outer surface of the rolls at the time they are applied. However, the drying may be shortened to as short as l to 5 minutes by the use of a hand hair dryer. If desired, the rollers may be left in the hair for longer periods of time, such as over-night. Since the rolls are relatively flexible compared to the usual plastic hair rollers, the wearer will experience less discomfort with respect to overnight use than is normally the case. However, for the effective dry setting of hair, all that is required is that the rollers be left in the hair with the hair in contact with the water moistened surfaces of the rollers until the surfaces have become substantially dry. This would be indicated by the fact that the surfaces of the rollers would be dry to the touch when the strands of hair are removed therefrom. With the moistening procedure described above, such as dipping or spraying, usually not more than minutes will be required to achieve an effective dry set, and less time will be needed where a hand hair dryer is used, or where the rollers are applied for touch-up purposes.
From what has been said above, it will be appreciated that the rollers, although disposable, can be used a plurality of times. In normal use, for example, when the rollers are prepared as described herein, they can be used from 2 to 5 times, while still continuing to transfer enough of the hair setting resin to the hair to assist in setting and conditioning the hair. Because of the relatively uniform distribution of the resin-holding indentations l3, 13', etc., the application of the resin to the hair will continue to be relatively uniform over repeated uses, although, of course, the total amount of resin applied to the hair will gradually decrease from the first to the final use. When the rollers are no longer effective for transferring resin to the hair during setting, they may be discarded. Where handled in the manner described above, it may be expected that the rollers can be used satisfactorily for at least 3 times. During the second and third uses, the coating of hair setting resin will have been only partially removed from the outer surface of the rollers by the prior use thereof. Even after the third use, it may be expected that some residual resin will remain within the indentations, and this will permit further use, if desired, although a less effective transfer of hair setting resin to the hair.
Where the coated outer surface of the rollers remain rough to the touch as is preferred, even for the initial use of the rollers, the roughness of the surface will facilitate the wrapping and holding of the strands of hair. Further, the moistening of the outer surface will make the coating temporarily tacky, which will also help to hold the hair on the rollers, minimizing slipping of the hair on the rollers during their application. It has been found that dry hair, in fact, tends to cling to the moistened rollers as it is wrapped therearound. Further, the build-up of setting resin in the hair of the user is mini mized, as compared with standard home hair setting techniques, where the setting lotion is applied directly to the hair.
1. A reuseable-disposable hair setting roller adapted for repeated applications of a hair treating agent while the hair is being set, comprising a hollow open-ended tube around which strands of hair are wound and temporarily secured, said tube being formed of at least two layers of sheet material, the outer hair contacting layer consisting of an embossed metal foil providing a textured non-absorbent outer surface having a multiplicity of indentations distributed thereover, said tube also including a supporting paperboard layer inwardly of said metal foil layer, and a dry film coating of a watersoluble hair treating agent distributed over said outer surface with thicker portions of said film in said indentations.
2. The hair setting roller of claim 1 in which said metal foil is aluminum foil.
3. The hair setting roller of claim 1 in which said hair treating agent is a hair setting resin.
4. A reuseable-disposable hair setting roller adapted for repeated applications of a hair treating agent while the hair is being set, comprising a hollow open-ended flexible tube around which strands of hair are wound and temporarily secured, said tube being formed of at least two layers of sheet material, the outer hair contacting layer consisting of an embossed aluminum foil providing a rough non-absorbent outer surface having a multiplicity of indentations distributed thereover, said tube also including a supporting paperboard layer inwardly of said metal foil layer, and a dry film coating of a water-soluble hair setting resin distributed over said outer surface with thicker portions of said film in said indentations.
5. A multi-time use disposable hair setting roller adapted for applying a hair setting resin while the hair is being set, comprising a hollow open-ended flexible tube around which strands of hair are wound and temporarily secured, said tube being formed of at least two layers of sheet material, the outer hair contacting layer consisting of a textured metal foil providing a nonabsorbent outer surface having a multiplicity of indentations distributed thereover, said indentations being of sufficient size and depth that said surface is rough to the touch, said indentations averaging in depth from 0.5 to mils, said tube also including a supporting paperboard layer inwardly of said metal foil layer, and a dry non-tacky film coating of a water-soluble hair setting resin distributed over said outer surface with thicker portions of said film in said indentations, said film coating being thin enough that the coated outer surface remains rough to the touch.
6. The hair setting roller of claim 5 in which said metal foil is a heavily embossed paper-backed aluminum foil, the aluminum foil portion thereof having a thickness less than 1 mil.
7. The hair setting roller of claim 6 in which the embossed indentations average in depth from 1 to 2 mils.
8. The hair setting roller of claim 7 in which the aluminum foil portion of said paper-backed foil has a thickness of from 0.2 to 0.5 mils.