US 3910753 A
A wax burner comprising an upwardly opening wax carrying vessel, a mass of normally solid flammable wax in the vessel, a heat conducting metal heat sink unit within the vessel and in the wax, an elongate, vertical, heat conducting wick structure engaged with the heat sink unit and projecting upwardly therefrom, said wick structure having a heat conducting metal core to conduct heat into said unit, a fibrous sleeve about the core with an exposed flame supporting upper portion and a lower portion within the unit and a heat conducting metal tub about the sleeve below said exposed portion and in heat conducting contact with said unit to conduct heat from said exposed portion to the unit, said unit having a wax supporting fluid draining heat conducting wax melting rack projecting outwardly into the confines of the vessel in spaced relationship above the bottom thereof.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
[4 Oct. 7, 1975 United States Patent [191 Lee [ WAX BURNER Primary ExaminerCarroll B. Dority, Jr.
Inventor: George Y. Lee, 200 Miguel Place, Attorney Agent or Firm*Georges Maxwell Fullerton, Calif. 92635 Apr. 15, 1974  ABSTRACT A wax burner comprising an upwardly opening wax carrying vessel, a mass of normally solid flammable wax in the vessel, a heat conducting metal heat sink unit within the vessel and in the wax, an elongate, vertical  Filed:
Appl. No.: 460,885
 US. Cl. 431/290; 431/291; 431/315  Int. F23D 3/16 431/288291,
, heat conducting wick structure engaged with the heat sink unit and projecting upwardly therefrom, said  Field of Search wick structure having a heat conducting metal core to conduct heat into said unit, a fibrous sleeve about the core with an exposed flame supporting upper portion and a lower portion within the unit and a heat con-  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS ducting metal tub about the sleeve below said exposed 431/315 portion and in heat conducting contact with said unit 431/325 to conduct heat from said exposed portion to the unit, 3 /290 said unit having a wax supporting fluid draining heat conducting wax melting rack projecting outwardly A w mS E T A P N m E R O F 1,131,581 3/1915 Walsh 2,291,067 7/1942 Atkins.............. 3,121,316 2/1964 into the confines of the vessel in spaced relationship above the bottom thereof.
3 mm rs 6U GA 3 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures US. Patent. Oct. 7,1975 3,910,753
WAX BURNER This invention has to do with a burner and is more particularly concerned with a novel wax burner.
Throughout the past, normally solid combustible mineral and vegetable oils such as paraffin and tallow, commonly called or referred to as wax have been used as fuel for light and heat. The most common form of light and/or heat generating device or means in which wax is employed as the fuel is the ordinary candle. The ordinary candle comprises a vertical, selfsupporting body or column of wax, with a substantially horizontal top and a central longitudinal wick within and supported by the body and having an upper exposed portion projecting upwardly from the top of the body. The exposed portion of the wick is lighted by a flame, the heat generated by the lighted wick or flame thereon melts the wax at the top of the body about the wick establishing a puddle or reservoir of molten wax. The capillary attraction of the molten wax and the structure of the wick, which is generally a structure of closely related fibers, causes the molten wax to travel or migrate upwardly in and through the wick into direct proximity of the flame and to thereby feed and be consumed by the flame.
As the wax is consumed in the above manner, the body of wax diminishes and the top surface thereof lowers progressively. The upper portion of the wick, which would extend about the flame, as the wax is consumed, burns to ash, breaks off or is otherwise disposed of.
In the case of ordinary candles of the character referred to above, the vertical placement of the flame is not constant, the size of the flame is dictated by the nature of the wick and is non-adjustable. Frequently, great quantities of the wax is wasted as a result of the molten puddles or reservoirs of wax overflowing the tops of candles and leaving that area of the candle structures where it can beeffectively consumed. Further, the last or lowermost portions or ordinary candles, for various reasons, are generally disposed, before all the wax is consumed, resulting in a substantial waste of wax.
At present and to the best of my knowledge, there are no commercially available wax burners which might be suitable for use in place of candles. Candles serve the only common and available means for the utilization of wax as a fuel for small, limited amounts of light and heat. Accordingly, and in accordance with the teaching of the prior art, if one has a quantity of wax which is suitable for use as fuel for light and/or heat, he cannot use the wax for such purpose unless he utilizes it to establish a candle or candles. Otherwise, the wax is useless for such purposes. A common source and supply of such normally unusable or useless wax (as above noted) are candle drippings and the normally unused lower end portions of candles.
Commercially available paraffin wax is a clean and inexpensive wax suitable as fuel for candles and the like. However, by the time this material is worked upon and used to establish candles, so that it can be used as a fuel, the added costs or expenses are substantial and such that the end product is not an economical light or ularly suitable for the effective and efficient burning of normally solid wax as a fuel for light and/or heat.
It is an object and feature of this invention to provide a burner of the character referred to comprising a vertical fibrous wick structure with a flame supporting upper end portion and heat sink and/or heat conducting means related to the wick and adapted to conduct heat generated by the flame into heat conducting contact with a body of wax whereby the wax is melted and rendered fluid for conducting of the wax through and by the wick, to the flame supporing upper end portion thereof.
Another object and feature of my invention is to provide a burner of the character referred to above wherein the heat sink means establishes a base to support the wick structure.
Yet another object and feature of the instant invention is to provide a structure of the character referred wherein the wick is a vertical, tubular, fibrous structure and has a central vertical heat conducting metal core to support the wick and to conduct heat downwardly through the wick whereby the wax in the wick is heated and maintained highly fluid in the wick is heated and maintained highly fluid in the wick whereby the fluid wax readily and continuously flows or migrates longitudinally upwardly through the wick to the upper flame supporting portion thereof.
It is an object and feature of my invention to provide a burner of the character referred to wherein the wick has an elongate vertically shiftable heat conducting metal tube slidably engaged about its exterior whereby the vertical extent of the upper flame supporting portion of the wick and resulting size of the flame can be adjusted and a structure of the character referred to wherein the said tube is vertically shiftably engaged in the heat sink means whereby the vertical positioning of the upper end portion of the wick and the flame supported thereby can be adjusted and fixed as desired and within reasonable limits.
Another object and feature of the present invention is to provide a burner of the general character referred to which further includes an open top vessel or container in which the heat sink is arranged, which has a bottom on which the heat sink rests and into which wax can be conventionally disposited and contained, in close proximity to and about said heat sink.
It is an object and feature of this invention to provide a structure of the character referred to wherein the flame remains at one vertical position as the wax is consumed and a structure wherein the supply of wax can be replenished as by depositing bits and pieces of hard wax in the vessel or container in which the burner is arranged and/or which establishes a part of the burner.
Finally, it is an object and feature of my invention to provide a burner of the character referred to which is such that it can be effectively and satisfactorily used in the majority of places and instances where candles are ordinarily employed for the generation of light and/or heat.
The foregoing and other objects and features of my invention will be apparent and will befully understood from the following detailed description of one typical and preferred form and carrying out of the invention, throughout which description reference is made to the accompanying drawing, in which:
FIG. 1 is an isometric view of a wax burner embodyiiig' the instant invention.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged plane view taken substantially as indicated by line 22 in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken substantially as indicated by line 33 in.FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is an elevational view of the heat sink and wick assembly shown in FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is an isometric view. of a special relationship of burners that I provide; and
FIG. 6 is an isometric view of a lantern with my burner structure related to it.
The burner B that I provide and which is illustrated in the drawings includes an elongate, vertical wax containing vessel V with an open top 11, a substantially flat bottom 12 and a substantially vertical, preferably cylindrical side wall 14.
Within the vessel V is a deposit or mass of wax fuel F, such as paraffin wax.
The structure next includes, basically, an elongate vertical heat sink means H arranged in the vessel V, within the wax F, and seated and supported on the bottom 11 thereof and a wick structure W carried by the heatsink H and projecting upwardly therefrom and from the wax F into or above the open top of the vessel, substantially centrally thereof.
The heat sink is established of a metal with a high index of heat conductivity, such as aluminum and is characterized by a flat bottom 15 of suitable extent to oppose, engage and seat on the bottom 11 of the vessel and to afford appropriate stable support for the heat sink H and the wick structure. The heat sink has a central vertical open ended bore 16 adapted to slidably receive and support the wick structure W.
More specifically, the heat sink H is characterized by an elongate, vertical, central hub-like tubular body 17 which defines the bore 16, and substantially flat, radially outwardly projecting top and bottom flanges 18 and 19 fixed to the upper and lower ends of the body. The upper flange 18 is perforated or, as shown, is radially slotted about its circumferential extent. It is a heat conducting member in heat conducting contact with the body 17 and establishes a flat, horizontal wax melting rack R within the vessel V at the upper end of the heat sink.
The lower flange I9 is similar to the flange l8 and establishes a flat, horizontal, heat conducting vessel bottom engaging base for the heat sink. The flange 19 need not be perforated or slotted. In practice, however, the flange 19 is preferably slotted, as is the flange 18 and the heat sink H is a spool-like structure with identical opposite end portions, whereby it is reversible, end for end. Accordingly, the flange l8 establishes the melting rack R and the flange 19 establishes the base for the structure by virtue of their vertical placement, rather than by any particular structural distinctions existing therebetween.
Finally, the body 17 of the heat sink H is provided with wax conducting means M to assure the flow of molten wax from about the exterior of the body, radially inwardly therethrough and into the central opening or bore thereof. In the case illustrated, the wax conducting means comprises a plurality of elongate, circumferentially spaced axially and radially opening slots 20 in the opposite end portions of the body, as illustrated in the drawings. In practice, the means M can be established by radial ports drilled or punched in the body or can be established by a single elongate slot, at one side of the body as might be readily established if and when the body is established of roll-formed metal tubing stock.
The wick structure W includes a central, heat conducting metal core C, a fibrous sleeve S about the core C and a tubular, sleeve-like, heat conducting metal sleeve or tube T about the sleeve S.
The core C and fibrous sleeve S are established of a short, vertical piece of length of jacketed electrical wire. Preferably the wire used is single strand copper wire having a woven fabric jacket, a portion of which is established of asbestos or glass fibers. In such a case the core C is copper and the sleeve S is a woven fabric of non-combustible fibers.
While the use of the non-combustible fibrous material is desirable for establishing the sleeve S, fibrous material which is ordinarily not considered fire proof or non-combustible will work satisfactorily, since when the structure here provided is in operation and use, it is the wax carried by the fibrous material which burns, not the material itself.
The core C and sleeve S are substantially coextensive with respect to each other and are of sufficient longitudinal, vertical, extent so that thwn the lower ends thereof terminate at the bottom end of the base 16 in the body 17, an upper end portion thereof, of sufficient longitudinal extent to support a flame, projects above the upper end of the body.
The metal heat conducting tube T of the wick structure W is of limited longitudinal extent, is slidably engaged about the fabric sleeve S, between and spaced from the ends thereof and is slidably engaged in the bore 16 of the body to normally project from the upper open end thereof.
The tube T is such that it can be slid and shifted vertically and longitudinally of the sleeve to adjust and vary the length of the upper exposed, flame supporting portion of the sleeve and thereby effect variations in the size of the flame and is such that it can be slid and shifted vertically in the bore and so that the vertical positioning of the flame, above the heat sink and relative to the vessel V, can be varied.
The upper end of the tube T is in contact with the flame supported by the sleeve S and is in heat conducting contact with the body; accordingly, the sleeve conducts heat to the body or to the heat sink and also heats the wick and the wax conducted thereby, about the exterior thereof, to assure and maintain total fluidity of the wax carried by the sleeve and/or the wick structure.
The heat conducted downwardly through the core C into the confines of the heat sink is conducted by the sleeve, wax and tube into the body and the wax about the body to supplement the heat conducting function of the tube T.
In operation, it is preferred and often necessary that the wick structure be primed with wax before it is first put -to use. Priming of the wick is effected by removing the core C and sleeve S from within the tube T and, by means of any suitable heat source, such as a match metally sufficient wax onto the sleeve, to saturate it with wax. Once primed, the structure is assembled and placed in the vessel V, substantially as illustrated.
When put to use, pieces and/or bits of solid wax are placed on the melting rack R and the wick is lighted to support a flame X. The flame X heats the construction, by conduction, and the wax on the rack is melted and, in a fluid state, flows into the bore 16 where it is absorbed by the sleeve and conducted upwardly to replenish the wax consumed by the flame. As the solid wax is melted, as above set forth, additional wax is added until a quantity and volume of wax sufficient to fill the vessel above the rack is present. Thereafter, solid wax can be added intermittently to replenish the wax consumed by the flame.
Alternatively, the vessel can be charged and filled with an initial volume of wax as by pouring molten wax into the vessel, in which case it is only necessary to intermittently add small pieces of wax to replenish consumed wax.
in carrying forward the use of my new wax burner as when it is to be used as a heat source for cooking and the like, a plurality of burner units, such as is shown in FIG. 5 of the drawings can be and are arranged in side by side proximity in a single (larger) vessel V. With such a relationship, the combined heat of the adjacent burners is conducted into the single body of wax contained in the vessel. Such combining of the heat enhances the effective and efficient operation of the burners. The number of burners thus employed can be varied as desired and the number of burners, in such a situation, that are lighted can be varied as circumstances require.
lt is to be particularly noted that the above noted assembly of burners brings about a beneficial function and desirable results. Accordingly, it is quite different from the placing of conventional candles in side by side relationship, which results in the excessive and premature melting away of the wax candles and often results in what can be best described as a disastrous conflagration of the candles.
When the burner is to be used as a source of light, it can, for example, be placed in a lantern structure L, such as is shown in FIG. 6 of the drawings.
A typical use for my new wax burner is a heat source for chafing dishes and the like, in which case, it provides a desirable replacement for those small disposable candles in glass containers commonly provided and used as heat sources for such dishes.
Having illustrated and described only one preferred form and carrying out of my invention, 1 do not wish to be limited to the specific details herein set forth, but wish to reserve to myself any modifications and/or variations that might appear to those skilled in the art and which fall within the scope of the following claims:
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. A wax burner comprising a vessel with a bottom, sides and open top, a heat conducting metal body supported on the bottom in said vessel and having a vertical opening therein, a mass of wax in the vessel and in and about said body, an elongate vertical wick engaged in the opening with its lower portion within said wax and having an upper portion projecting from within said opening and the wax, said wick comprising an elongate vertical heat conducting metal core, a fibrous sleeve engaged about and supported by said core and a heat conducting metal tube slidably engaged in said opening and slidably engaged about said sleeve whereby the tube can be shifted vertically relative to the sleeve to vary the extent of exposed sleeve at the upper end of the wick and said tube can be shifted vertically in the opening to vary the vertical position of the upper end of the wick above the body.
2. A burner as set forth in claim 1 wherein said body has a substantially flat heat conducting melting rack projecting from the upper portion thereof into the confines of the vessel and adapted to support, conduct heat to and metal wax in contact therewith.
3. A burner as set forth in claim 1 wherein said core is greater in longitudinal extent than the sleeve and defines an upper portion projecting above the upper end of the sleeve to occur within and in contact with a flame supported by the sleeve and a lower portion projecting freely from the lower end of the sleeve to extend into and contact the wax directly, said tube being less in longitudinal extent than the sleeve and having an upper flame contacting upper end adjacent the upper exposed flame supporting portion of the sleeve and a lower end spaced above the lower end of the sleeve and in heat conducting contact in the wax.