US 3911807 A
Method of and apparatus for deliquefying and compacting refuse. The apparatus is provided with a hydraulically operated vertically reciprocating ram and a vertically movable compaction chamber hydraulically operated independently of the ram. The bottom edge of the compaction chamber is scalloped to form, in conjunction with the base of the apparatus, openings through which liquids present in the refuse may be expelled during the compaction process. After refuse compaction, the chamber is raised above the base to enable a disposal bag to be placed over the lower portion of the chamber. The refuse is then ejected into the bag.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Birnbaum [4 1 Oct. 14, 1975 1 REFUSE COMPACTOR AND METHOD Bruce H. Birnbaum, 13540 Youngwood Turn, Bowie, Md. 20715 22 Filed: Dec. 10, 1973 21 App1.No.:423,340
 US. Cl. 100/37; 100/125; 100/126; 100/218; 100/229 A; 100/246  Int. Cl. B30B 15/32; B3OB 9/04  Field of Search 100/218, 240, 246, 229 R, 100/229 A, 110, 125, 126, 37; 53/124 B, 124 D; 141/73, 316
5/1973 Akerberg 100/226 1/1974 Ligh 100/2i8 X Primary ExaminerPeter Feldman Attorney, Agent, or FirmR. S. Sciascia; P. Schneider; G. Myers  ABSTRACT Method of and apparatus for deliquefying and compacting refuse. The apparatus is provided with a hydraulically operated vertically reciprocating ram and a vertically movable compaction chamber hydraulically operated independently of the ram. The bottom edge of the compaction chamber is scalloped to form, in conjunction with the base of the apparatus, openings through which liquids present in the refuse may be expelled during the compaction process. After refuse compaction, the chamber is raised above the base to enable a disposal bag to be placed over the lower portion of the chamber. The refuse is then ejected into the bag.
5 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 385,165 6/1888 Condon et a1. 100/229 R X 1,354,517 10/1920 Sollazzo 100/125 2,622,512 12/1952 Hise et a1.... 100/229 R X 3,528,366 9/1970 Neuenburg.. 100/224 X 3,721,060 3/1973 Quinto 53/124 B I? o I 7 ll l1 REFUSE COMPACTOR AND METHOD BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to refuse compactors and more particularly to a vertical compactor for deliquefying, compacting and packaging refuse such as trash, rubbish and garbage for disposal. The volumetric reduction of refuse by compression or compaction is well-known. Generally, compactors in common use in households compress refuse into a bag or carton located within the compaction chamber. Compaction pressures of IS to 40 psi are typical for such household compactors. Higher pressures, for example, in the rangeof 100 to 150 psi are not feasible in such devices because of the possibility of rupturing or puncturing the bottom or walls of the bag. US. Pat. No. 3,528,366 shows an "apparatus for compacting refuse wherein the disposal bag walls are external to the compaction chamber. The problem of rupturing or puncturing the disposal bag still exists in the apparatus described in this patent because during the compaction cycle the bottom portion of the bag is subjected to high compaction pressures.
In U.S. Pat. No. 2,817,290, a vertically movable ram compresses garbage upwardly into a housing. The ram comprises a flat plate having a plurality of apertures therethrough for the purpose of draining liquids expressed from the refuse. A disadvantage of this arrangement is that if waste matter becomes impacted in one or more of the apertures, liquids will not effectively drain from the compression housing.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The presentinvention is a novel vertical 'refuse compactor enabling the use of relatively high compaction face pressures such as, for example, I to 150 psi. Re-
fuse is loaded into the top of an upright open-ended chamber movable in the verticaldirection. The compaction chamber rests on a solid base during the compression cycle and the bottom edge of the chamber is scalloped. A reciprocating hydraulically operated ram positioned above and in axial alignment with the chamber compacts the refuse and simultaneously expresses waste liquids in the refuse through, the openings formed by the scalloped edge of the tube and the top surface of the base upon which the chamber rests. As a result of the high compaction pressure, the refuse is firmly compacted in the lower portion of the chamber and is frictionally retained therein without "support by the base. After compaction the chamberis raised to a position above the base and a disposal bag is then positioned over the lower portion of the chamber.'Next, the
chamber is lowered to a position adjacent the base and the ram positioned against the top surface of the refuse. As the chamber is raised the compacted refuse is ejected into the disposal bag which is removed from the compactor for disposal. I a H j According to the present invention the bag is not subjected to high compaction pressures during any part of the compaction cycle, thereby eliminating thepossibility of rupturing or puncturing the bag. The featureof the scalloped bottom edge of the compaction chamber has the advantage of overcoming impaction of waste matter in the openings through which liquids are expressed from the refuse. It should be noted in con'nec- The term scalloped as used to describe the bottom edge of the'chamber in the specification and-claims herein is to be understood to include many configurations of an irregular bottom edge of the chamber the purpose of which is to provide drain openings for liquid expelled from the refuse. Such configurations may have, for example, arcuate, square, rectangular, or sawtooth shapes, or combinations thereof.
oBJECrs OF THE INVENTION DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The single FIGURE of the drawing illustrates a side view, partly in cross-section, of a refuse compactor incorporating the principles of the present invention. The
apparatus comprises a hollow cylindrical compaction chamber 11 resting upon a solid stationary base having a cup-like cavity 13 centrally located in its top surface. The cavity 13 has a minimum diameter appreciably greater than the maximum diameter of the chamber 1 1 so as to form an annular groove 14 between the base 12 and the chamber 11. The compaction chamber 11 is an upright metal tube open at both ends and, as indicated, preferably cylindrically-shaped although it may be in other forms such as a square. The bottom edge of the chamber 11 is scalloped, that is, provided'with a plurality of spaced irregularities such that when the chamber 11 rests upon the base 12 a plurality of openings 15 are formed, the purpose of which will be subsequently described herein. The irregularities'atthe bottom edge of chamber 11 as shown in the drawing, are in the form of evenly-spaced arcuate indentations although, as hereinbefore mentioned, may be of other than arcuate shape and need not be evenly spaced.
Located above and in substantial axial alignment with the chamberis a cylindrically-shaped ram 16 which is capable of being raised and lowered so as to be vertically slidable within the chamber 11. A pair of radially extending horizontal arms 17 are fixedly attached to the upper portion of the ram 16 in oppositely disposed locations. The ram 16 is supported in position above the chamber 11 and vertically movable by two upright hydraulic pistons 18 secured'to the outer extremities of the arms 17 and actuated by hydraulic cylinders 19. In similar manner, the compaction chamber 11 is vertically movable 'bya pair of upright hydraulic cylinders 20 and pistons 21 secured to an intermediate portion of arms 22 which are fixedly but oppositely attached to the upper portion of the chamber 1 l and extend horizontally therefrom.
A frame," shown generallyat 23, includes a pair of vertical guideways 24 each of which is formed of an elongated rectangular metaltube centrally slotted to receive the a'rms'l7 and 22;Guide bearings 25 and 26,
rotatably'mounted on the arms 17 and 22 respectively, are slidingly disposed within'the interior of the guidewa'ys24 and bear on the innerwalls thereof so as to maintain substantial axial alignment between the ram 16 and the chamber 1 l. A drain pipe 27 for carrying away waste liquids is connected to the base 12 and communicates with the annular groove 14 formed between the base and chamber 11' when thechamber is resting upon the base. If desired, a plurality of drains may communicate with the groove 14 to provide more rapid drainage. To avoid refuscadhering to the interior of the chamber and the exterior surface of the ram after the compacted refuse isexpelled it is preferred that both of these surfaces be smooth.
The operation-of the refuse compactor, in accordance with the present invention, commences with the components positioned as shown in thedrawing. Hydraulic cylinders 20 are actuated by control equipment (not shown) to drive the pistons 21 downwardly so as toforce the chamber 11 firmly'against the base. Refuse is then loaded into the chamber 11 at its upper open end 28.-When the chamber is fully loaded hydraulic cylinders 19 are actuated to drive the ram 16 downwardly thus compacting the refuse against the base 12 at a face pressure of lOO-lSUpsi/As the ram 16 is driven downwardly any liquids entrained in the refuse will be expressed out of the chamber through the opening's' l and into the annular groove 14. Waste liquids collected in the 'groove are then drained out through drain pipe 27. A water source may be used to rinse the groove so as to dilute the waste liquids and promote drainage thereof; After sufficiently compacting the refuse the ram is hydraulically raised and the chamber m'ay'be-chargedwi th another load of refuse and compacted as before. The'compaction cycle may be repeated until the chamber 11 is filled with compacted refuse to a predetermined depth. With the ram 16 in its retracted or uppermost position, hydraulic cylinders 21 are actuated to raise the chamber 11 to a position several inches above the base; Because of the high compaction pressure the refuse will remain impacted in the lower'portion 'of the chamber. After the chamber has been-raised a disposal-bag or other appropriate container is then manually inserted between the base 12 and the chamber 11-. If a bag is used it is slid upwardly to a position adjacent-the arm 22 so as to enclose the lower portion of the chamber therewithin. The chamber, now with the bag in place around its lower portion is again lowered to the base by actuating hydraulic cylinder 21. Next, the'ram 16 is lowered against the upper surface of the refuse and the chamber 1 I raised thereby ejecting the slug of impacted refuse into the bag. After raising the ram, the bag is then removed from the comp'ac tor and all components are returned to their positions'as shown in the drawing for commencementof another compaction cycle. Obviously, many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings without departing from thespiritand scope of the appended claimsl i What is claimedis: i
' 1. A refuse compactor, comprising:
a base; an upright hollow chamber having top and bottom open ends devoid of cover plates and adapted to rest on the top surface of said base, the. bottom edge of said chamber being scalloped;
a ram positioned above said chamber in axial alignment therewith;
hydraulic means for reciprocating said rarn relative to said chamber whereby refuse loaded into said chamber is compacted between said ram and said base and whereby waste liquids present in the refuse are expelled through the openings formed between the bottom scalloped edge of said chamber and the top surface of said base; and
second hydraulic means for vertically moving said chamber upwardly or downwardly relative to said base and said ram.
2. In a refuse compactor having an upright openended hollow chamber adapted to rest on a base and a vertically slidable ram positioned above said chamber and in axial alignment therewith, the method of compacting the refuse comprising:
loading said chamber with refuse;
compacting the refuse within said chamber with said ram; then raising said chamber with the refuse compacted therein to a position above said base; then placing a disposal container arounds said refuse compacted chamber between said base and the bottom end of said chamber while said chamber is raised;
lowering said refuse compacted chamber with said disposal container therearound until said container contacts said base;
moving said ram downwardly to a position in contacting relation to the top surface of the compacted refuse; and then.
moving said chamber upwardly while said ram is in the downward position thereby ejecting the refuse into said container for disposal.
3. The method of compacting refuse according to claim 2 including applying a pressure in the approximate range of to psi to said refuse during said compacting operation.
4. In a refuse compactor having an upright open ended hollow chamber adapted to rest on a base and a vertically slidable ram positioned above said chamber and in axial alignment therewith, the method of compacting the refuse comprising:
loading said chamber with refuse;
compacting the refuse within said chamber with said ram; raising said chamber with the refuse compacted therein to a position above said base; subsequently placing a disposal container around said chamber between said base and the bottom end of said refuse compacted chamber while said chamber is raised; then lowering said refuse compacted chamber with the container therearound to a position adjacent to said base; moving said ram downwardly to a position in contacting relation to the top surface of the compacted refuse; I
moving said chamber upwardly while said ram is in the downward position thereby ejecting the refuse into said container;
moving said ram upwardly from the top surface of the refuse; and
removing the container from the chamber with the refuse within thecontainer.
5. The method of compacting refuse according to claim 4 including applying a pressure in the approximate range of 100 to 150 psi to said refuse during said compacting operation.