US 3912647 A
A new fire extinguishing composition in the form of a high aqueous content thick viscous material which forms an effective water blanket when applied or sprayed on horizontal or vertical surfaces and the like.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [191 Adell  INVERT EMULSION FIRE EXTINGUISHING COMPOSITION AND METHOD  Inventor: Franklin Z. Adel], 1429 Ardmoor,
Birmingham, Mich. 48010  Filed: Dec. 6, 1973 21 App]. No.: 422,425
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,637,022 l/l972 Kelly et a] 252/8.05 X
FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 726,670 l/l966 Canada 252/2 Primary ExaminerBenjamin R. Padgett Assistant ExaminerE. Suzanne Parr Attorney, Agent, or FirmHarness, Dickey & Pierce  ABSTRACT A new fire extinguishing composition in the form of a high aqueous content thick viscous material which forms an effective water blanket when applied or sprayed on horizontal or vertical surfaces and the like.
6 Claims, N0 Drawings INVERT EMULSION FIRE EXTINGUISHING COMPOSITION AND METHOD BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention broadly relates to a new tire extin- In another aspect the present invention involves a guishing composition and method of preparing and apmethod of fire fighting comprising applying to the fire plying same. a composition comprised of (a) at least one non-ionic The state of the art is indicated by the following refsurfactant means selected from the group consisting of erences: US. Pat. Nos. 2,182,440; 2,356,205; alkylphenoxy poly( oxyethylene)ethanols, and (b) wa- 3,254,7l4; 3,297,084; 3,330,343; 3,356,610; ter, whereln the ratio of (b) to (a) is between about 5:1 3,425,939; 3,432,454. .r and 35:1.
The main obj ct of thi inve ti i to id a new From still another aspect the present invention comand improved fire extinguishing composition. Prlses a method of fire fighting comphsmg, adding Another object f th invention i to id a new water to a concentrated surfactant means with generh d f f l i a fire extinguishing comPosi- 5 ally concurrent application of sufficient controlled mixi ing energy to achieve an inverted emulsion type com- S il] another bjec f the present invention is to position in a gel like structure wherein said surfactant i a new method f fi extinguishing means generally encapsulates the water 111 small drop- Other objects, features and advantages of the present lets to form h elhulsioh which is f and viscous invention willbecome apparent from the subsequent h h sald emulslon to a desired surface for description and the appended claims. fire fighting- SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS While it is not fully understood why the invention I d th h works in such a highly satisfactory manner and while it n i i bl e g lscovery isstill being attempted to ascertain the underlying reaone par [cu ar y Sm a e ng compqsl 1S 1 made from a concentrate formulation comprised of a sons which bring about the excellent workability of the non-ionic surfactant material such as an alkylphenoxy invention, the following points are considered to be of poly(oxyethylene)ethanol type surfactant or surfactant significant importance. When the composition of this h d h bl l f invention is applied to a fire it effectively appears that mixture W 15 com me a Sulta 6 so ventor t bl k t f d th Th the concentrate such as petroleum naptha or the llke. 9 2; 33 g The concentrate formulation or surfactant means is g g l f 1S 6 $1 a Viscous mixed with water and it has been discovered that it is n mver emu 1 w f caltlses i i critically important to the invention herein that the ,9 nursermshsma i g wa er I t 6 9 35 water be added to the concentrate formulation slowly posmon if w g P Zprotecnve zz or the water should be added to the concentrate with over a to t ere y "93" or preveht concurrent application of sufficient controlled mixing The vlscoslty the Composmon gfjnerauy f energy to achieve the unique inverted emulsion in the ally thick and viscous and has a consistency similar to form of a gel like Structure having a mayonnaise like that of mayonnaise and the viscous compositlon has a 40 consistency and viscosity gel like structure. The composition has the ability to The fire fighting composition discovered and adhere to vertical surfaces as well as horizontal surclosed herein may be applied to desired surfaces in a faces wherein the surfaces are of materials such as number f diff t manners For example, it may be steel, wood, brick, cement, glass, tarred surfaces, etc. applied by pouring, pumping spraying etc The impor w the fhp h 1S sprayed on a burning Surface tant point is that the composition herein, once applied, It has the ablhty to build p a l y coahhg that is highly effective in extinguishing or preventing fires. tinguishes or assists in preventing f re. When the comw applied by Spraying or through a nozzle, it has p n 01 emulsion of this invention 15 heated abpv been discovered that the composition herein must be the bOlIlng POIITI, II hasbeen discovered that vaporizathrough a nozzle pening does not re- Occurs leaving ah hke resldue- Subsequently or strict or break down the gel like structure such that the eventually the y hke residue evaporates when composition would be changed back to a form wherein posed to air in most instances. Also in accordance with h water i non l ted, the invention, the fires y be Controlled from P The ratio of water to the concentrate or surfactant ing by spraying the emulsion or composition of this inmeans herein should broadly be within the range of vention on areas not yet reached by the fire and the about 5:1 and 35:1, and preferably this ratio should be composition then prevents the fire from spreading to maintained within the range of about 20:1 and 30:1. such areas. In accordance with the inventive discovery The viscosity or consistency of the composition herein herein, it also appears that when a tire or a flame is apis like mayonnaise in appearance. plied to the emulsion or composition the gel like struc- In order to further illustrate the invention, the followture strongly resists break down. ing examples are provided. It is to be understood, how- Briefly stated the present invention concerns a fire ever, that the examples are included for illustrative purextinguishing composition, in the form of an invert poses and are not intended to be limiting of the scope emulsion and being of relatively thick viscosity, comof the invention as set forth in the subjoined claims.
EXAMPLES No. l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (a) Concentrate-Surfactant Formulation lgepal DM-430 l6 l0 13 12 20 30 EXAMPLES Continued No. l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 lgepal CO-310 9 5 7 6 12 25 lgepal CO-530 4 3 4 3 8 35 Petroleum Naptha SC-205 7] 82 76 79 6O 70 75 65 Total parts by weight 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 (b) Water-balance of 7/1 /1 /1 /1 /1 25/1 30/1 28/1 composition at volume ratio of (water/concentrate) IGEPAL is a TRADEMARK of the GAP Corporation. The IGEPAL DM surfactant has a chemical structure of a polyoxyethylated dialkylphenol, illustrated by 15 the following formula:
hydrophobic hydrophilic dialkylphenoxypoly(ethyleneoxy)ethanol hydrophobic hydrophilic nonylphenoxypoly(ethyleneoxy)ethanol (n denotes the number of moles ethylene oxide per mole of nonylphenol).
Example Formulating Procedure: add water into concentrate portion (a) at l to 1 ratio and mix, then add 2 added volume parts water and mix, then slowly add additional water with simultaneous high agitation of the mixture until ratio indicated is achieved.
While it will be apparent that the preferred embodiments of the invention disclosed are well calculated to fulfill the objects above stated, it will be appreciated that the invention is susceptible to modification, variation and change without departing from the proper scope or fair meaning of the sub-joined claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A fire extinguishing composition, in the form of an invert emulsion and being of relatively thick viscosity, consisting essentially of,
a. at least one non-ionic surfactant means selected from the group consisting of alkylphenoxy poly(oxyethylene) ethanols, and
b. water, wherein the ratio of (b) to (a) is between about 5:1 and 35:1.
2. The invention of claim 1 wherein,
said ratio is between about 20:1 and 30:1.
3. A method of fire fighting comprising applying to the fire a composition consisting essentially of a. at least one non-ionic surfactant means selected from the group consisting of alkylphenoxy poly(oxyethylene) ethanols, and
b. water, wherein the ratio of (b) to (a) is between about 5:1 to 35:1.
4. A method of fire fighting consisting essentially of,
a. adding water to a concentrated non-ionic surfactant with generally concurrent application of sufficient controlled mixing energy to achieve an inverted emulsion type composition in a gel like structure wherein said surfactant generally encapsulates the water in small droplets to form the emulsion which is thick and viscous,
b. applying said emulsion to a desired surface for fire fighting.
5. The invention of claim 4 wherein,
said emulsion is applied through a nozzle opening means operative for maintaining the gel like structure and preventing de-encapsulating of the water.
6. The invention of claim 4 wherein,
the water and surfactant are present respectively at a ratio between about 20:1 and 35:1.