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Publication numberUS3913553 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 21, 1975
Filing dateJul 18, 1973
Priority dateMar 16, 1971
Publication numberUS 3913553 A, US 3913553A, US-A-3913553, US3913553 A, US3913553A
InventorsBraughler Guy E, Fischer Earl L, Garmon Jr Lee F, Miller William J, Simpson Melvin L
Original AssigneeVictor Comptometer Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Air gun with removable projectile holding means
US 3913553 A
Abstract
There is herein disclosed an air gun having a manually rotatable, multiple chamber, removable, projectile holding member connected to a source of compressed air by an elastic resilient sealing sleeve. The projectile holding member is made of one piece of molded plastic material having an integral shaft rotatably supporting the projectile holding member in a transverse access slot in a breech block between a source of high pressure fluid and a barrel with a sealing member therebetween and a detent to enable sequential indexing.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Braughler et a1.

1 Oct. 21,1975

1 1 AIR GUN WITH REMOVABLE PROJECTILE HOLDING MEANS [75] lnventors: Guy E. Braughler, Rogers; Earl L.

Fischer, Bentonville; Lee F. Garmon, Jr., Rogers; William .1. Miller, Springdale; Melvin L. Simpson, Rogers, all of Ark.

[73] Assignee: Victor Comptometer Corporation,

Chicago, 111.

[22] Filed: July 18, 1973 [21] Appl. No.: 380,220

Related US. Application Data [63] Continuation of Ser. No, 124,803, March 16, 1971,

abandoned.

[52] U.S. Cl. 124/15; 124/41; 124/48 [51] Int. Cl. F41B 11/00 [58] Field of Search 124/11 R, 12, 13 A, 14, 124/15, 48;12/19, 59; 273/142 J, 142 JC. 142 JD 156] References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 278,005 5/1883 Fredricks et a1. 124/12 390,297 10/1888 Hamilton 124/15 962,217 6/1910 Heckman 124/15 995,146 6/1911 .lelfries 124/15 2,006,030 6/1935 Price 124/13 A 2,798,329 7/1957 Radatz 42/59 3,119,384 1/1964 Merz 124/11 R 3,212,489 10/1965 Merz 124/11 R 3,385,279 5/1968 Pitcher 124/15 3,502,061 3/1970 Yoo 124/13 A 3,765,116 10/1973 Zaid 42/59 X Primary ExaminerRichard C. Pinkham Assislan! Examiner-R. T, Stouffer Attorney, Agenl, or FirmBruce G. Klaas, Esq.

[57] ABSTRACT There is herein disclosed an air gun having a manually rotatable, multiple chamber, removable, projectile holding member connected to a source of compressed air by an elastic resilient sealing sleeve. The projectile holding member is made of one piece of molded plas tic material having an integral shaft rotatably supporting the projectile holding member in a transverse ac cess slot in a breech block between a source of high pressure fluid and a barrel with a sealing member therebetween and a detent to enable sequential index- 37 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures U.S. Patent 0a. 21, 1975 Sheet 3 Ora 3,913,553

W M, W 7 M i Q/ i W W w y m y m I A /M\ \J/W/J, UL /fl Tim 1 4 J M 1 W M M 1 f d flag w H "MM m d m M W "A /MM XIV w rm/MW /V WM AIR GUN WITH REMOVABLE PROJECTILE HOLDING MEANS This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 124,803 filed Mar. 16. 1971, now abandoned.

SUMMARY OF INVENTIVE FEATURES The invention relates generally to guns and, more particularly, to compressed gas operated guns. While the illustrative embodiments described herein relate specifically to a pneumatic gun of the type adapted to shoot projectiles by air compressed during shooting of the gun, it is contemplated that certain of the inventive concepts may be applicable to other types of guns including both air guns and firearms or combinations thereof.

One of the features of the present invention is the provision of a manually rotatable, multiple chamber, projectile holding means which is easily insertable in and removable from the gun. It is intended that the projectile holding means be so designed and constructed as to be very inexpensive to manufacture whereby the shooter may keep several pre-loaded projectile holding means at hand and merely replace the projectile holding means when emptied rather than reloading. From a safety standpoint, another advantage is that the projectile holding means may be removed when the gun is not in use thereby preventing any possibility of accidental discharge. Also, the projectile holding means must be manually rotated to bring a projectile into firing position so that accidental discharge is further reduced.

Another feature of the present invention is the provision of sealing means which prevent the escape of compressed air and cause the air pressure to be utilized primarily in expelling the projectile. By minimizing air leakage, relatively high uniform projectile velocities are obtainable with relatively low strength and inexpensive compression apparatus.

Still another feature of the present invention is the provision of a removable rotatable projectile holding means which is associated with sealing means mounted in the gun in a manner permitting relatively easy manual rotation of the projectile holding means while still obtaining maximum sealing.

An additional feature of the present invention is the provision of a breech assembly requiring a minimum number of relatively inexpensive parts.

PRIOR ART With respect to the general concept of providing a rotatable multiple chamber projectile holding device in an air gun, Bunge U.S. Pat. No. 94,279 issued Aug. 31, 1869; German Pat. No. 380,225 issued Oct. 16, 1921; Price U.S. Pat. No. 2,006,030 issued June 25, 1935; Lohret al. U.S. Pat. No. 2,237,678 issued Apr. 2, 1941; Merz U.S. Pat. No. 3,212,489 issued Oct. 19, 1965; and Yoo U.S. Pat. No. 3,502,061 issued Mar. 24, 1970; illustrate various prior art arrangements.

With respect to sealing the movable breech of an air gun, the general concept of providing a resilient seal between the air compression chamber and the movable breech is shown in the prior art at least as early as Fredericks et al. U.S. N0. N0. 278,005 issued May 22, 1883, and Quackenbush U.S. Pat. No. 370,817 issued Oct. 4, 1887. The general concept of providing a resilient seal in the forward end of the air compression chamber, as well as the general concept of a combination piston cushion and breech seal, are shown in the prior art at least as early as Kleaber U.S. Pat. No. 440,638 issued Nov. 18, 1890, and Bailey U.S. Pat. No. 487,169 issued Nov. 29, 1892. The general concept of providing a seal between a compressed air source and a separate movable projectile holding device, as well as a seal between the barrel and the device, has been known in the prior art since at least as early as the aforementioned U.S. Pat. No. 278,005 and is also shown in McLain et al. U.S. Pat. No. 1,375,653 issued Apr. 19, 1921, and German Pat. No. 380,225 issued Oct. 16, 1921. The general concept of mounting a resilient seal in the air compression chamber of an air operated gun with a portion extending forwardly through an aperture in the chamber wall and sealingly engaging a separate ammunition holding device is disclosed in the aforementioned U.S. Pat. No. 2,237,678 and in Cook U.S. Pat. No. 2,568,432 issued Sept. 18, 1951. Other types of resilient seals in air guns are shown in Stevens U.S. Pat. No. 2,306,668 issued Dec. 29, 1942; Hale U.S. Pat. No. 2,357,951 issued Sept. 12, 1955; Foster U.S. Pat. No. 2,653,593 issued Sept. 29, 1953, U.S. Pat. No. 2,729,207 issued Jan. 3, 1956, U.S. Pat. No. 2,749,902 issued June 12, 1956, and U.S. Pat. No. 2,762,356 issued Sept. 11, 1956; Daniel U.S. Pat. No. 2,831,475 issued Apr. 22, 1958; Swiss Pat. No. 338,120 issued Apr. 30, 1959; Marsh et al. U.S. Pat. No. 2,900,972 issued Aug. 25, 1959; Webby U.S. Pat. No. 2,945,486 issued July 19, 1960; Townshend U.S. Pat. No. 3,040,711 issued June 26, 1962; and Metcalf U.S. Pat. No. 3,205,883 issued Sept. 14, 1965.

Various types of pressure operated seals have been suggested for use with rotatable ammunition holding devices in the firearm art as illustrated by Tyler U.S. Pat. No. 325,878 issued Sept. 8, 1885; Bird U.S. Pat. No. 2,790,353 issued Apr. 30, 1957; Dardick U.S. Pat. No. 2,847,784 issued Aug. 19, 1958; Lucht U.S. Pat. No. 2,866,386 issued Dec. 30, 1958; Sergay U.S. Pat. No. 2,981,023 issued Apr. 25, 1961; and Bartels U.S. Pat. No. 3,125,928 issued Mar. 24, 1964.

Pressure operated seals of various types are also found in the hydraulics art as illustrated by Hamer U.S. Pat. No. 2,214,959 issued Sept. 17, 1940, and Anderson et al. U.S. Pat. No. 2,985,422 issued May 23, 1961.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a side elevational view, in cross section and with portions removed, of an air gun embodying the inventive concepts;

FIG. 2 is an enlarged cross sectional view of the breech portion of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 showing the relationship of the parts in a transfer position;

FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view taken along the line 3-3 in FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is an enlarged cross sectional view of the breech portion of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 showing the relationship of the parts in a firing position;

FIG. 5 is a cross sectional view taken along the line 5-5 of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is an enlarged cross sectional view of an alternative and presently preferred embodiment of the inventive principles in breech apparatus shown in a transfer position;

FIG. 7 is an enlarged cross sectional view of the apparatus of FIG. 6 in a firing position;

FIG. 8 is an enlarged cross sectional view of the apparatus of FIGS. 6-7 with parts removed.

FIG. 9 is an enlarged cross sectional view taken along the line 99 in FIG. 6; and

FIG. 10 is a detailed view of the sealing means of the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9.

Common parts and features of the alternative embodiments are hereinafter described by common reference numerals.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring now to FIG. 1 of the drawing, the inventive concepts are illustratively embodied in an air gun 10 comprising a metal housing means 12 and stock means 14. The forward portion of the housing is tubular and divided by breech block means 16 into a barrel chamber 18 containing a barrel 20 and an air compression chamber 22 containing piston means 24 operable from a rearwardly retracted position to a forwardly extended firing position by compression spring means 26 to compress air in chamber 22 and drive a projectile from the gun through the barrel. A piston rod means 28 extends rearwardly and is releasably engageable by trigger means 30 in the retracted position. Cocking lever means 32 is provided to move the piston means rearwardly to the retracted position against the bias of the spring means 26. A rotatable projectile holding means 34 having a plurality of projectile chambers 36 is mounted in loading slot means 38 in the breech block means. A rear sealing means 40 is mounted in the air chamber against the rear of the breech block means with a forwardly extending sleeve portion engageable with the rear surface of the projectile holding means. In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, a detent means 42 is cooperable with the projectile holding means to hold one of the projectile chambers in alignment with the barrel. In an alternative and presently preferred embodiment shown in FIGS. 6-9, a front sealing means 44 is mounted in the breech block means between the barrel and the projectile holding means. and a combination latch-detent means 46 is manually movable forwardly against the bias of spring means 48 from a rearwardly extended position retaining the projectile holding means in the loading slot to a forwardly retracted position permitting removal and replacement of the projectile holding means.

HOUSING MEANS The housing means 12 may be formed from one piece of sheet metal with a cylindrical forward portion having a welded bottom seam and a flanged bottom opening rearward portion. In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, the diameter of the barrel chamber portion is less than the diameter of the air chamber portion to provide a rearwardly facing abutment shoulder 50 whereas, in the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9, the diameter is the same. Access slot means 52 are provided in the bottom of the housing by a transverse slot portion 54 extending circumferentially approximately 180 and a generally rectangular axially extending slot portion 56 intersecting the transverse portion along the bottom of the housing. In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, the transverse portion centrally intersects the axial portion whereas, in the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9, the transverse portion is located at the rear end of the axial portion with an abutment flange recess 58 extending circumferentially approximately 120 and a narrow rectangular shaft access opening 60 located rearwardly of the transverse portion as shown in FIG. 8. The access slot means may be located in other positions such as at the side or top of the housing.

BREECH BLOCK MEANS The breech block means 16 comprises a one-piece molded plastic (a modified phenylene oxide is presently preferred) support member 62 of generally cylindrical peripheral configuration, having an outside diameter generally corresponding to the inside diameter of the housing so as to be insertable therein, and a metallic retainer member 64 having an axially extending outer rim 66, welded or otherwise fixedly secured to the housing. A radially extending abutment flange 68 of the retainer member abuts one end of the support member which is staked in place in the housing by suitable radially inwardly extending projections (not shown). Centrally located front and rear bores 70, 71 extend axially through the support member and are centrally intersected by loading slot 38 which is defined by front and rear surfaces 72, 73 and an arcuate upper surface 74. The rear end of the barrel 0.177 inch diameter bore) is supported in the front bore with a 9 tapered inlet opening facing the loading slot to receive a .177 inch diameter projectile from the projectile holding means 34 when the gun is fired.

In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, a detent cavity 75 having narrow slot portions 76, 77 is provided above the loading slot. Front and rear shaft bearing bores 78, 79 and projectile loading and unloading recesses 80, 82 are axially aligned on opposite sides of the loading slot. Front and rear end surfaces 84, 86 extend transversely to the central axis and a counterbore 88 connects bore 71 to the rear surface 86.

In the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9, a detent cavity 88 in the bottom of the support member opens downwardly above housing slot portion 56 and rearwardly into loading slot 38. An axially extending guideway is provided along the detent cavity by a flat upper surface 90, side wall surfaces 92, 94 and bottom surfaces 96, 98 of the support member as well as arcuate inner surface portions 100, 102 of the housing as shown in FIG. 9. An axially extending arcuate shaft groove 103 is centrally located along the upper surface 90. Referring to FIG. 8, a spring well 104 and abutment wall 105 are provided at the forward end of the detent cavity and a radially extending forwardly and downwardly opening shaft slot 106 is located across the loading slot opposite the detent cavity. The rear of the front bore portion 70 is inwardly stepped and counterbored to provide a rearwardly facing annular seal seat 108 and a forwardly facing barrel abutment surface 110. The rear of bore 71 is countersunk to provide a radially outwardly rearwardly inclined rear abutment surface 112 for similarly inclined flange portion 68 of the retainer member. The rear peripheral surface is undercut to provide an axially extending cylindrical abutment surface 114 for the outer rim 66 of the retainer member. An inner annular rim 166 on the retainer member extends into rear bore portion 7; and terminates in an annular forwardly facing abutment 118. A radially protruding abutment flange extends downwardly through the housing flange recess 58 radially beyond at least a portion of the cylinder chamber 36, as shown in FIGS. 6-7, and is separated into two portions extending circumferentially approximately 30 on opposite sides of the shaft slot 106 and shaft access opening 60 by a central access slot 121. It is contemplated that the loading slot 38 may be located at the side or the top of the gun as well as at the bottom.

PROJECTILE HOLDING MEANS The projectile holding means 34 comprises a relatively small (e.g., 0.375 X 0.860 inch), one-piece, molded plastic (a modified phenylene oxide is presently preferred), cylindrical member having five axially extending projectile chambers 36 equally circumferentially spaced therein and a central support shaft bore 122. A rearwardly facing abutment shoulder means 124 is provided at the rear of each projectile chamber by a counterbore or a countersink to abut and hold a skirted hollow lead pellet 126 of lead or the like against forward movement until a predetermined maximum air pressure is applied thereto. The presently preferred shoulder means is in the form of a counterbore (0.199 to 0.201 inch diameter) connected to the chamber (0.180 to 0.182 inch diameter) by a 30 chamfer. In addition, axially extending rib means 127, there being three equally circumferentially spaced ribs illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 5, are provided in the projectile chambers and frictionally engage the projectile to prevent inadvertent rearward or forward displacement of the projectile prior to firing. Either a BB type or pellet type projectile may be used and the ribs will hold a BB from displacement in either direction. The presently pre ferred rib means is in the form of a triangularly-shaped projection protruding radially inwardly 0.006 inch, having an included angle of 90, and extending rearwardly from the front of the chamber approximately .28 inch with the rear end being outwardly tapered into the chamber wall by a smooth large diameter (e.g., 2.0 inch) curved surface or extending the full length of the chamber to the counterbore to frictionally engage the peripheral surface of the projectile. A shaft 128 supports the cylindrical member for rotation about an axis parallel to and radially offset from the central axis of the barrel a distance such as to enable the projectile chambers to be sequentially aligned with the barrel.

In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, the shaft 128 is removably slidably mounted in bearing bores 78, 79 and extends forwardly to the front of the barrel chamber where it is held against axial forward movement by a removable end plug 130. The cylinder member is rotatable and axially slidable on the shaft. Axially extending detent grooves 132 are located opposite each chamber and finger grooves 134 may be provided around the periphery of the cylindrical member to facilitate manual application of rotative forces.

In the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9, the shaft 128 is shortened with an enlarged front end 136 being rotatably supported in the detent cavity between the detent means 46 and shaft groove 103 in the support member 62. The reduced rear end 138 is rotatably confined in shaft slot 106. The cylindrical member is fixed to the shaft and rotatably and axially displaceable therewith. The periphery of the cylindrical member may be knurled to facilitate manual application of rotative forces.

DETENT MEANS In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, the detent means 42 is in the form ofa U-shaped leaf spring element having leg portions 139, 140 confined in slot portions 76, 77 of the detent cavity and a connecting portion 141 extending therebetween with a centrally located nipple 142 resiliently engaging the periphery of the projectile cylinder. When a projectile chamber is axially aligned with the barrel, the nipple is seated in the adjacent peripheral groove 132 which permits axial sliding movement of the projectile holding member relative to the detent means.

in the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9, the combined latchdetent means 46 is in the form of a molded plastic (a modified phenylene oxide being presently preferred) slide member 143 having a pair of rearwardly extending detent projections 144, 146 equally radially and circumferentially spaced relative to the projectile chambers 36 so as to be axially alignable with and abuttingly receivable in adjacent chambers when one of the other chambers is aligned with the barrel. The side surfaces 147 of the projections 144, 146 are inclined to cause a camming action when positive forces are applied to the projectile holding member. Referring now to FIG. 9, axially extending opposite guide grooves 148, 150 slidably receive the adjacent edges 152, 154 of the housing access slot portion 56. Axially extending opposite rib portions 156, 158 are slidably received in guide slots 160, 162. A central rib portion 164 is slidably received in the guide groove defined by surfaces 90, 92, 94. The length of the slide member is such as to permit it to be assembled through the loading slot 38 and it is retained in the assembled position by frictional engagement with the support member, the housing, and the spring means 48. An upwardly and rearwardly opening arcuate shaft bearing seat 166 is centrally formed along the upper surface of the slide member and terminates forwardly in a transverse abutment wall 168. A spring well 170 is provided forwardly of the abutment wall for the rear portion of compression spring 48 which is frictionally retained therein by transverse detent ribs (not shown). A serrated contoured gripping surface 174 is provided at the bottom of the slide member to facilitate manual finger-type application of forwardly directed forces to move the slide member forwardly against the bias of the compression spring.

SEALING MEANS The rear sealing means 40 comprises a selfsupporting annular one-piece molded plastic (polyurethane being presently preferred) member having a radially extending base portion and an axially extending sleeve portion 182 which is axially aligned with the barrel. A central bore 184 provides an air passage for delivery of high pressure from the air chamber to the aligned one of the projectile chambers. A sealing lip 186 at the front end of the sleeve portion is sealingly engageable with the rear surface of the projectile holding member circumjacent an aligned one of the projectile chambers. Base portion 180 terminates in an annular rim 188 having its outer peripheral surface frictionally seated on the inner periphery of the housing and the adjacent forwardly facing side surface 190 abuttingly and sealingly engaging the adjoining side surface of the breech block means. The adjacent rearwardly facing side surface 192 engages the piston in the forwardly extended position so that the base portion 180 acts both as an air chamber seal and a piston cushion. A pin 193 on the piston enters the bore 184 in the forwardly extended position to reduce chamber volume as much as possible. An intermediate flange portion 194 of reduced thickness relative to the base portion 180 joins the sleeve portion to the base portion and hingedly supports and permits axial displacement of the sleeve portion relative to the base portion which is accommodated by the axial air gap between the front surface of the flange portion and the rear surface of the breech block means.

In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, the sleeve portion 182 has a constant diameter outer peripheral surface and is radially spaced from the adjoining surfaces of the breech block means throughout its length. A forwardly facing annular groove I96 is located opposite the counterbore portion 88 of bore 71 to provide sufficient clearance between the seal and the breech block means and to provide sufficient flexibility in the connecting flange to enable free swinging movement of the sleeve portion between a rearwardly retracted normal unstressed position and a forwardly extended sealing position resulting from forwardly directed forces on the rear surface of the connecting flange applied as air is compressed in chamber 22 during firing of the gun. The arrangement is such that the sealing lip is axially rear wardly spaced from the rear surface of the projectile holding member in the normal position. When the piston is released, air pressure moves the sleeve portion and sealing lip forwardly into engagement with the projectile holding member which is also moved forwardly by air pressure into abutting engagement with the rearwardly facing side surface of the loading slot. This arrangement is not entirely satisfactory since some air escapes before sealing engagement of the parts is obtained and there is some tendency to invert the sleeve portion during cocking of the gun.

In the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9, a more satisfactory sealing arrangement has been obtained by providing a rearwardly opening annular recess 200 (FIG. 10) in the base portion 180 with the front surfaces of the base portion and flange portion being continuous and engageable with the similarly contoured adjoining surface of the retaiing member 64 of breech block means 16. In addition, a retaining lip 202 of larger outside diameter than the inside diameter of the inner rim 116 is engageable with the forwardly facing abutment surface 118, FIG. 8, to restrict rearward movement of the sleeve portion. Also, the front surface of the sealing lip is normally located in the loading slot axially forwardly of abutment surface 73 so as to be in constant engagement with the rear side surface of the projectile cylinder. Compression spring 48 constantly biases the projectile cylinder rearwardly into engagement with the sealing lip so that normally the sleeve portion is rearwardly displaced under load with the retaining lip 202 engaging the abutment I18 as shown in FIG. 6. When the piston is released, air pressure acts on the rearwardly facing side surface of flange portion 194 and on the rear surface of the pellet in the aligned projectile chamber to move both the sleeve portion 182 and the projectile holding member forwardly while maintaining sealing engagement between the sealing lip I86 and the projectile holding member. Forward movement of the projectile holding member is limited by abutting engagement with the rearwardly facing side surface 72 of the loading slot. The front of the aligned projectile chamber is also sealed by compressive engagement with the front sealing means 44 which takes the form of an elastomeric O-ring type gasket mounted in seal groove I08 and normally protruding rearwardly be yond the abutment surface 72.

ASSEMBLY AND OPERATION One of the features of the present invention is the provision of a multiple shot air gun comprising relatively few and inexpensive parts which are relatively easily assembled. In general, the assembly comprises the steps of positioning the retainer ring portion of the breech means in the housing and spot welding it in place. Then the one-piece plastic support member portion of the breech means is positioned and fastened in the housing in abutting engagement with the retainer ring. Then the rear sealing means is positioned in the housing in abutting engagement with the rear surface of the support member portion of the breech block means, FIGS. 1-5, or the retainer member portion, FIGS. 6-9. Any internal parts, such as the leaf spring detent of FIGS. IS or the compression spring detent of FIGS. 6-9, may be prepositioned in the support member and inserted therewith. The breech block means is then ready to receive the projectile holding device through the access slot in the housing. In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, the support shaft I28 is inserted from the front of the gun through the front bore 78, across the loading slot 38, and into the rear bore 79. In the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9, the projectile holding device is fixedly mounted on the shaft and inserted and removed from the loading slot as a unit. The slide member 143 is semi-permanently mounted in the detent cavity through the access slot in the housing and the loading slot in the support member. The slide member is frictionally retained in the mounted position in the detent cavity, unless manually removed therefrom, and, absent the projectile holding member, will be located by spring 48 in a rearwardly displaced position partially blocking the loading slot. In order to insert the projectile holding member, the slide member is moved forwardly against the bias of compression spring 48, which may be preassembled, to clear the loading slot and permit the projectile holding member to be inserted by positioning the rear shaft end 138 in slot 106 and the front shaft end 136 against the shaft groove 103 at the top of the detent cavity in axial alignment with bearing seat 166 in the slide member. Then the slide member is released and moves rearwardly over the front end of the support shaft which is thereafter supported by bearing seat 166 in the slide member. The front end of the compression spring 48 is axially restrained by transverse detent ribs on the side of the spring well 104, as shown in FIG. 8, and the rear end of the spring engages similar transverse detent ribs in the spring well to hold the slide member on the spring and in the detent cavity when the projectile holding member is removed. The different diameter shaft portions 136, I38 prevent inadvertent reverse insertion of the projectile holding member. One of the advantages of this invention is that, when all pellets have been fired, the gun shooter can replace the entire empty projectile holding member with another preloaded projectile holding member. It is contemplated that a gun shooter may desire to keep enough preloaded projectileholding members at hand to last for an entire shooting session.

OPERATION In operation, the projectile cylinder is movable axi ally between a transfer position, FIGS. 2 and 6, and a forwardly displaced firing position, FIGS. 4 and 7, in

abutting engagement with the rearwardly facing front side surface 72 of the loading slot 38. In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, in the transfer position, the cylinder is centrally located in the loading slot in axially spaced relationship to the sealing sleeve and the front and rear side surfaces of the leading slot whereas, in the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9, in the transfer position, the cylinder is rearwardly displaced into more or less abutting engagement with the sealing lip 186 on sealing sleeve 182 and the forwardly facing rear side surface 73 of the loading slot. Also, in the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, the projectile holding member slides on the shaft whereas in the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9, the projectile holding member and the shaft move axially as a unit.

The projectile holding member is also rotatably indexably movable in the transfer position to successively alternately align the projectile chambers with the barrel as shown in FIGS. 5, 6, and 7. In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, the projectile holding member rotates on the support shaft and is also positionable in a loading position, FIG. 3, with one of the chambers aligned with loading and unloading recesses 80, 82 at the bottom of the gun. The detent nipple 142 resiliently engages the outer peripheral surface of the projectile holding member and is received in the detent slots 132 to hold the projectile holding member in the firing position. In the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9, the projectile holding member is fixed on the support shaft and rotates therewith. The support shaft is rotatably and slidably supported at the rear in the shaft slot 106 and at the front between the shaft groove 103 in the support member and bearing seat 166 in the slide member. Compression spring 48 biases the projectile holding member rearwardly into abutting engagement with the rear side wall 73 of the loading slot and also biases the detent projections 144, 146 on the slide member into releasable engagement in the front of two adjacent axially aligned chambers 36. When manually applicable rotative forces are exerted on the periphery of the projectile holding member, the detent projections 144, 146 are cammed out of the aligned chambers 36 and the slide member 143 moves forwardly to permit rotation of the projectile holding member 34 to align the next chamber with the barrel in the firing position. In order to insert a loaded projectile holding member or remove an empty projectile holding member, slide member 143 is moved forwardly against the bias of spring 48 until the front end 136 of the shaft clears the bearing seat 166 in the slide member whereupon the projectile holding member and shaft are radially removable from the loading slot. Retainer member flange 120 covers the rear of the chambers 36 to prevent inadvertent removal of the loaded projectiles when the projectile holding member is mounted in the loading slot.

The sleeve portion 182 of the sealing means 42 is axially movable between a rearward loading position. FIGS. 2 and 6, and a forward firing position, FIGS. 4 and 7. Axial forward movement is obtained by application of force on the thin wall hinge portion 194 of the sealing means caused by compression of air in chamber 22 when the gun is fired by pulling trigger means 30 and releasing piston rod means 28 so that compression spring 26 drives the piston means 24 forwardly into abutting engagement with the cushion portion 192 of the sealing means. Piston projection 193 enters the sleeve bore to more completely reduce the volume of the air chamber and obtain higher air pressures. The

high pressure air also forces the projectile holding member 34 forwardly to the firing position while maintaining sealing engagement between the sealing lip 186 and the projectile holding member. When the air pressure exceeds the shot start force provided by frictional engagement between chamber shoulder 124 and ribs 127 and the projectile after the projectile holding member is in the forwardly displaced firing position in abutting engagement with the front surface 72 of the loading slot, the projectile is released and discharged into and through the barrel. The characteristics of the plastic material of the projectile holding member, the structure and location of the integral shoulder and ribs, and the characteristics of the conventional hollow lead pellet are such As cause sufficient distortion under air pressure to release the pellet without damage to the plastic projectile holding member. Upon reduction in air pressure, the projectile holding member and sealing sleeve are free to move rearwardly. The sealing sleeve is moved rearwardly by its own resilience and elasticity. In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, the projectile holding member is freely slidable on the support shaft when the sealing sleeve has moved rearwardly whereas, in the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9, the projectile holding member is biased rearwardly by compression spring 48 and follows the sealing sleeve rearwardly. Since the sealing sleeve normally extends into the loading slot in the embodiment of FIGS. 6-9, the compression spring also exerts a slight rearwardly directly force on the sealing sleeve through the projectile holding member to maintain the cylinder and the sealing lip in abutting engagement when the projectile holding member is in the rearward position in abutting engagement with the rear side surface of the loading slot.

We claim:

1. A fluid operated gun comprising:

an elongated tubular housing,

a breech block mounted in said tubular housing and dividing it into a barrel chamber and an air compression chamber,

a barrel mounted in said barrel chamber for firing a projectile from the gun,

a piston mounted in said air compression chamber to compress air therein,

an axial passage extending through said breech block and connecting said air chamber and said barrel,

a transverse slot in said breech block intersecting said axial passage and opening through the outer peripheral surface of said breech block,

an access slot in said housing in alignment with said transverse slot,

a projectile holding member rotatably and transversely slidably mounted in said transverse slot,

a plurality of projectile chambers in said member sequentially alignable with said axial passage and said barrel,

air passage sealing means effective between said air compression chamber and said projectile chambers in said member to provide a sealed air passage therebetween,

bearing means on opposite sides of said transverse slot,

axially extending shaft means supporting said member in said transverse slot on said bearing means,

detent means in the gun adjacent said transverse slot movable between a holding position and a release position relative to said member and engageable with said member in the holding position to rotatably releasably hold said member in said transverse slot,

spring means biasing said detent means to the holding position,

finger receiving means on said detent means to manually move said detent means from the holding position to the release position to permit insertion and removal of said member,

first abutment means on said detent means axially aligned with said projectile chambers and insertable therein to hold one of said chambers in firing position.

2. The invention as defined in claim 1 wherein the axial width of said transverse slot being greater than the axial width of said member to permit axial sliding movement of said member between a rearwardly displaced transfer position and a forwardly displaced firing position, and said spring means biasing said member toward the transfer position.

3. The invention as defined in claim 2 and having barrel sealing means mounted circumjacent said axial passage between said barrel and said member and sealingly engaging said member in the firing position, and

said air passage sealing means mounted in said axial passage between said air compression chamber and said member and sealingly engaging said member in the firing position.

4. The invention as defined in claim 3 wherein the strength of said spring means being such as to enable said member to move axially forwardly in the firing position into engagement with said barrel sealing means due to air pressure during compression of air in said air compression chamber during firing of the gun.

5. The invention as defined in claim 4 wherein a sleeve portion of said air passage sealing means being movable axially with said member due to air pressure during compression of air in said air compression chamber during firing of the gun.

6. The invention as defined in claim 1 wherein a peripheral portion of said member being exposed for finger gripping to apply a circumferentially directed force on the member, and

the strength of said spring means being such as to enable said detent means to move axially and withdraw said abutment means relative to said chambers upon manual application of a circumferentially directed force on said member and permit said member to be rotated.

7. The invention as defined in claim 1 wherein projectile holding member further comprises:

second abutment means in said chambers engageable with a projectile to hold the projectile against axial forward movement until said member has been moved to the firing position.

8. The invention as defined in claim 7 and wherein said second abutment means comprises:

a counterbore at the rear end of said chambers, and

radially inwardly protruding axially extending rib means at the front end of said chambers.

9. The invention as defined in claim 8 and wherein said rib means comprises:

a plurality of equally circumferentially spaced ribs.

10. The invention as defined in claim 9 and wherein said rib means having a triangular cross sectional configuration with the apex engaging the projectile and guiding the projectile from said chambers into said barrel.

II. The invention as defined in claim 10 and wherein the rear portions of said rib means being tapered into the periphery of said chambers in front of the projectile held in said chambers.

12. The invention as defined in claim 8 and having radially extending flange means along the rear side of said slot overlapping said chambers to prevent rearward displacement of the projectile held therein.

13. The invention as defined in claim I and further comprising:

an axially extending detent cavity in said breech block adjacent said slot,

axially extending guide groove means adjacent said detent cavity, and

rib means on said detent means slidably associated with said groove means and holding said detent means in said gun.

14. The invention as defined in claim 13 and having a first spring well at the end of said detent cavity,

a second spring well in said detent means opposite said first spring well, and

said spring means comprising a compression spring mounted in first spring well and said second spring well and extending therebetween.

15. The invention as defined in claim 14 and means frictionally holding one end of said compression spring in the first spring well and holding the other end of said compression spring in the second spring well whereby said detent means is releasably held in said detent cav ity.

16. The invention as defined in claim I and wherein said abutment means comprises a plurality of tapered projections engageable with at least two of said projectile chambers.

17. A fluid operated gun comprising:

a source of high pressure fluid,

a barrel for firing a projectile from the gun,

a breech block between said source and said barrel,

a slot in said breech block between said source and said barrel,

a projectile holding member rotatably mounted in said slot,

a plurality of projectile holding chambers in said projectile holding member and being selectively alignable with said barrel,

sealing means effective between said source and said projectile holding chambers to provide a sealed fluid passage therebetween,

releasable holding means releasably holding said projectile holding member for rotation in said slot to selectively align said projectile holding chambers with said barrel and permitting removal of said projectile holding member from said slot, and comprising:

a removable shaft extending across said slot,

axially spaced and aligned support bearing means for said shaft being axially relatively movable between an open position permitting removal and insertion of said shaft and said projectile holding member and a closed position rotatably supporting and retaining said projectile holding member in said slot,

spring means biasing said support bearing means to the closed position,

slide means associated with said spring means and said support bearing means and being manually operable to cause relative movement of said support bearing means to the open position,

detent means associated with said spring means and said projectile holding member to releasably hold said projectile holding member in firing position with one of said projectile chambers axially aligned with said barrel means,

said detent means comprising an axially extending projection on said slide means engageable with at least one of said projectile chambers, and

said spring means acting on said slide means and said slide means being movable away from locating engagement in said projectile chamber to permit rotation of said projectile holding member upon manual application of rotative forces on said projectile holding member.

18. A gun operated by compressed fluid comprising:

a source of high pressure compressed fluid,

barrel means having an axially extending bore through which a projectile is propelled from the gun by the compressed fluid,

breech block means fixedly mounted in the gun between said bore and said source of high pressure fluid,

passage means in said breech block means to connect said source of high pressure fluid to said bore and extending in generally axial alignment with said bore,

slot means in said breech block means intersecting and extending generally transversely to said passage means and having an outwardly facing access opening on the outer periphery of said gun,

projectile holding means of generally cylindrical peripheral configuration having a plurality of radially aligned and equally circumferentially spaced axially extending projectile holding chamber means therein,

shaft means integral with said projectile holding means extending axially beyond opposite sides of said projectile holding means and providing an axis of rotation for said projectile holding means,

bearing means on opposite sides of said slot means rotatably supporting said projectile holding means in said slot means with said projectile holding chamber means adapted to be sequentially axially aligned with said bore and said passage means,

a first sealing means between said source and said projectile holding means providing a sealed fluid passage between said source and said projectile holding chamber means,

a plurality of abutment surface means on said projectile holding means equal in number to the number of projectile holding chamber means and equally circumferentially spaced about said axis of rotation,

detent means movably mounted on said breech block means adjacent said slot means and having abutment means releasably engageable with said abutment surface means to hold said projectile holding means in a firing position with one of said projectile holding chamber means in axial alignment with said bore and said passage means,

spring means associated with said detent means to releasably locate said abutment means in holding engagement with said abutment surface means,

an exterior portion of said projectile holding means being located in said access opening for application of a manually applied circumferentially directed force to rotate said projectile holding means in said slot about said axis of rotation, said detent means being movable against the bias of said spring means thereby permitting relative movement between said abutment surface means and said abutment means whereby said projectile holding means is rotated in said slot to sequentially move said projectile holding chamber means to the firing position,

access groove means in said breech block means intersecting said bearing means and extending transversely therefrom toward the outer periphery of said gun and terminating outwardly in outwardly facing access openings adjacent and intersecting said access opening of said slot means, and

said shaft means having an axial length less than the axial distance between opposite ends ofsaid groove means whereby said projectile holding means and said shaft means are transversely slidably movable into and out of said slot means permitting removal and replacement of said projectile holding means relative to said slot means.

19. The invention as defined in claim 18 and further comprising:

axially extending guideway means in said breech block means having an opening intersecting said slot means opposite one side surface of said projectile holding means,

said abutment surface means on said projectile holding means being located on said one side surface of said projectile holding means in axial alignment with said opening of said guideway means, said detent means being axially slidably mounted in said guideway means for movement therein between an axially extended position with said abutment means in holding engagement with one of said abutment surface means and an axially retracted position with said abutment means disengaged from said abutment surface means, and

said spring means being mounted in said guideway means and biasing said detent means toward the axially extended position.

20. The invention as defined in claim 19 and wherein said abutment surface means on said projectile holding means being coaxial to and circumjacent said projectile holding chamber means.

21. The invention as defined in claim 20 and wherein said abutment means on said detent means being received within said projectile holding chamber means in the axially extended position.

22. The invention as defined in claim 21 and wherein said abutment surface means on said detent means being in sliding engagement with the one side surface of said projectile holding means during rotation of said projectile holding means, the strength of said spring means being such as to enable said detent means to move axially to withdraw said abutment means from within said projectile holding means upon manual application of a circumferentially directed force on said projectile holding means and such as to hold said projectile holding means in the firing position during firing of a projectile from the gun.

23. The invention as defined in claim 22 and wherein said abutment means on said detent means comprises a plurality of tapered projections simultaneously engageable with at least two of said abutment surface means.

24. A gun operated by compressed fluid comprising:

a source of high pressure compressed fluid,

barrel means having an axially extending bore through which a projectile is propelled from the gun by the compressed fluid,

breech block means fixedly mounted in the gun between said bore and said source of high pressure fluid,

passage means in said breech block means to connect said source of high pressure fluid to said bore and extending in generally axial alignment with said bore,

slot means in said breech block means intersecting and extending generally transversely to said passage means and having an outwardly facing access opening on the outer periphery of said gun,

projectile holding means of generally cylindrical pe ripheral configuration having a plurality of radially aligned and equally circumferentially spaced axially extending projectile holding chamber means therein,

shaft means integral with said projectile holding means extending axially beyond opposite sides of said projectile holding means and providing an axis of rotation for said projectile holding means,

bearing means on opposite sides of said slot means rotatably supporting said projectile holding means in said slot means with said projectile holding chamber means adapted to be sequentially axially aligned with said bore and said passage means,

a first sealing means between said source and said projectile holding means providing a sealed fluid passage between said source and said projectile holding chamber means,

a plurality of abutment surface means on said projectile holding means equal in number to the number of projectile holding chamber means and equally circumferentially spaced about said axis of rotation,

detent means movably mounted on said breech block means adjacent said slot means and having abutment means releasably engageable with said abutment surface means to hold said projectile holding means in a firing position with one of said projectile holding chamber means in axial alignment with said bore and said passage means,

spring means associated with said detent means to releasably locate said abutment means in holding engagement with said abutment surface means,

an exterior portion of said projectile holding means being located in said access opening for application of a manually applied circumferentially directed force to rotate said projectile holding means in said slot about said axis of rotation, said detent means being movable against the bias of said spring means thereby permitting relative movement between said abutment surface means and said abutment means whereby said projectile holding means is rotated in said slot to sequentially move said projectile holding chamber means to the firing position,

a first portion of each of said projectile holding chamber means providing an axially facing projectile loading opening,

a second portion of each of said projectile holding means providing an axially facing projectile discharge opening,

a first shaft portion of said shaft means extending from one side of said projectile holding means and having a first diameter,

a second shaft portion of said shaft means extending from the opposite side of said projectile holding means and having a second diameter smaller than said first diameter,

one of said bearing means being of a size to receive the second shaft portion and not the first shaft portion whereby said projectile holding means is insertable into said slot means only with said first portion of said projectile loading chamber means located next adjacent said source and said second portion of said projectile holding chamber means located next adjacent said barrel means.

25. A gun operated by compressed fluid comprising:

a source of high pressure compressed fluid,

barrel means having an axially extending bore through which a projectile is propelled from the gun by the compressed fluid,

breech block means fixedly mounted in the gun between said bore and said source of high pressure fluid,

passage means in said breech block means to connect said source of high pressure fluid to said bore and extending in generally axial alignment with said bore,

slot means in said breech block means intersecting and extending generally transversely to said passage means and having an outwardly facing access opening on the outer periphery of said gun,

projectile holding means of generally cylindrical peripheral configuration having a plurality of radially aligned and equally circumferentially spaced axially extending projectile holding chamber means therein,

shaft means integral with said projectile holding means extending axially beyond opposite sides of said projectile holding means and providing an axis of rotation of said projectile holding means,

bearing means on opposite sides of said slot means rotatably supporting said projectile holding means in said slot means with said projectile holding chamber means adapted to be sequentially axially aligned with said bore and said passage means,

a first sealing means between said source and said projectile holding means providing a sealed fluid passage between said source and said projectile holding chamber means,

a plurality of abutment surface means on said projectile holding means equal in number to the number of projectile holding chamber means and equally circumferentially spaced about said axis of rotation,

detent means movably mounted on said breech block means adjacent said slot means and having abutment means releasably engageable with said abutment surface means to hold said projectile holding means in a firing position with one of said projectile holding chamber means in axial alignment with said bore and said passage means,

spring means associated with said detent means to releasably locate said abutment means in holding engagement with said abutment surface means,

an exterior portion of said projectile holding means being located in said access opening for application of manually applied circumferentially directed force to rotate said projectile holding means in said slot about said axis of rotation, said detent means being movable against the bias of said spring means thereby permitting relative movement between said abutment surface means and said abutment means whereby said projectile holding means is rotated in said slot to sequentially move said projectile holding chamber means to the firing position,

front and rear transversely extending end wall portions,

front and rear transversely extending axially spaced intermediate side wall portions and an axially extending arcuate wall portion extending therebetween to define said slot means,

a first front bore portion in said breech means having a forwardly facing opening extending through said front end wall portion and supporting the rear end of said barrel means and having a rearwardly facing opening extending through the front intermediate side wall portion of said breech means,

a second rear bore portion in said breech means having a forwardly facing opening extending through the rear intermediate side wall portion of said breech means and a rearwardly facing opening extending through the rear end wall portion of said breech means,

said first sealing means being mounted in said second rear bore portion and engaging said projectile holding means in a firing position to seal said projectile holding chamber means relative to said slot means,

said first sealing means being movably mounted in said second rear bore portion and being movable forwardly into said slot means into sealing engagement with said projectile holding means during firing of the gun and being movable rearwardly after firing of the gun to permit rotation and removal and replacement of said projectile holding means in said slot means.

26. The invention as defined in claim 25 and wherein said first sealing means comprising a self-supporting axially extending elastomeric sealing member mounted between said source and said projectile holding means and providing a sealed fluid passage therebetween.

27. The invention as defined in claim 26 and wherein said first sealing means comprises a radially extending flange portion and an axially extending sleeve portion integrally connected to said flange portion.

28. The invention as defined in claim 27 and wherein said sleeve portion is connected to said flange portion by hinge means permitting axial movement of said sleeve portion relative to said flange portion.

29. The invention as defined in claim 27 and wherein said sleeve portion comprises an integral intermediate connecting portion having a thickness less than the thickness of said sleeve portion and said flange portion.

30. The invention as defined in claim 29 and the integral intermediate connecting portion being axially forwardly offset relative to said flange portion and providing a pressure cavity in said flange portion whereat high pressure air is effective to apply axially directed forces to axially move said sleeve portion.

31. The invention as defined in claim 27 and having an enlarged sealing lip on the forward end of said sleeve portion.

32. The invention as defined in claim 26 and wherein said source comprises an air compression chamber and piston means reciprocably mounted therein, the rear end wall of said breech means providing an end wall of said air compression chamber and said first sealing means comprising:

a radially extending base portion mounted in said air compression chamber in abutting engagement with the rear end wall of said breech means,

an axially extending sleeve portion extending forwardly from said air compression chamber toward said projectile holding means within said second rear bore portion,

said base portion having an annular periphery sealingly engageable with the inner peripheral wall of said air chamber, relatively thick load bearing abutment portion at the periphery of said base portion having a forwardly facing side surface abuttingly engaging the rear end wall of said breech means and having a rearwardly facing side surface abuttingly engaging the piston means at the end of a firing stroke, and connecting flange portion intermediate said abutment portion and said sleeve portion.

33. The invention as defined in claim 32 and said connecting flange portion having a forwardly facing side surface generally coplanar with said forwardly facing side surface on said abutment portion, and a rearwardly facing side surface axially offset forwardly of said rearwardly facing side surface on said abutment portion and defining an air chamber therewith.

34. The invention as defined in claim 33 and the rear end wall of said breech means having a relief portion located radially inwardly and axially forwardly of said abutment portion to provide a forwardly extending gap in front of said connecting flange portion to permit forward movement of said sleeve portion from a retracted position to an extending position.

35. The invention as defined in claim 34 and said sleeve portion being movable to the forwardly extended position solely by air pressure.

36. The invention as defined in claim 32 and further comprising:

forwardly facing abutment means in said second rear bore portion of said breech means, and

enlarged outwardly extending lip means on said sleeve portion engaging said forwardly facing abutment means and holding said first sealing means in abutting association with said breech means and preventing rearward displacement of said first sealing means.

37. The invention as defined in claim 36 and wherein said lip means being resiliently radially inwardly compressible to enable assembly of said first sealing means with said breech means by axial insertion through said rear bore portion beyond said forwardly facing abutment means whereat said lip means being radially outwardly expandable into abutting engagement with said forwardly facing abutment means.

i i i i t

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4164929 *Jul 11, 1977Aug 21, 1979The Coleman Company, Inc.Projectile loader for gun
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Classifications
U.S. Classification124/73, 124/44.7, 124/48, 124/82
International ClassificationF41B11/00, F41B11/02
Cooperative ClassificationF41B11/54
European ClassificationF41B11/54
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Aug 22, 1991ASAssignment
Owner name: SPBC, INC. A DE CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
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Effective date: 19910802
Aug 22, 1991AS06Security interest
Owner name: DAISY MANUFACTURING COMPANY, INC., A DE CORPORATIO
Owner name: SPBC, INC. A DE CORPORATION SUITE 400 TWO NORTH LA
Effective date: 19910802
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Effective date: 19831115
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Owner name: REPUBLICBANK DALLAS, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:DAISY MANUFACTURING COMPANY, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004225/0076
Effective date: 19830128
Feb 13, 1984ASAssignment
Owner name: KIDDE RECREATION PRODUCTS, INC. 3900 NORTH ROCKWEL
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:VICTOR UNITED INC., A DE CORP.;REEL/FRAME:004222/0568
Effective date: 19830715