US 3914047 A
Electrophotographic copying apparatus is disclosed having an elongated electrosensitive web defining a plurality of selectable image areas and having a plurality of perforations formed along an edge therein and movable along an endless path relative to a plurality of actuable work stations disposed along the path. The work stations are operative when actuated to perform a work operation on a selected image area of the web, respectively. The apparatus includes means disposed at a fixed location along the path for sensing the perforations to produce signals, a logic and control unit having a programmable computer with a stored program and responsive to such perforation signals for actuating the work stations in accordance with the program to cause the work stations to perform work operations on the web in timed relation to movement of selected image areas along the path respectively.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States atet Hunt, Jr. et al.
SYNCHRONIZING CONTROL APPARATUS FOR ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS UTILIZING DIGITAL COMPUTER Inventors: William E. Hunt, Jr.; John L.
Connin; Douglas J. Steelman, all of Rochester, NY.
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY.
Filedr June 20, 1974 Appl. No.: 481,436
Related U.S. Application Data Continuation of Ser. No. 402,223, Oct. 1, 1973, abandoned.
U.S. Cl 355/16; 355/14 Int. Cl. G038 15/00 Field of Search 355/14, 16, 3 R;
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS POSITIVE BIASED Ac 26 PWR. SPLY NEGATIVE 25 PWR. SPLY.
3,732,005 5/1973 Lloyd 355/14 3,736,055 5/1973 Davidge et al 355/14 3,785,730 1/1974 Weber et al. 355/16 3,796,486 3/1974 Donohue et al. 355/16 Primary Examiner-Robert P. Greiner Attorney, Agent, or Firm-R. L. Owens [5 7 ABSTRACT Electrophotographic copying apparatus is disclosed having an elongated electrosensitive web defining a plurality of selectable image areas and having a plurality of perforations formed along an edge therein and movable along an endless path relative to a plurality of actuable work stations disposed along the path. The work stations are operative when actuated to perform a work operation on a selected image area of the web, respectively. The apparatus includes means disposed at a fixed location along the path for sensing the perforations to produce signals, a logic and control unit having a programmable computer with a stored program and responsive to such perforation signals for actuating the work stations in accordance with the program to cause the work stations to perform work operations on the web in timed relation to movement of selected image areas along the path respectively.
co Y HANDLING ACCESSORY US, Patant 001:. 21, 1975 Sheet 1 013 3,914,047
36 CO Y HANDLING POSITIVE 26 ACCESSORY BIASED A.C.
NEGATIVE '25 PWR. SPLY.
US. Patent Oct.21,1975 Sheet20f3 3,914,047
74 9 j (COMPUTER) r --1 I I 1 I00) I CONTROL 90 I l PROGRAM TEMPORARY I INPUT I 4 DATA I |NPUT SIGNAL I I I BUFFERS I STORAGE I I MEMORY I I I I02\ I I I OUTPUT /|O6 INPUT DATA SS Q DATA MULTIPLEXER i UNIT i STORAGE LATCHES I I I I |O4\ I I I/IOS INTERRUPT I I OUTPUT SIGNAL I 94 I DRIVERS -ouTPuT PROCESSING I TIMING AND I I CYCLE CONTROL I I UNIT I l I I 0 AND F PERFORATION SIGNALS US, PatCm Oct. 21, 1975 Sheet 3 of3 3,914,047
25 TRANSFER 26 DETACK- H CoRoNA CORONA CLEANING ERASE CLEANING CORONA"/|7 POST DEV. I
ERAsE CLEANING I VACUUM F Ahl TONER 22 I PRIMARY CHARGER BIAS PLATE E D C B B M 5 23:: (760 8 76b) AUX. ERASE EXPOSE BEAM I4 OPTICAL CENTER LIN PIC-3.4
SYNCHRONIZING CONTROL APPARATUS FOR ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS UTILIZING DIGITAL COMPUTER This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 402,223, filed Oct. 1, 1973, now abandoned.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field Of The Invention 4 This invention relates to apparatus for controlling the operation of work stations in apparatus such as electrophotographic copying apparatus.
2. Description Of The Prior Art In a common form of electrophotographic coyping aapparatus, an electrical image of an information medium such as a document is formed on an electrophotosensitive member in response to image-wise actinic radiation from the medium. The electrophotosensitive member includes a photoconductive layer with a con ductive backing, and is transported along an endless path relative to a plurality of work stations, each of which is operative when actuated to perform a work operation on the electrophotosensitive mediumv Such stations include a charging station at which a uniform charge is placed on the photoconductive layer, an exposure station at which the charged photoconductive layer is image-wise exposed to actinic radiation from the medium to create an electrostatic image of the medium in the photoconductive layer, a developing stations at which the electrostatic image is contacted with finely divided charged toner particles for adhering to the photoconductive layer in a configuration defined by the electrostatic image, a transfer station at which such toner particles are transferred in the image configuration to a receiving surface, and a cleaning station at which residual toner is removed from the photoconductive layer so that it can be reused.
In applications in which the electrophotosensitive medium is continually reused, it can be constructed in a form of a drum, a plate or an endless web. The endless web configuration has certain advantages and disadvantages over drums and plates. Among the advantages is the fact that such a web can be disposed in flat configuration at one location in the apparatus to facilitate some operations such as, e.g., exposure and in curved configurations at other locations to facilitate other operations such as separation of a transfer sheet therefrom. Moreover, with web configurations more than one image may be in process at any given time. Among the disadvantages is the increased complexity of the system resulting from a need to sequentially actuate work stations in timed relation to web movement when a number of copies are being made.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of this invention to provide for use in an electrophotographic copying apparatus improved apparatus for controlling the sequential actuation of work stations and coordinating such actuations with the number of copies to be made.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of this invention, there is disclosed an elongated electrophotosensitive web defining a plurality of selectable image areas and indicia such as a plurality of perforations. The web is movable along an endless path relative to a plurality of actuable work stations wherein each work station when actuated performs an operations in conjunction with the web. The apparatus includes means disposed at the path for sensing the indicia to produce signals representative thereof and a logic and control unit having a digital computer with a stored program which is responsive to such signals for sequentially actuating and de-actuating the work stations in accordance with the program in timed relation to movement of the web past predetermined positions along the endless path to effect sequential operations of such work stations with respect to a selected image area during movement of said area around said endless path.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing the general arrangement of a web type electrophotographic copying apparatus in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 2 is a partial perspective view showing in detail a portion of the photoconductive web and bimorph sensors also shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a block diagram of the logic and control unit shown in FIG. 1 for controlling the actuation of various work stations in the electrophotographic apparatus shown in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 4 is a diagram which shows the timing cycle of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT To assist the understanding of the present invention, the operation of an electrographic copying machine in which the invention may be used will be briefly described. It is to be understood, however, that the apparatus of the present invention could be used with equal facility and advantage in other copying machines and, therefore, that the following description of apparatus related to but not forming part of the invention is provided for illustrative purposes only.
Electrographic Copy Apparatus Reference is now made to FIG. 1 wherein various stations of an electrographic apparatus 10 are schematically illustrated. The apparatus 10 includes logic and control unit (LCU) 9 having a programmable digital computer 74 and which in response to signals produced by sensors 76a and b which sense perforations in the edge of the web member 16 actuate work stations in timed relation to movement of the web past such stations. The LCU 9 is shown to have a number of leads which are individually connected to particular work stations respectively. It will be understood that at the stations there will be appropriate electromechanical devices which are responsive to such signals to perform the indicated work operation. Further, although not shown, there may where appropriate, be suitable return leads which signal the LCU when a work operation is completed and/or where there has been a machine station malfunction. As shown, an information medium 13 such as a document is adapted to be illuminated by radiation from Xenon flash lamps 14 when they are actuated by a signal transmitted by a conductor 14a coupled to the unit 9. Such radiation is reflected from the medium and projected by a lens 15 onto a photosensitive member 16 shown as a web to selectively dissipate charge and form an electrostatic latent image. It will be understood that the exposure station may include a programmable power supply for the Xenon flash lamps 14. A computer may cause the output voltage of the supply to vary as a function of the number of copies made to thereby compensate for the V white shift of the photoconductive layer of the web member 16 as a function of photoconductor usage. Towards this end, a computer (to be described later) may count the number of copies made and produce a 4-bit digital word representative of ranges thereof. The digital word may be applied to four resistor terminals of the supply which are coupled to an operational amplifier which has a controllable output voltage. The web member 16 is trained about rollers 4 through 9 (only one of which may provide the driving force) and is uniformly charged at a charging station 20 with a negative DC charge. The charging station 20 includes a power supply and a corona wire structure (both not shown) which is operative when actuated by a signal transmitted by a conductor 20a from the LCU 9 to provide a generally uniform electrostatic charge on the web 16. Alternatively, the charger 20 may be continuously on. Assuming that the information on the document 13 is black on a white background, the photoconductive layer of web member 16 is rendered conductive in areas corresponding to the original background leaving a latent image of negative charge only in areas corresponding to the original black image. The photosensitive web member 16 which is relatively transparent may include a photoconductive layer with a conductive backing on a polyester support. The photoconductive layer may be formed from, for instance, a heterogeneous mixture of bisphenol A-polycarbonate binder, a triarylmethane organic photoconductor birylum sensitizing dye. For more specific disclosures, see commonly-assigned U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,615,406 and 3,615,414 both issued Oct. 24, 1971.
The apparatus further includes a magnetic brush development station 22 at which the moving electrostatic image is contacted by toner particles formed from a fine thermoplastic powder which adheres by electrostatic attraction to the negatively charged portions of the electrostatic image to develop and render such image visible in an image-wise configuration. A post-development erase lamp 23 operated by a signal from the LCU from lead 23a then illuminates the latent electrostatic image to reduce photoconducter fatigue (deterioration resulting from prolonged charge) and to facilitate subsequent toner image transfer. The toner remains in its image-wise configuration on the surface of the web member 16 by adhesive and other forces of attraction. Also, because the toner is formed from a thermoplastic insulating material, it will retain its positive charge even though it may be illuminated by light from the lamp 23 which illuminates the web member 16. The magnetic brush station 22 includes brushes 52 and 53. An example of an exemplary magnetic brush station 22 is set forth in commonly assigned U.S. Pat. No. 3,543,720 to Drexler, et al. The logic and control unit 9 may control the potential applied to the station 22 by varying the voltage which a lead 22a couples to a development station electrode (see FIG. 4).
A transfer station 24 is provided to cause toner particles to be transferred in an imagewise configuration to a receiving surface ofa copy sheet of paper which is fed from a selected one of two paper supplies 21 or 27 through a registration device 19 controlled by the LCU by lead 19a and then onto the surface of the web member 16 at the transfer station 24. The logic and control unit 9 actuate the sheet feeders for the supplies 21 and 27 by means of conductors 21a and 27a respectively. Various forms of suitable sheet feeders are known in the art; the sheet feeder disclosed in commonly assigned U.S. Pat. No. 3,744,900 entitled, PAPER FEED AND EXPOSURE SYNCHRONIZER, to Jorgen Reesen, issued July 10, 1973, is suitable for use with the apparatus 10. The transfer station includes a negatively charged DC corona device 25 that applies a negative charge to the back ofthe copy paper, and simultaneously draws the paper by electrostatic attraction into intimate contact with the web member 16. Due to the charge gradient between the paper and the photoconductive layer of web member 16, the toner on the web member is transferred in an imagewise configuration onto the paper. The paper and web member 16 then move under an AC corona device 26 which removes the charge from the paper and renders it virtually neutral in charge. A positive bias is applied to the AC power supply for the corona 26 to overcome the tendency of balanced AC corona devices to produce a negative charge.
When the paper reaches the position on the web member 16 just above the roller 8, the web member 16 bends sharply around the roller and the beam strength of the paper coupled with the momentum of the moving paper causes the paper to continue in an essentially straight-line path and leave the web member 16. A vacuum transport member 29 is located above the photoconductor at this point to convey the paper'in such straight-line path into a fusing station 30 controlled by a lead 30a. At the fusing station 30, the toner is heated and fused into the paper to provide a final substantially permanent copy. This copy follows either of the paths labeled 31 or 32 in exiting from the machine to either a hopper 34 or a copy handling accessory 36 such as a sorter, as controlled by the logic unit 9 through lead 36a. Finally, a cleaning station 17 is provided in which residual toner is removed from the conductive layer of the web member 16 prior to charging. The cleaning station 17 may include an erase lamp, cleaning corona (see FIG. 4), actuable in response to a signal conducted by a lead 17a from the logic and control unit 9. As shown in FIG. 4, the station 17 may include a cleaning vacuum system. In certain known modifications of this same apparatus, one or more of these stations may be eliminated or modified. For a more complete description of the general organization of another such electrographic apparatus, reference is made to commonly assigned U.S. Pat. No. 3,746,443 issued July 17, 1972 entitled, MAGNETICALLY CONTROLLED MA- CHINE PROGRAMMER, to Hickey. It will be understood to those skilled in the art that a plurality of (in this instance, six) electrostatic and toner images may be placed sequentially on successive portions of the web as it moves along the endless path so that the above discussed work operations performed at the work stations occur in proper timed sequence on different portions of the web which correspond to selected image areas.
Reference should now be made to FIG. 2 which shows in detail a portion of the web member 16 having along its border two rows of indicia or perforations 16a (also referred to herein as F perforations or C perfs) and 16b (also referred to herein as C perforations or perfs). Between adjacent perforations 16a is defined an image area. By that it is meant an image area is a place across the entire width of the web member 16 wherein a charge pattern corresponding to an image may be placed. The row 16b defines a predetermined number (viz. 51) of equally spaced perforations or sprocket holes disposed between adjacent perforations 16a which too are equally spaced along the web member 16, the distance between adjacent perforations 16a being much greater than that betweep adjacent perforations l6b. As shown, the birmoph F perf sensor 76a which is adapted to sense the perforations l6a'and provide a signal to the digital computer 74 each time a perforation 16a is sensed. The second bimorph C perf sensor 76b is adapted to provide a clock pulse to the computer 74, each time a perforation 16b is sensed. The computer 74 uses the pulses from both bimorph sensors 76a and b to control and synchronize the various work stations of the electrophotographic operation. In operation, upon receiving a clock pulse from a bimorph sensor 76a, the computer 74 enables the start line (briefly seen in FIG. 3) which causes bits to be entered into appropriate registers in the computer. The computer 74 controls the synchronization of various work stations with respect to the moving image areas. For example, computer 74 controls the operation of the sheet feeding apparatus and the operation of the exposure lamps 14 at the appropriate times in the machine cycle. The computer 74 may take various other forms known in the art some of which are commercially available as programmable minicomputers and programmable microprocessors. Specific examples are Model 8008' Micro-Computer manufactured by Intel Corporation of Santa Clara, Calif; GEPAC 30 manufactured by the General Electric Corporation; Interdata Model 1 or Varian Data Machines Model 520/i. The instructions and method of programming such minicomputers is set forth in the textbook, Minicomputers for Engineers and Scientists, Gravino Korn (1973).
An example of bimorph sensors 76a and 76b which may be suitable for use with the present invention is described in commonly assigned US. Pat. NO. 3,723,650 in the name of Bradley et al, issued Mar. 27, 1973, entitled, METHOD'AND APPARATUS FOR DERIVING THE VELOCITY AND RELATIVE POSITION OF CONTINUOUSLY MOVING INFORMATION BEARING MEDIA. Briefly, such bimorph sensors include a piezoelectric crystal 82 which has attached thereto a single step sensor 83 element, the distal ends 84 of which bear on and slide against the moving web member 16. When a perforation in the web member 16 moves beneath the distal end of the sensor element, the end abruptly drops over the leading edge of the perforation and distorts or otherwise induces mechanical movement of its associated transducer. As the web member 16 continues to move, the distal end 84 of the sensor element 83 is forced out of the perforation by engagement with the trailing edge of the perforation, and once again in the sensor element distorts its associated piezoelectric transducer. By means of electrodes or other suitable current collecting means attached to the sensors, voltage signals generated by the distortion of the transducer are transmitted to the computer 74. Other types of perforation sensors which produce output signals such as optical perforation sensors or other types of ceramic transducers responsive to compression, bending or other forms of physical distortion may be substituted for the depicted bimorph sensors.
Computer Operation General: Because programming of minicomputers is a conventional skill, the particular details of the program for operating the computer 74 will not be given. The following disclosure would enable a programmer having ordinary skill in the art to produce an appropriate program for the computer 74. The particular details of any such program would, of course, depend upon the architecture of the selectable computer.
Turning now to FIG. 3, a block diagram of the Logic and Control Unit (LCU) 9, which interfaces with the various electromechanical subsystems, is shown. The LCU 9 consists of temporary data storage memory 90, central processing unit 92, timing and cycle control unit 94 and a stored program control 96. Data input and output is performed sequentially under program conrol. Input data is either applied through input signal buffer to a multiplexer 102 or from the bimorph sensor 76a and b which indicate C or F perforations, respectively. The input signals to the signal buffer 100 consist of logic level digital signals which are derived from various switches, sensors and analog to digital converters. The output data and control signals are applied to storage latches 106 which provide inputs to suitable output drivers 108 directly coupled to the leads for the work stations. More specifically, the output signals from the LCU are logic level, digital signals which are buffered and amplified to provide drive signals to various clutches, brakes, solenoids, power switches and numeric displays in the various work stations. The LCU processing functions can be programmed by changing the instructions stored in the computer memory. This provides a flexible machine logic and timing arrangement and extends the LCU capability to include the capacity for performing service diagnostics. For example, if an input signal is not delivered to the LCU at the appropriate time, the LCU can display an ERROR code on the control panel. This ERROR code would be an indication of a machine failure and could be used during servicing to indicate the specific nature of a machine failure. In accordance with a feature of the invention, a service input connector may be provided which interfaces with an external service box to facilitate diagnostics to be performed under control of the serviceman. During a copy cycle, the LCU executes the stored program which controls the processing of signal inputs to the LCU and initiates turn ON, turn OFF and timing of output control signals, respectively.
The time sequence of machine control signals is critical to the copy because machine stations and associ-. ated mechanisms (often referred to as events) must be powered ON and OFF in the correct sequence to assure high quality copy and preventing paper misfeeds, misregistration and erratic operation. The primary mechanism for controlling the time sequence of events and their relationship to each other is as noted above, to sense the location of the image elements as they continuously cycle, and synchronize the various control mechanisms to the location of the image elements. The mechanisms for accomplishing this as previously noted is to sense perforations which are spaced equidistant along the edge of the web member 16. The web member as noted above is divided into six image areas by F perfs and each image area is subdivided into 51 sections by C perfs.
Machine sequencing control is implemented in the LCU by converting signal timing and combinational logic requirements to programs that control the LCU computer. These control programs establish the basic operating mode and sequence of events for the machine subsystems.
Copy Cycle Controls The electrophotographic cycle is selected and initiated by actuation of switches on a conventional operators control panel (not shown). The appropriate switch onthe panel may be selected for one or two sided copying. The LCU 9 accepts input signals from the operatorspanel, stores the signals in the computer memory 90, and decodes the signals to select the program which will inititate and control the electrophotographic cycle. In addition to selecting a machine operating mode, the operator input panel is also used to select a quantity of copies. This information also stored in the LCU computer memory 90, is compared to the quantity of copies completed during the cycling of the machine. Upon delivery of the requested number of copies, the LCU develops output signals to de-activate the copying mode.
During the copy cycle, signals are derived from the two separate perforation sensors 76a and 76b. These sensors produce the F and C perf signals respectively, which are the primary control signal inputs to the LCU during the copy cycle, and are the synchronizing signals for the control of the other events during the cycle.
The location of the sensors 76a and 76b along the path of the web member 16 is known and fixed. The F perf sensed signal is utilized to activate the exposure station 14; thus, the location of an active image element relative to the F perf is known. The designation F'perf should now be understood to be with reference to initiating flash exposure. Consequently, the location of the active image element relative to the various mechanisms is also known.
By counting and storing the number of F perf signals, the flash signals, the LCU computes the quantity of active image elements on the film. The C perfs provide sufficient granularity of the position of the web to be able to predict (within one C perf spacing), the location of the active image elements during the time interval between F perf signals. Thus, the designation C perf should now be understood to be with reference to providing clock type signals.
By counting F perfs and C perfs and storing the information along with fixed data, such as the maximum number of active image elements and distance between perfs on the film, the LCU can compute where each active and inactive image element is with respect to the F perf sensor. This information is combined with knowledge of the spacing between various mechanisms along with film path to develop control equations which activate these mechanisms at the required point in the cycle. Thus, the speed of the web member 16 is not required to be precisely known. The length of web member 16, spacing between perforations and location of mechanisms with respect to the F perf sensor must be known and fixed. I
Through this counting and computing mechanism, the LCU 9 controls the copy cycle and activates the stations which perform the required operation in the processing of each active and inactive image element on the film. As noted, the mechanism for selecting the appropriate input signal processing technique, is a program storedin the LCU computer. Since the computer 74 cannot operate on all inputs and outputs simultaneously, a technique for selecting those signals to be processed, during each phase of the copy cycle, has been developed. Again, the F perf and C perf are the key factors to selecting the appropriate control programs. As mentioned before, the F perf and C perf signals are counted and stored in the memory of the LCU computer. The location of active and inactive elements along the film path can be determined from the F perf count and C perf count. Thus, those signals, critical to the process, that should be occurring at any particular count to the cycle, can be selected for processing by the LCU. Other noncritical signals are processed periodically, when the LCU is not required to recognize a C perf or F perf signal. The C perf and F perf signals override other inputs to the LCU, by interrupting the computer, thus the occurrence of these signals is always detected at the LCU. The use of a computer interrupt is well known in the computer art. For acomplete explanation of same, see the abovereferenced text, Minicomputers for Engineers and Scientists.
A typical copy cycle consisting of a single copy iilustrates the key control signals which are derived from knowledge of the position of the web memberj16 and consequently the active image area position. The spatial relationship of various elements of the electrophotographic copier are shown in FIG. 4. The film path is represented by the inner circular path on the annulus. The pictorial representation is subdivided into. 10 segments. C perforations spacing is approximately l. l7 in this representation. The letters A through J are used to indicate the location of the leading edge of an image as the web member 16 cycles clockwise around the film path. Note that the perforations are located midway along the image area and the web member 16 contains six F perforations. The two bimorph sensors 7 6a and b positioned at points shown on the diagram sense the passage of F and C perforations.
The image area, occupies approximately 60 degrees on this representation, i.e., i.e., i 30 either side of the F perforation. Interframe spacing is maintained to eliminate image overlap and provide a space for a splice in the web member 16. The signals developed by the LCU computer during the copy cycle are indicated in timed sequence in Table I. The letters correspond to the location of the leading edge of the image area as the web member 16 rotates through the cycle required for a single copy.
For multiple copies, the sequence continues as an element is exposed after each F perforation occurrence subsequent to event D on the timing diagram; The LCU computer stores information relating the location of each active element to the controlled events and maintains in storage, a record of quantity requested, quantity in process and quantity delivered to the sorter or top exit hopper. The data stored in LCU computer memory is interrogated and updated on the occurrence of each F perforation, C perforation and timed signal output.
Table II illustrates the information stored in the LCU during a multiple copy cycle, a RUN FLIP-FLOP and a PRINT FLIP-FLOP although not shown will be understood to be located in the central processing unit 92 of the computer 74 and are actuated by depressing the START button. When the stored C count reaches 51 and an F perforation is detected, the LCU stores a logical one in a 6 bit film shift register disposed in the processor 92. When BIT-3 of the film shift register (FSR) is high, a logical one is sent to a paper shift register (PSR) also. As the cycle continues, additional bits are shifted and stored in the FSR and PSR. These bits define the position of active image elements and paper feed functions remaining in the cycle.
When coincidence between the process counter and copies requested counter is reached, the PRINT FLIP- FLOP is reset. This resetting causes successive F perforation signals to clear the FSR and PSR as indicated in the table. As successive F perforations are detected, the shift registers are finally cleared, the end of the cycle is reached, and the machine is set in a stand-by mode.
TABLE I SEQUENCE OF EVENTS FOR SINGLE COPY RUN FIGURE 4 FILM POSITION CONTROLLED EVENTS A START Switch Actuated System Operate ON Primary Charger ON Auxiliary Erase ON Reset C Perforation Count to Zero Illumination Power Supply lnitiated" Flash Exposure Auxiliary Erase OFF Monitor Enable ON Auxiliary Erase ON Primary Charger OFF Paper Feed Transfer Charger ON Detact Charger ON I Transfer Charger OFF Detact Charger OFF STOP System Operate OFF The system which is operated includes shutter motor in exposure station 14, erase station 23. cleaning station 17 and paper feed vacuum in stations 21 and 27.
tectors, (4) sorter jam detection. The jam signals are monitored by the LCU computer and in the event of a paper jam, the computer 74 is programmed to develop control signals for a machine shutdown with indication to the operator to check the paper path. The machine jam detection logic incorporates signal sensing and control which reduces the potential of mechanism damage caused by a paper jam.
Misfeed Logic If paper is not fed from the supply, the failure is classed as misfeed and does not result in a machine shutdown. If a single misfeed occurs, the computer 74 adjusts the paper shift register contents to account for the loss of one copy in the control logic. If two consecutive misfeeds occur, the paper in the paper path completes the transition through the printer to an exit and the machine is shut down. The number of copies processed and delivered is stored in the LCU computer 74 and the check paper path indicator is turned ON. The operator would normally clear the misfeed sheets and restart the copy cycle. Since the delivered count is stored during the misfeed recovery, the cycle restarts where it left off and the number of copies required to complete the run are delivered to the exit.
Paper Supply Control The paper supply system, although not shown, may consist of two elevator mechanisms and a vacuum oscillator feed mechanism which transfers paper from the elevator stack to the paper transport mechanism.
Each of the two paper feed and elevator supply mechanisms could include, say five microswitch input signals to the LCU. These signals would be (1) supply seated, (2) add paper, (3) out of paper, (4) elevator down, (5) elevator up.
TABLE II SEQUENCE OF EVENTS FOR MULTIPLE COPY, ONE-SIDE COPY MODE 5 BIT (FSR) 8 BIT (PSR) FILM PAPER RUN PRINT SHIFT SHIFT C F FLIP-FLOP FLIP-FLOP REGISTER REGISTER COUNT COUNT Start 1 1 0 dont care 0 don't care don't care 0 1 1 00001 00000000 51 1 1 1 0001 I 00000000 51 2 1 1 0011 1 00000001 51 3 I 1 01111 00000011 51 4 1 1 11111 00000111 51 5 1 1 11111 11111111 51 10 Processed) l 0 11110 llllllll 51 11 Requested) 1 0 11100 11111111 51 12 1 0 11000 11111110 51 13 1 0 10000 11111100 51 14 1 0 00000 11111000 15 Paper Path The LCU 9 processes these signals and develops three output signals for each paper supply which controls the drive mechanisms to move the elevators up or down. In normal operating conditions, the selected supply is seated and is driven up until stacked paper contacts switch 5, which is sensed by the LCU and results in turn OFF to the drive. The drive remains OFF until a sufficient quantity of paper is removed from the stack to allow switch 5 to open. This switch opening causes the drive to be activated until a switch closure is detected. The cycle repeats until the paper supply is low, indicating by switch 2. Switch 2, closure is sensed by the LCU and an ADD PAPER signal is sent to the control and display panel. If the ADD PAPER signal is ignored, the supply is eventually exhausted and the elevator is driven down to the load paper position indicated by switch 4. The load paper indicator remains ON until switch 1 is cycled (indicating paper was loaded), or the operator selects the alternate supply.
The LCU incorporates logic to determine if both supplies 21 and 27 are exhausted and inhibit the READY light until one of the two supplies 21 or 27 has been loaded. Provision is also incorporated to sense a switch failure and as a result indicate a CHECK PAPER PATH condition at the control panel.
The LCU computer 74 synchronizes the operation of the feeder and the machine copy cycle by generating timing signals in leads 21a and 27a (FIG. 1) that control the feeder drives. The LCU receives a power ON input signal from the feeder which enables power to the feeder drive mechanisms. The paper feed cycle is initiated by the START control located on the control panel. Document Feeder Control (Not Shown). Document feeder is controlled by the LCU computer 74 during the copy cycle.
The cycle is reinitiated automatically following completion of the selected number of copies, when additional originals are present in the original document hopper. When the last input document is fed to the platen by a feeder (not shown), the document feeder PAPER PRESENT switch indicates an empty condition and feeder shutdown is initiated.
A paper misfeed in the document feeder is detected if the paper feed cycle is incomplete after a predetermined time period.
Sorter or Accessory Control The sorting cycle is initiated by the LCU computer by means of lead 36a. The sorting process is controlled by logic circuitry contained in the sorter 36. The sorter cycle is initiated by the LCU computer when the paper path SORTER EXIT switch is selected on the control panel. The sorder delivers a jam signal to the LCU in the event of paper misfeeds in the sorter. The sorter also develops a count signal when each copy is delivered to the appropriate slot in the sorter. This count signal is used to actuate a counter in the LCU computer and the accumulated count is stored in a register in the LCU computer.
Fusing Control The LCU interface with the fusing station is shown schematically in FIG. 1 by lead 30a. The fusing station includes a conventional pressure roller 30b which is movable into contact with a heated fusing roller 300. The application of pressure on the fusing roller 30a is initiated at the start of the print cycle. Pressure is maintained on the fusing roller 30c until the last copy of a sequence has passed through the fuser 30. A temperature ready sensor external to LCU supplies an input signal to the LCU which indicates the fusing roller is at operating temperature. If the fusing roller 30c is below operating temperature, the LCU inhibits the machine from operating. Loss of pressure on the fusing roller 30c is sensed at the LCU computer and results in a machine shutdown.
A wicking pump (not shown) may be employed in the fusing system. If the fusing system employs such a pump, such pump may be actuated by the LCU for a period of approximately 4 seconds at a repetition rate of, say, once every 30 seconds. This is accomplished by maintaininga cumulative copy count in the LCU computer which controls the wicking pump.
The invention has been described in detail with particular reference to a preferred embodiment thereof, but it will be understood that variations and modifications can be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention.
We claim: I
1. In electrophotographic apparatus having actuable work stations and adapted to utilize an electrophotosensitive web member defining a plurality of selectable image areas and having indicia in a predetermined relationship with respect to the locations of such image areas, said web member being movable along an endless path past a plurality of actuable work stations located along the endless path, said work stations being operative when actuated to perform work operations on selected image areas of the web member, respectively, the improvement comprising:
a. means disposed at a fixed location along the path and responsive to such indicia to produce signals representative thereof; and logic control means having a digital computer with a stored program and responsive to such signals for actuating said work stations in timed relation to movement of the web member past said fixed location in accordance with the stored program to effect sequential operation ofsuch actuated work stations with respect to selected image areas during movement of the member along the endless path, respectively.
2. The invention as set forth in claim 1 wherein said actuable stations include an exposure station and at least one paper feed station.
3. The invention as set forth in claim 2 including a copy handling accessory device coupled to said electrophotographic apparatus and wherein said computer is adapted to control the operation of said device.
4. The invention as set forth in claim 3 wherein said indicia are equally spaced perforations formed in a plurality of rows along an edge of said web member re spectively, and wherein said signal producing means includes bimorph sensors associated with said rows of perforations, respectively.
5. The invention as set forth in claim 1 wherein said signal producing means includes a first sensor for sensing the location of each image area on said moving member and a second sensor for sensing the location of portions of said moving member within each image area.
6. The invention as set forth in claim 5 wherein said indicia are a respective set of perforations in said moving member for each of said sensors, each of said sensors including a sensing element disposed toward contacting relationship with said moving member whereby said sensing elements enters a respective perforation to indicate the sensing of that location on the moving member, and said sensing element having an inclined side at its downstream end with respect to the direction of travel of said moving member for contacting the downstream edge of each respective perforation whereby said sensing element is lifted out ofits perforation as said moving member continues to move.
7. The invention as set forth in claim 1 wherein said indicia are equally spaced perforations formed in a plurality of rows along an edge of said web member respectively, and wherein said signal producing means includes bimorph sensors associated with said rows of perforations, respectively.
8. ln electrophotographic apparatus adapted to make a plurality of copies including actuable work stations and an electrophotosensitive web member defining a plurality of selectable image areas, said web member being movable along an endless path past a plurality of actuable work stations which are operative when actuated to perform work operations on selected image areas of the web member, respectively, the improvement wherein:
a. said web member defines a first set of indicia having at least three spaced indicium disposed in predetermined positions to define at least three image areas respectively, and second sets of indicia, each set of which is disposed within an image area, and wherein said apparatus further includes:
b. means disposed at a fixed location along the path and responsive to such first and second sets of indicia to produce first and second sets of signals representative thereof, respectively; and
c. logic control means having a digital computer actuating said work stations in timed relation to movement of the web member past said fixed location to effect sequential operation of such work stations on such selected image areas during movement of the member along the endless path to form a plurality of copies equal in number to the number of indicia of said first set respectively.
9. The invention as set forth in claim 8 wherein said signal producing means includes a first sensor for sensing the location of each image area on said moving member and a second sensor for sensing the location of portions of said moving member within each image area.
10. The invention as set forth in claim 9 wherein said indicia are a respective set of perforations in said moving member for each of said sensors, each of said sensors including a sensing element disposed toward contacting relationship with said moving member whereby said sensing element enters a respective perforation to indicate the sensing of that location on the moving member, and said sensing element having an inclined side at its downstream end with respect to the direction of travel of said moving member for contacting the downstream edge of each respective perforation whereby said sensing element is lifted out of its perforation as said moving member continues to move.
11. The invention as set forth in claim 8 wherein said first and second sets of indicia are equally spaced perforations formed along an edge of said web member respectively, and wherein said signal producing means includes sensors which sense the presence of perforations and are adapted to produce said first and second sets of signals.
12. The invention as set forth in claim 8 wherein said actuable work stations include an exposure station and at least one receiver copy sheet feed station and further wherein said logic and control means in response to said first set of signals actuates said exposure and feed stations.
13. The invention as set forth in claim 12 including a copy handling accessory device coupled to said electrophotographic apparatus and wherein said computer is adapted to control the operation of said device.
14. The invention as set forth in claim 13 wherein said first and second sets of indicia are equally spaced perforations formed along an edge of said web member respectively, and wherein said signal producing means includes sensors which sense the presence of perforations and are adapted to produce said first and second sets of signals.
15. In electrophotographic copying apparauts having a plurality of actuable work stations disposed along an endless path for performing work operations at predetermined intervals, the improvement comprising:
a. first sensing means disposed at a fixed location along said path responsive to stimuli moving along said path to produce signals representative thereof;
b. second sensing means disposed at a fixed location along said path displaced from said first sensing means and responsive to other stimuli moving along said path to produce signals representative of the other stimuli; and
c. logic control means having a digital computer with a stored program and responsive to the signals from said first and second sensing means for actuating said work stations in timed relation to the movement of each stimulus past its fixed location in accordance with the stored program to effect sequential operation of said work stations at said predetermined intervals.
16. The invention as set forth in claim 15 wherein each of said sensing means is a bimorph sensor having a sensing element disposed in the path of travel of said endless path, and each sensing element having an inclined side disposed in said path for causing said sensing element to move and maintain its position in said path in accordance with any surface irregularities of any member moving along said path.