US 3915047 A
A musical instrument such as an organ with a keyboard is attached to a data processing system. The musical instrument is provided with a mechanism such as a foot pedal which can be actuated by the artist to provide rhythm timing to the computer. Means are provided for scanning the keyboard and foot pedal mechanism and for storing a binary representation of the state of the keys and foot pedal. The binary data is then transferred to the data processing system for analysis.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Davis et a1.
[ Oct. 28, 1975 APPARATUS FOR ATTACHINGA MUSICAL 3,733,593 5/1973 Molnar 84/1.01 x I ST U E o A COMPUTER 3,743,755 7/1973 Watson.... 84/1.01 3,746,773 7/1973 Uetrecht 534/101 1 Inventors: Stephen Davls, pp g Falls, 3,763,364 /1973 Deutsch et a1.. 84/103 x N.Y.; Thomas A. Hendri'ckson, 3,771,406 11/1973 Wheelwright... 84/l.01 UX Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 3,789,719 2/1974 Maillet 1 84/115 D 3,809,786 5/1974 Deutsch... 84/1.01  Assignee. lnternatlonalBusmess Machines 3,809,788 5/1974 Deutschm 34/101 CMPOIalwmArmOHk, NY 3,809,789 5/1974 Deutsch... 84/1.0l
3,809,790 5/1974 Deutsch 84/1.0l  1974 3,810,106 5/1974 Nadler et a1. 84/1.01 x  Appl 4 7 1 3,821,712 6/1974 Wetzel 84/1.01 x
52 us. c1. 84/1.03; 84/l.01; 84/DIG. 12-, 'f "i 841/115 Assistant Exammer-Stan1ey J. W1tkowsk1 1511 1111.131. c1011 l/00;G1OH 5/00 Ammey, Goldman  Field of Search 84/1.01, 1.03, 1.17, 1.24,
84/D1G. 12, 115, 461, 462 57 ABSTRACT 56 References Cited A musical instrument such as an organ with a key- UNITED STATES PATENTS board is attached to a data processing system. The I musical instrument is provided with a mechanism such 2,855,816 10/1958 Olson 6t 8.1 84/1.03 as a foot pedal can be actuated the artist to 3,007,362 11/1961 Olson et al.. 84/1.03 1 3 515 792 6/1970 Demsch 8 4/1 03 provide rhythm t1m1ng to the computer. Means are 3585891 6/197] 'g'h 84/1:O3 provided for scanning the keyboard and foot pedal 3,610,799 10/1971 Watson 84/1.01 mechanism and for Storing a n y representation of 3,629,480 12/1971 Harris 84/1.03 the State Of the y and foot P The binary data is 3,647,929 3/1972 Mi1de,Jr 84/l.01 then transferred to the data processing system for 3,683,096 8/1972 Peterson et al.. 84/115 analysis. 3,696,201 10/1972 Arsem et a1. 84/1.01 3,697,661 10/ 1972 Deutsch 84/1.01 4 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures ORGAN KEYS 11 MANUAL CIRCUITS PLAYBACK N 511.
ORGAN KEY j CONTACTS i 64 WRITE 8118 0-15 1 v 1 1: 11111 V 1111 F001 PEDAL A DEMAND 2701 SYSTEM/ SWITCH 1 DATA 8 1 E011 PARALLEL 560 FLOW WRITE SEL CONTROL WRITE SE1 DATA D 0R%Agc|}lETYS1NG CIRCUITS PL'AYBAQK CIRDIHTS READ SEL ADAPTER 50 111111 SH 1111111 11111111 111111 (H02) 58 (F103) READ READY 1 1 o 1 11 A 1 84 READ B 015 '6 v ad 6 1 I I 1 .86 B8 DRGAN SOUND SYSTEM US. Patent 0a. 28, 1975 Sheet 2 of4 3,915,047
LINES LINES GATES A GATES DECODER ems GATES WRITE SEL DEMULTI PLEXOR 96 I V G0 L WORD 5 WORD 2 WORD 1 WORD O O 1 Tm mg 16 BITS 16 ans 16 ans 1s BITS G2 CONTROLS E READ SEL DR IVER s 16 READ READ LINES LINES 0 KEYING CIRCUITS U.S. Patent Oct. 28, 1975 Sheet 4 of4 I 4 BASIC TIMING RDYIRDORWR) I I I I I I 884 IL II II 882 I R I I II II; COUNTERI I /\J/ B A B A B A B A CBA COUNTERIII I I I B A B A B A BA 0 BA EIIII III A WRITE TIMING I WRSEL. M I PDA WRITE BUS I I LJ GI 62 G3 G0,GI,G2,G5 II II IL DEMANDIWRIIE) I] II II EOR(WR|TE) W W RESET CTRS RD.SELECT I GO,GI, G2,G5, J L--- DEMAND (READ) ['1 II II II EOR (READ) APPARATUS FOR ATTACHING A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT TO A COMPUTER BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The invention relates to data processing systems, and more particularly to apparatus for attaching a musical instrument to the data processing system so that music produced by the instrument can be converted to data and collected by the data processing system.
Computers have been attached to musical instruments in the past, and computers have been programmed to translate a musical score into computer language so that the computer can control the keys on the instrument and thereby reproduce the programmed music. Therefore, the information stored in the computer could be played back through the instrument.
However, in order to process data derived from a musical instrument, it is necessary to connect the instrument as an input device to the computer. Furthermore, in order for the computer to analyze the data, it is necessary to provide along with the data some indication as to rhythm.
It is therefore a primary object of the present invention to provide a means for connecting a musical instrument to a computer so that music produced by the instrument can be converted to data and collected by the computer.
It is a further object of this invention to provide means for generating data representing rhythm to be supplied with data derived from playing a musical instrument to a computer which is programmed to provide analysis of the performance.
Briefly, the above objects are accomplished in accordance with the invention by providing, in combination with a data processing system, apparatus for converting electrical signals produced by depressing keys on a musical instrument to data manifestations in a format suitable for processing by the data processing system.
In accordance with the invention, snychronization between the performer who is actuating the keyboard and the computer internal timing is maintained by means of a foot pedal switch adapted to be actuated during the actuation of the keyboard during the musical performance. This provides appropriate electrical signals corresponding to the rhythm maintained by the performer which can be interpreted along with the data derived from the keyboard keys for analysis of the interrelationship between the two by the computer.
The invention has the advantage of providing means to allow interaction between the performer and the I computer so that a true interpretation as to what was meant by the performer with respect to rhythm can be made.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The foregoing and other objects, features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment of the invention, as illustrated in the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 3 is a more detailed block diagram of the control circuits of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a timing diagram showing the interrelationship of the various control lines of FIG. 2 and FIG. 3.
DESCRIPTION The system of which the present invention is a part is more fully described in co-pending U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 430,458, by Davis et al. entitled Apparatus For Processing Music As Data filed Jan. 2, 1974, and assigned to IBM Corporation which is incorporated herein by reference. In that system, data is inputted to the computer from an organ. Operator Commands (i.e. requests for the execution of a particular program) are entered into the computer system by means of a keyboard on the organ or a separate input/output terminal. The user may make a basic request by means of the appropriate command, for example. When the performer depresses keys on the organ a switch is closed for each key causing electrical signals representing musical notes to be sent to the computer. This output from the organ, which is data in an elementary form, is translated by the computer in response to the play command to produce a time-line output. With the appropriate Print command, the time-line output may be printed out to provide hard copy. The time-line output (elementary data) enters a translate module which responds to a Translate command entered by the user. The Translate command translates the elementary data into a graphical input language. The result is an intermediate form of data which also may be printed out. The intermediate form of data is entered into an artwork module which converts the intermediate data to the final output sheet music data which can be printed out or-displayed.
The present invention is concerned with that portion of the system described above which includes the apparatus for connecting the organ to the computer and for inputting data thereto.
Referring to FIG. 1, an overall block diagram of the apparatus embodying the invention is shown. An organ 70 is attached to a computer 88 which may be, for example, an IBM System/360 Model 50 computer, described in IBM/360 Model 50 Functional Characteristics (Form No. GA22-6 898) and Operating Procedures (Form No. GA22-6908). The organ is attached to the computer through an IBM 2701 Parallel Data Adapter (PDA) 86 more fully described in IBM 2701 Data Adapter Unit, Principles of Operation, Form No. A22- 6844; Original Equipment Manufacturers Information, Form No. A22-6844. The above manuals and other related manuals can be obtained by contacting any IBM branch office.
The organ 70 may be, for example, an organ of the type known as the Schober Consolette II organ manufactured by the Schober Organ Corporation, 43 West 61st Street, New York City, 10023., and described in How Schober Organs Work by Richard H. Dorf, and the Schober Electronic Organ service manual, Percussion Group (No. 24PN4SM, 1967) which may be ob- FIG. 1 is an overall block diagram of the invention tained by writing to the above address. The organ has the percussion option modified with respect to the organ key contacts and the organ keying circuits as described and shown in FIG. 1. These modifications break away the 64 lines from the organ contacts 74 which normally drive the organ keying circuits 78 and data flow circuits 82 are placed in series with these contacts. In addition, a foot pedal switch 76 is added to accommodate an additional foot pedal at the organ, the purpose of which is to provide timing to the computer. The organ keying circuits 78 drive the organ sound system 80 to produce sound in response to depression of the organ key contacts 74.
The data flow circuits 82 are more fully described in FIG. 2. The data flow circuits 82 are connected to controlcircuits 84 which, in turn, are connected to the PDA 86. The control circuits 84 are more fully described with respect to FIG. 3. Briefly, the data flow circuits and control circuits provide for scanning of the organ key contacts and inputting the bytes of data which are the results of this scan to the PDA which, in turn, byte size and voltage levels and timings converts the bytes into data words which are compatible with the computer 88. Various demand and response lines are required by the PDA and these are interfaced with the organ by means of the control circuits 84.
Referring to FIG. 2, the data flow circuits will now be described. The data flow circuits perform two basic functions. The first is to capture the closure of the organ key contacts, which close whenever a key on the keyboard is depressed, to present that information to the computer and secondly, to take information from the computer and drive the organ keying circuits for playback.
The 64 lines from the organ key contacts drive the input to a buffer register 90 which is split up into four words, 16 bits each, in order to be compatible with the parallel data adapter. The output of the buffer register 90 is connected to drivers 102 which drive the organ keying circuits and also to a data selector which is comprised of gates 98 and a decoder 100. The output of the data selector is 16 bits wide and drives the parallel data adapter.
An input to the buffer 90 is supplied by the output from a demultiplexer which is comprised of gates 92 and a decoder 94. Each of the four sets of gates 92 supplies a 16 bit wide output which is wired to each of the four sets of 16 lines from the organ key contacts. Thus either the organ keys or the demultiplexor supplies 16 bit words to buffer 90. The input to the demultiplexer is 16 bits wide and is connected to the output of the parallel data adapter.
A and B pulses are derived from the control circuit of FIG. 3 described subsequently. The A and B pulses v provide a count of four corresponding to 00, Ol, 10,
and 11. During a write operation, the write select line is energized, activating decoder 94. The decoder 94 decodes the A and B input to select one of the sets of gates 92 to thereby provide four words of 16 bits each from the PDA to be stored sequentially in word 0, word 1, word 2, and word 3 of the buffer register 90. The buffer register drives the organ keying circuits by means of drivers 102.
During a read select operation, the decoder 100 is activated and decodes the inputs A and B which select one of the four sets of gates 98 to thereby provide the contents of buffer register 90 to the FDA in a series of four words of 16 bits each. Thus, first word is presented to the PDA, then word 1, followed.by word 2, and finally word 4.
Timing controls 96 are provided to decode the pulses A and B to provide lines G0, G1, G2, and G3 to the corresponding sections of buffer 90, that is, words 0, 1, 2
t'md 3 respectively. The pulses G0, G1, G2 and G3 are held up when the organ playback switch is off and the playback line is negative. In this condition, the outputs of buffer follow the input.
During a write operation, single shot (FIG. 3) generates the G0, G1, G2, and G3 pulses.
Referring now to FIG. 3, the operation of the control circuits will be described. In FIG. 3, logic blocks labelled I are inverters which change a DC voltage of one polarity appearing at the input of the inverter to the opposite polarity. Reference should be made to the timing diagram of FIG. 4 which shows the relationship between the various inputs and outputs of the control circuit. The write select, read select, write ready, and
'read ready lines are energized by the IBM 2701 Parallel Data Adpater. The write ready and read ready lines are ORed together in OR circuit 104 to provide the ready line. The ready line fires a single shot 106, the output of which drives word counter 110 and provides an output SS1 to the data flow circuits of FIG. 1. The fall of single shot 106 drives a single shot 108, the output of which drives counter 116.
Both counters 110 and 116 are held reset and are released when either write select or read select becomes positive thereby causing an output from OR circuit causing the output not any select to drop and thereby release the counters.
The purpose of wordcounter is to provide binary outputs which are decoded by the data select circuit 112 or 114. The circuit 112 derives four pulses from the output of single shot 108 to provide a read demand signal which passes through OR circuit 118 to become the demand signal to the PDA. Therefore, during a read select operation, four pulses are provided corresponding to each of the four words to be transferred to the PDA.
The decoder 114, on the other hand, only decodes three pulses from the output of single shot 108 to provide three write demand pulses whenever the wr-ite select line is positive. These pulses also pass through the OR circuit 118 to become the demand to .the PDA. Duringa write operation, the fourth word is transferred by means of the EOR-end of record pulse provided to the PDA. 1
The purpose of counter 116 is to provide binary outputsA and B which drive the data flow circuits to .FIG. 2. These pulses provide energization for the gates which gate the four words to or from the PDA depending on whether it is a read or write operation. A count of four is derived from the counter 116 to produce the EOR pulse. The AND circuit 120 is energized when the demand line is negative and a count of four is positive thus providing the fourth and final pulse on a write operation.
The operation of the data flow circuits of FIG. 2 and the control circuits of FIG. 3 will be summarized with respect to the timing diagram of FIG. 4. The ready line rises when the write select or the read select lines are made positive and stays up until the PDA receives a signal on the demand line during either a read operation or a write operation. Single shot 1 is fired by the rise of the ready line. The rise of single shot 1 output advances counter 1 from the 00 state to the 01 state. Single shot 1 generates the G0 pulse which provides the latch set gates during write for the buffer register 90 of FIG. 2.
Single shot 2 is fired by the fall of the output of single shot 1. The fall of single shot 2 advances counter 2 and gates the demand pulse to the PDA. Counter I controls the data selector circuits I12 and 114 to pass an SS2 pulse through to create the demand pulse to the PDA.
Counter 116 generates the A and B controls for the data selector 98 and de-multiplexer 92 in the PDA data path shown in FIG. 2.
The counters are held reset when neither read nor write select are up.
The end of record sequence is as follows: (I) EOR comes on late in the fourth cycle during a read or write operation; (2) this causes the read or write select to drop; (3) the drop of select resets the counter 116 which in turn, (4) terminates the EOR.
The G0, G1, G2 and G3 pulses are held up when the organ playback switch is off. The latch outputs of data buffer 90 follow the inputs when in this condition. The playback switch must be off when recording into the computer.
SUMMARY What has been described is apparatus for connecting a musical instrument to a computer. The instrument is provided with electrical key contacts which are connected to a multibit word register. A write bus is provided for carrying data from the computer to a gating means, the output of which is connected and ORed with the output of the key contacts. During a write operation, write select means energize the gating means to thereby selectively store the data from the computer in the word buffer. The output of the word buffer is connected to the instruments keying circuits which, in turn, when energized cause audible music. Further gating means are provided connected to the output of the word buffer and provide an input to the computer. During a read operation, a read select energizes the gating means to thereby selectively transfer data stored in the buffer to the computer. This enables the data generated from depressing the key contacts to be stored in a machine readable form.
Playback by the computer is accomplished by placing data on the write bus which is transferred to the keying circuits to produce sound.
If it is desired to play the instrument without going through the computer, the write select and read select means are dis-energized and the electrical signals from the key contacts pass directly through the word buffer to the organ keying circuits to thereby produce the musical sound.
While the invention has been particularly shown and 4 descirbed with reference to a preferred embodiment thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing and other changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In combination with a data processing system:
first switch means coupled to an electrical source operative in response to depression of keys on a musical instrument keyboard for providing electrical signals;
second switch means coupled to an electrical source operable by one playing said musical instrument for providing repetitive electrical signals corresponding to the rhythm maintained by the performer;
means for scanning said electrical signals and said repetitive electrical signals; and
means responsive to said scanning means for storing a binary representation of the state of said signals in a buffer register.
2. In combination with a data processing system:
first switch means coupled to an electrical source operative in response to depression of keys on a musical instrument keyboard for providing electrical signals having one state when a key is depressed and another state when a key is not depressed;
second switch means coupled to an electrical source operable by one playing said musical instrument for providing repetitive electrical signals corresponding to the rhythm maintained by the performer;
means for scanning said electrical signals and said repetitive electrical signals;
means responsive to said scanning means for storing a binary representation of the state of said signals in a buffer register; and
means for transferring the contents of said buffer register to said data processing system in response to signals from said data processing system.
3. In combination;
a data processing system;
a musical instrument keyboard having key contacts corresponding to keys on said keyboard;
a foot pedal switch adapted to be actuated by one playing said musical instrument keyboard for providing repetitive electrical signals corresponding to the rhythm maintained by the performer;
means for scanning said key contacts and said foot pedal switch;
means responsive to said scanning means for converting electrical signals produced by depressing said keys to digital data which is compatible with said data processing system; and
means connected to said scanning means and responsive to signals from said data processing system for transferring said data to said data processing system whereby said data processing system collects data corresponding to the music performed.
4. Apparatus for connecting a musical instrument to a computer having a read input and a write output, said instrument having key contacts and output-music producing keying circuits comprising:
a multibit word register having an input and an output;
means connecting the instrument key contacts to the input of said multibit word register;
first gating means having an input and an output;
a write bus for carrying data from said computer, said write bus connected to the input of said gating means, the output of said gating means being connected to the input of said multibit word register;
write select means for selectively energizing or disenergizing said first gating means to thereby selectively store or not store data from said computer in said multibit word register;
second gating means having an input and an output, said input connected to the output of said word buffer and said output connected to the read input of said computer; and
read select means for selectively energizing or disenergizing said second gating means to thereby selectively transfer data or not transfer data from said word buffer to said computer.