|Publication number||US3916536 A|
|Publication date||Nov 4, 1975|
|Filing date||Jul 22, 1974|
|Priority date||Jul 22, 1974|
|Publication number||US 3916536 A, US 3916536A, US-A-3916536, US3916536 A, US3916536A|
|Inventors||Breglia Denis R, Mohon Windell N, Rodemann Alfred H|
|Original Assignee||Us Navy|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (8), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [191 Mohon et al.
[ Nov. 4, 1975 DIRECT FIRE WEAPON SIMULATOR SYSTEM  Inventors: Windell N. Mohon, Winter Park;
Denis R. Breglia, Altamonte Springs; Alfred H. Rodemann, Maitland, all of Fla.
 Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy, Washington, DC.
 Filed: July 22, 1974  Appl. No.: 490,819
 US. Cl. 35/25  Int. Cl. F41G 3/26  Field of Search 35/25;273/101.l, 105.1; 89/28 A, 28, 27, 136; 102/70 R, 16; 350/287; 356/12  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,960,030 11/1960 Semon 102/16 3,452,453 7/1969 Ohlund... 35/25 3,609,883 10/1971 Erhard 35/25 3,657,826 4/1972 Marshall et a1 35/25 3,748,751 7/1973 Breglia et al 35/25 3,788,733 l/l974 Breglia et a1 35/25 3,813,795 6/1974 Marshall at al. 35/25 RECEIVE/P Primary Examiner-John H. Wolff Attorney, Agent, or FirmRichard S. Sciascia; John W. Pease  ABSTRACT A heavy direct fire weapon such as a howitzer normally fired from a lanyard cord and having a projectile barrel with detachable muzzle brake having spaced inwardly directed flanges, is provided with a laser fire type simulation system in which a laser and power pack are fitted in a mounting means comprising a cylinder on which is positioned adjustably spaced flanges, and in which the flanges are formed with annular oppositely facing inclined centering surfaces to engage the spaced muzzle brake internal flanges to center and hold the laser and power pack in aligned position with the weapon projectile barrel. At least one of the mounting means flanges is detachable from the mounting cylinder for fitting the cylinder within the muzzle brake. The system also includes a lanyard operated switch means for firing the laser which means includes a normally closed switch element and a spring biased plunger with limit stop means normally engaging said switch element to hold it in open condition and operable from said lanyard to disengage the plunger from the switch to close the latter and fire the laser. The invention further contemplates removably insertable stop means for holding the switch element in on condition for bore sighting of the laser.
3 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures AND F IRE GUNNER ELEVATION ASST Gilli/NE)? US. Patent Nov. 4, 1975 Sheet 1 of 3 3,916,536
\ 55% G3 mma m amt EGG hit new Ix DSQNY US. Patent Nov 4, 1975 Sheet 2 of3 3,916,536
$5.65 mm QQI lql US. Patent Nov. 4, 1975 Sheet 3 of3 3,916,536
DIRECT FIRE WEAPON SIMULATOR SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to the broad fleld of educational devices and in particular to training devices and simulation systems utilizing lasers in place of live ammunition. It has proved feasible to modify a small arms fire weapon for laser application to direct fire training. In the prior art some larger guns such as tanks have been modified by attachments thereto to provide laser fire simulation systems. Such modifications required extents of time and cost and modifications to the original operational equipment as to interfere with normal operation of the weapon subsequent to use as a simulator. In the class of equipment such as howitzers the appropriation of a weapon solely to simulation is expensive. The desirable course was to provide a simulation system which could be used to rapidly modify a weapon of the howitzer type for simulation at low cost and without modifications such as drilling holes, affixing screws and other measures which required modifications in the weapon itself. A further requirement was to provide the ultimate in realism in gun operation and characteristics. The flexibility of unprogrammed variation of problem under the control of an instructor and means for indication of hit or error are also required.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention comprises a detachable simulation system for a howitzer in which hollow mounting means of interior contoured to hold an assembled power pack, laser, and beam deflector means and exterior contoured to provide adjustably spaced flanges having annular oppositely facing inclined centering surfaces are provided for centering and clamping said laser, pack and deflection means within said muzzle brake and in which a spring biasing housing is combined with a normally closed switch means to provide for actuation of the laser with stop means on the housing to provide for the realistic heavy force pull on a lanyard without damage to the switch mechanism itself. Additional latch pin means is also provided to eliminate the spring bias and to hold the switch means in closed condition for bore sighting operation.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic view ofa laser fire type simulation system incorporating the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of portions of the system of FIG. I used to explain some details of the system;
FIGS. 3 and 4 are side elevational views of details of mounting structure forming part of the invention; and
FIG. 5 is a detailed cross-sectional view of a lanyard operated switch shown in latch position DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to the drawing, there is shown diagrammat ically in FIG. 1 a laser type simulation system applied to a howitzer type gun and incorporating the invention. Thus, in FIG. 1 is shown a conventional breech load howitzer having a turret mounted barrel 12 on a track vehicle 14, the barrel being capable of swing in azimuth by equipment represented by a sight 16 and azimuth crank on wheel 18 operated by gunner 20 and in elevation by equipment represented by a sight 22 and wheel 24 operated by gunner 26. The weapon is normally fired by gunner 20 in pulling a lanyard 28 which fires a pin (not shown) to ignite the projectile (not shown) which is fired through the barrel 12. A gun of the howitzer type is equipped with a muzzle brake 30 provided to hide the gun flash and reduce recoil in the weapon. In this respect the muzzle brake is formed of internally directed flanged portions 32 and 34 by which powder flash is redirected.
The present invention is directed to the problem of adopting such an operational piece of equipment to training use without destroying its potential utility as operational equipment and at low cost in dollars and time, and for adaptability to a laser type simulation trainer.
In this respect, and in accordance with the subject invention, a power pack 36, laser 38 and beam deflector means 40 are secured to and within the muzzle brake 30 by a mounting means 42, seen in FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, and having adjustably spaced flanged portions 44 and 46 with oppositely directed inclined annular surfaces 48 and 50 for engagement with the muzzle brake flanges 32 and 34 respectively to align the laser 38 with the weapon barrel l2 and secure the laser, power pack and beam deflector to the barrel 12. The mounting means has a cylindrical exterior so that at least one of the flanges, for example flange 46, can be detachably threaded to the body portion 41 of the mounting means. This provides for assembly of the mounting means into the muzzle 30 and tightening of one or both the flanges 44 and 46 to secure and align the laser 38 and associated power pack 36 and deflector 40 to the weapon barrel l2.
As previously indicated the gun barrel 12 can be adjusted in azimuth and elevation to hit a moving target 48 illustrated in FIG. 1 by a tank image board 50 and vehicle 52.
Via the medium of the laser 38, beam deflector 40 and a remote control means 54 an instructor 56 is able to adjust the beam deflecting means 40 in azimuth and elevation to correspond to target speed and range, and weapon and projectile characteristics. The object then in the simulation system is for the trainees, gunners 20 and 26, to make the proper changes in gun azimuth and elevation to match the setting introduced by the instructor and thus to cause the laser beam to hit on the target when the weapon is fired in simulation.
Referring now to FIG. 2, the beam deflector means provided comprises mirrors 56 and 58 mounted on triangular pivot members 60 and 62 for adjustment on spaced normally related pivot axes 64 and 66 to provide for rotating the mirrors in the directions indicated by the arrows 68 and 70. Micrometer means 72 and 74 are provided and connected as indicated to adjustably pivot the mirrors 56 and 58 on respective spaced axes 64 and 66. Micrometer 72 is connected as indicated by gear 76 and dot-dash line 78 to a synchro-receiver 80 which is connected by line 82 to a synchro-transmitter 84. The latter under the control of a manual dial 86 provides the electrical signal necessary to adjust the mirror 56. Micrometer 74 is likewise connected via a gear 88, a drive connection indicated by dot-dash line 90, a synchro-receiver 92, and a, line 94 to a driving synchro-transmitter 96 which is manually adjusted by a dial 98 external to the box 54. The synchro-transmitters 84 and 86 are connected as by lines 100 and 102 to an inverter 104 which receives a 28 volt d.c. input (indicated) on output lines 106, 108 and provides suitable a.c. output signal. In applicants apparatus, 55 volts a.c.
was used. It is to be noted that servo motors could have been employed but were found not necessary because the mechanical load imposed by the pivot requirement of the mirrors 56 and 58 could be met directly by the synchro-receivers. Coupling means, indicated by flange nut 110 is provided to thread connect the deflector means 40 to the laser 38 as indicated in FIG. 4.
Also shown in FIG. 2 is the lanyard cord 28 through which the activation of the firing pin (not shown) of the howitzer is accomplished. Inserted in the lanyard to form a tension link therein is a switch means 112 for actuating the laser while at the same time providing the realistic hard pull applied to the lanyard in actual gun fire. The lanyard switch means 112 includes a hollow housing 114 having an open end 116, a base end 118 apertured as at 120 and a detachable cap 122 fixed to the housing 114 by screws 124 or other suitable means. A normally closed switch 126 element is fixed to the inside face of said cap for engagement by a plunger 128 which as a skirt 130 for limiting the downward movement of the plunger by engagement with the base 118 of the housing 114 as a stop means. A shaft 132 integral with the plunger 128 and passing through the aperture 120 in the base 118 is provided with an eyelet 134 or other suitable means for attachment to one section of the lanyard 28 and a stop means in the form of a flange 136 integral with the shaft 132 and engagable with the outer surface of the base 118 as a second step means. Means for connecting the cap 122 to the other section of the lanyard 28 is provided in the form of a second eyelet 138 or other suitable means integral with the cap 122. When the lanyard cord 28 is pulled the switch (See FIG. is in its normally closed position with an activater spring 125 spaced from an associated switch opening element 127. When there is no tension on the cord the switch is biased to open position by a compression spring 140 which forces the plunger toward the switch to move the spring 125 and depress the element 127. The stop 136 limits movement of the plunger 128 to avoid damage to the switch element 126, In pulling on the lanyard all the normal force necessary to activate the weapon firing pin may be used with no damage to the switch means and thereby to provde a realistic simulation of firing the actual operational weapon. The switch 126 is connected as indicated by cable 142 to apply power from the power pack 36 to the laser 38. As shown in FIG. 5 the switch means is also provided with a latch pin 144 which may be passed through a lateral aperture 146 in the wall of the housing 114 to hold the piston away from the switch element 126 and thus maintain the laser 38 in operation to produce a continuous laser beam 148 for bore sighting the weapon.
In the combination of elements described hereinbe fore there is therefore provided a low cost readily attachable and detachable simulation system which can be used to turn an operational weapon into a training device without in any way modifying the operational weapon and at the same time producing the utmost in realism of feel and effect.
What is claimed is:
1. In a direct fire weapon having a projectile barrel, means for moving the barrel in azimuth and elevation and utilizing a detachable muzzle brake having aligned apertured rear and front flanged sections for normally 4 redirecting and choking powder flash, a laser fire type simulation system comprising a laser and power pack, mounting means for detachably securing said laser and pack in said detachable muzzle brake, said mounting means having a section of cylindrical exterior with an internal passageway contoured to receive and hold said laser and pack therein, and rear and front flanges having annular oppositely facing inclined centering surfaces,
one of said mounting means flanges being detachably mountable on one end of said cylindrical section to provide means for centering and clamping said laser and pack and associated mounting cylinder in said muzzle brake,
beam deflector means having mirrors and means for adjusting saidmirrors on respective axes which are in degree relation to each other to enable beam adjustment in azimuth and elevation to correspond to target speed and range, and weapon and projectile characterfstics, and thus provide umprogrammed pro'blem variation,
coupling means for detachably securing said deflector means to said laser to pass the laser beam therethrough in adjustable deflection for elevation and azimuth setting, and
a lanyard operated switch means for operating said laser.
2. Apparatus according to claim 1 said lanyard operated switch means for operating said laser comprising a hollow housing having an open end. an apertured base end and a detachable cap for closing said open end,
a normally closed switch element fixed to said cap for enclosure by said housing when said cap is attached thereto,
a plunger slidably fixed in said housing,
a compression spring interconnecting said plunger and housing tourge said plunger in the direction of said switch element,
a shaft integral with said plunger and passing through said spring and said base aperture for connecting to one section of a lanyard line,
said cap having a means for connection to a second section of the same lanyard line,
a stop on said shaft to limit the movement of said plunger under said spring bias in one direction to a position engaging and thereby opening said switch element, and a skirt on said plunger engagable with said housingbase when the lanyard is pulled moving said plunger in the opposite direction to compress said spring and close said switch with lanyard tension and action comparable to normal operational equipment.
3. Apparatus according to claim 2 wherein said switch means includes a latch pin,
said switch housing being laterally apertured to receive said latch pin in a position to retain said spring biased plunger in spring compressed position and thereby maintain said laser in continuous operation for bore sighting the weapon.
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|U.S. Classification||434/21, 359/872, 359/862, 359/223.1|
|International Classification||F41G3/26, F41G3/00|