|Publication number||US3916907 A|
|Publication date||Nov 4, 1975|
|Filing date||Jun 21, 1974|
|Priority date||Jun 21, 1974|
|Publication number||US 3916907 A, US 3916907A, US-A-3916907, US3916907 A, US3916907A|
|Inventors||Wendell C Peterson|
|Original Assignee||Wendell C Peterson|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (164), Classifications (28)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
'United States Patent 1191 Peterson SPREADER INSTRUMENT FOR USE IN PERFORMING A SPINAL FUSION  Inventor: Wendell C. Peterson, 7107 Prospect Place, NE., Albuquerque, N. Mex. 87110 22 Filed: June 21,1974
21 Appl. No.: 481,637
 US. Cl. 128/345; 128/20; 81/302;
 Int. Cl. A61M 24/00  Field of Search 128/20, 345, 303 R, 354,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 390,561 10/1888 Brown 128/345 544,268 8/1895 Hannes et a1. 81/302 1,170,324 2/1916 Pomerene 128/345 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 265,400 12/1927 Italy 128/345 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Surgery, Surgery, Nov.
[ Nov. 4, 1975 1952, Vol. 32, No. 5, p. 852.
Primary Examiner-Richard A. Gaudet Assistant Examiner-Henry S. Layton Attomey, Agent, or Firm-Richard A. Bachand [5 7] ABSTRACT A spreader instrument for use in spinal fusion surgery for separating adjacent vertebral bodies having a common bone assembly receiving hole pre-formed therein includes two elongated members pivotally attached intermediate their ends. A pair of partial-circularly shaped plates are attached to the pivoted members, extending outwardly from adjacent opposite free ends of the respective members. The plates are oriented with their concave faces toward each other to be adapted to be inserted into the pre-formed holes within the vertebral bodies. The plates engage the walls of the pre-formed hole in the bodies and spreads or separates the bodies as the members are pivoted, permitting a cylindrically shaped bone assembly to be axially inserted between the semi-circular plates into the hole in the vertebral bodies.
9 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures US. Patent Nov. 4, 1975 FIG.5
SPREADER INSTRUMENT FOR USE IN PERFORMING A SPINAL FUSION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to surgical instruments, and more particularly to a spreader instrument for use in performing a surgical fusion between adjacent vertebral bodies.
2. Description of the Prior Art In performing the surgical procedure widely known as a spinal fusion, two or more vertebral bodies are fused together by grafting a bone section or a bone assembly made of a plurality of bone sections between each pair of vertebrae to be fused. Although such fusions may be performed either anteriorily or posteriorily, the invention has particular application to the anteriorily performed procedure.
Ordinarily, in performing the operation, when the two vertebral bodies to be fused are reached and exposed, and the area between them is cleaned of the disc and other materials, such as those which may have been extruded from the disc, a hole is drilled along a centerline between the two vertebrae. The hole defines a cylindrical cavity within the vertebrae extending almost to the nerve bundles within the spinal column with each half of the cylindrically shaped hole being located in a respective one of the vertebrae. (The partic ular drilling methods are well known, and therefore are not described herein in detail.) A bone section is then obtained and inserted into the hole to ultimately form aunitary structure with the two vertebrae.
The bone section used for such grafts is commonly obtained either from a leg bone, whereby a single piece may be obtained which is often large enough to suffice as the intervertebral connection, or more frequently, from the patients illium bone. Usually, however, when the illium bone is used for the graft, it is necessary to utilize two or more bone sections to obtain a bone assembly of sufficient largeness to complete the graft. The bone sections are fastened together, generally by a stainless wire passed in a figure 8 pattern through a hole in the bone sections. H
Once the donor bone assembly is prepared, it is inserted into the hole previously formed inthe vertebral bodies by manually manipulating the two bodies and forcing them apart a distance sufficient to easily receive the donor bone assembly, then inserting the assembly and releasing the vertebral bodies to return to their usual position, thereby clamping the bone assembly between them. It can be seen that, at best, separating the vertebral bodies in this manner is difficult and inconvenient, considering especially that the operation is being performed several inches below an anterior incision into the patients stomach area.
To further illustrate the difficulties encountered, in one of the methods for separating the vertebral bodies, the head and feet of the patient are physically pulled in opposite directions, thereby separating, among other things, the vertebrae to be fused. This is inconvenient, and requires the assistance of at least two persons in addition to the surgeon. Special apparatus is also required for fastening to the patient to aid in applying the tractory. For example, one apparatus proposed includes a pair of claw sets, one set being required for each vertebral body. The claws are operated to engage the outside walls of the vertebral bodies, with the claws digging into the vertebral bodies. They are then manipulated to pull the bodies apart to allow the bone section to be inserted.
The fusion portion of the operation is then completed by fixing clamps or staples across the intervertebral space between the two fused vertebrae to keep the vertebrae fixed with respect to each other and to constrain the bone assembly within the hole in which it is disposed. The three bodies, i.e., the two vertebrae and the donor bone assembly are then allowed to heal together to unite into a single bone structure.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In light of the above, it is an object of the invention to provide an instrument for separating or spreading a pair of vertebral bodies to be fused and to permit a donor bone assembly to be inserted into a hole preformed in the vertebrae In accordance with the present invention, a surgical instrument is presented .to separate a pair of adjacent vertebral bodies to be fused, to allow a bone assembly to be inserted into a pre-formed hole therein. The spreader instrument includes two elongated members intermediately pivotally attached to be rotateable each upon the other. At one end of each of the elongated members is a thin, arcuate plate adapted to be inserted into a pre-formed hole in the vertebral bodies to be fused. The plates are mounted about a common axis with their concave sides facing each other. Each plate has a first radius on its inside wall of approximately that of bone assembly to be inserted and a second smaller radius on its outside wall of approximately that of the pre-formed hole in the vertebrae. The plates can then be located within the pre-formed hole to engage its walls, and to enable a bone assembly of slightly larger diameter than the diameter of the pre-formed hole to be inserted into the pre-formed hole without interference.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING A preferred embodiment of the invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing wherein:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the two vertebral bodies which have been prepared for insertion of a bone assembly therebetween.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a typical unitary bone section for insertion between. the vertebral bodies of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a spreader instrument in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, for use in spreadingthe vertebrae of FIG. 1 to enable the bone section of FIG. 2 to be inserted therebetween.
FIG. 4 is a perspective view, partially cut away, showing the arcuately shaped plates of the spreader of FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is a frontal view of the vertebral bodies of FIG. 1 after completion of the surgical fusion procedure employing the spreader instrument of the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Typically, in the performance of a spinal fusion operation, an incision is made into the patient to expose the vertebral bodies to be fused. An anterior view of a pair of such vertebral bodies 10 and 11 is shown in FIG. 1. During the operation, a common hole 12 having a top portion 13 and bottom portion 14, is formed by wellknown techniques into the vertebrae 10 and 11, after the space 15 between the bodies 10 and 11 has been cleaned and the disc and other matters therebetween removed.
Thereafter, a bone plug or assembly 17, as shown in FIG. 2, is inserted into the previously formed hole 12 defined by the recesses 13 and 14. The cylindrically shaped bone assembly 17 includes two bone sections 18 and 19, obtained, for example, from the illium bone, in a well-known manner. The bone sections 18 and 19 are fastened together by a stainless steel screw 21 or other fastening means, such as a wire or the like (not shown), and are typically made in circular shape, as shown, with a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the hole 12 of the vertebral bodies 10 and 11. For instance, the diameter of the bone plug 17 can conveniently be /8 of an inch, and the diameter of the hole 12 can be /2 of an inch. Thus, when the bone section 17 is inserted into the hole 12, the corners 25, 26, 27, and 28 of the vertebral bodies and 1 1 tend to cut or bear upon the bone assembly 17, thereby promoting the fusion thereto as well as immobilizing the vertebral bodies and increasing their stability.
To insert the bone assembly 17 into the hole within the vertebral bodies 10 and 11, the spreader instrument 30, in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, as shown in FIG. 3, is employed. The spreader 30 includes two elongated members 31 and 32, which are pivoted with respect to each other about a point 35 intermediate the ends of the members. The members 31 and 32 are arranged so that the extremities do not crisscross at the pivot point 35. That is, the ends upon which the plates 37 and 38 are carried are caused to separate when the opposite, or handle ends 45 and 46 are moved together. At one end of the respective members 31 and 32, arcuate shaped plates 37 and 38 are attached or formed. The plates 37 and 38 may, as shown, be mounted at an angle of perhaps 30 degrees with respect to the members 31 and 32 to ease operation from above the incision.
The rotational position of the plates 37 and 38, as shown by the arrows 42 and 43, is controlled by the handle portion 45 and 46 of the elongated members 31 and 32. A biasing spring 50 is included between the members to urge them toward a normal closed position of the spreader 30. Also, a locking clip or other such device (not shown) may be easily included between the members 45 and 46 to allow the position of the spreader to be maintained at a desired opening angle.
Because the spreader is used in areas having small access thereto, the handle portion, including the elongated members 45 and 46, may be bent slightly along its axis (bend not shown) to ease operation in such areas, for example, to an angle about 30 degrees.
The construction of the arcuate plates 37 and 38 is shown in more detail in FIG. 4. The plates 37 and 38 are of generally frusto-conical sections having bases 52 and 53 extending over a larger arc distance than the tips 55 and 56. Additionally, the inner radius, indicated by the arrows 60 and 61 are made to conform to the radius of the bone plug assembly 17 of FIG. 2. Thus, for example, if the radius of the bone assembly 17 in FIG.
2 is /8 of an inch, the inner radii, indicated by the arrows and 61, are also made of radius equal to A2 of an inch.
On the other hand, the outside radii of the plates 37 and 38 are made to conform to the radius of the hole 12 as defined by the recesses 13 and 14in the vertebral bodies 10 and 11. Thus, if the hole 12 in the vertebral bodies 10 and 11 has a radius of approximately /2 of an inch, the radii indicated by the arrows 63 and 64 will also be of /2 of an inch.
This radius variance between the inner and outer surfaces of the plates 37 and 38 greatly facilitates the use of the spreader, since the surfaces precisely conform to the curves of the vertebral bodies and plug used in connection therewith. Furthermore, the different radii facilitates easy withdrawal of the spreader 30 from within the holes of the vertebral body 10 after the bone assembly 17 has been inserted, since all of the surfaces are conforming, with no corners or other areas of particular contact which might tend to bind.
It should be emphasized that the length of the plates 37 and 38 should be selected to be sufficiently long as to enable the vertebral bodies to be spread upon insertion into the holes 12 and 13 therein, but not so long as to present the possibility of cutting into the spinal cord lying directly beneath the hole 12. It has been found, for example, that a length of approximately of an inch is generally sufficient.
The plates 37 and 38 are oriented upon the members 31 and 32 in a manner such that they are essentially complementary about a common centerline axis when they are separated a distance just sufficient to receive the bone plug or assembly 17. Thus, as the plug 17 is inserted, its centerline axis will coincide with the center of the inside radii of each of the plates 37 and 38. Likewise, in this position, the outside radii of the plates 37 and 38 will each have a radius located at a common endpoint with the other, defining a diameter equal to the desired diameter of the hole 12 to receive the bone plug 17.
In operation, the elongated members 31 and 32 are manipulated by the handles 45 and 46 to spread the plates 37 and 38 within the holes 13 and 14 of the vertebral bodies 10 and 11. The vertebral bodies 10 and 1 1 are thereby spread or separated a distance sufficient to allow the bone assembly 17 to be inserted in the hole area 12. After the bone assembly 17 has been inserted into place, the spreader 30 is removed from the hole 12, and the vertebral bodies 10 and 11 are allowed to recede to their original positions to clamp the bone assembly 17 therebetween.
Finally, as shown in FIG. 5, to complete the surgical fusion, a means to restrain movement between the vertebral bodies 10 and 11 and to constrain the bone assembly 17 within the holes in the vertebral bodies is placed. Such means can conveniently be elongated staples or clamps 61 and 62, which extend across the hole of the vertebral bodies 10 and 11. The staples 61 and 62 are fastened at their respective ends into the vertebral bodies 10 and 11.
The spreader 30, in accordance with the invention, can be made of any suitable material, such as stainless way of example and that numerous changes in the details of construction and the combination and arrangement of parts may be resorted to without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention and hereinafter claimed.
What is claimed is:
1. A spreader for separating vertebral bodies having a hole pre-formed therein to receive a cylindrical plug comprising, two pivotally attached elongated members, and two frustro-conically shaped curved plates, each rigidly attached to a respective one of said members, each of said plates having a first outside radius to engage the wall of said hole, and having a second inside radius smaller than said first radius for passing the bone plug, said first and second radii being upon a common center line oriented at an angle of approximately 30 from an axis along said respective elongated member.
2. The spreader of claim 1 further comprising biasing means between said members to urge said plates in a direction toward each other.
3. The spreader of claim 1 wherein said plates are mounted with their centerline axes oriented at an angle with respect to the axis of said members, and are disposed on said elongated members to be symmetrical about a centerline axis with respect to each other when the interior faces of said plates are separated by a distance approximately equal to the diameter of said plug.
4. The spreader of claim 3 wherein the material of which the spreader is formed is stainless steel.
5. A spreader for separating two vertebral bodies having a pre-formed bone plug receiving hole, comprismg:
a pair of elongated members,
pivot means medially interconnecting said pair of elongated members,
a pair of frustro-conically shaped arcuate plates, each rigidly attached to and outstanding from adjacent an end of a respective one of said members, each plate being of inside radius of approximately /s of an inch to pass said bone plug and of outside radius of approximately /2 of an inch to engage one of said vertebral bodies, the center line axis of each of said plates defining an angle of about 30 with respect to the axis of the elongated member upon which it is mounted.
6. The spreader of claim 5 wherein each of said pair of arcuate plates is of approximately of an inch in length.
7. The spreader of claim 5 wherein each of said elongated members are bent at an angle of about 30 upon its axis.
8. The spreader of claim 7 further comprising biasing means between said elongated members normally urging said plates together.
9. The spreader of claim 8 wherein the material of which the spreader is formed is stainless steel.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US390561 *||Jun 27, 1888||Oct 2, 1888||Dental mouth-opening forceps|
|US544268 *||Feb 9, 1796||Aug 6, 1895||Bulb or tube stretcher or expander|
|US1170324 *||Feb 2, 1912||Feb 1, 1916||Myron B Pomerene||Dilating-forceps.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4068364 *||Jan 15, 1976||Jan 17, 1978||Tharp Gordon H||Resleeving tool|
|US4367577 *||Dec 8, 1980||Jan 11, 1983||Muff Nicholas S||Extractor for removing broken tubing tips from catheter hubs|
|US4881525 *||Sep 9, 1988||Nov 21, 1989||Williams Richard C||Cervical fusion retractor|
|US5167223 *||Sep 8, 1989||Dec 1, 1992||Tibor Koros||Heart valve retractor and sternum spreader surgical instrument|
|US5176129 *||Mar 1, 1991||Jan 5, 1993||Tekdyne, Inc.||Self-retaining refractor|
|US5249720 *||May 1, 1992||Oct 5, 1993||White Allen A||Tool for facilitating application of elastic stockings|
|US5431653 *||Jul 6, 1993||Jul 11, 1995||Callaway; George H.||Knee joint flexion-gap distraction device|
|US5458029 *||Sep 12, 1994||Oct 17, 1995||Walsky; Robert S.||Tool for removing the base of a broken light bulb from a socket|
|US5513783 *||Oct 26, 1994||May 7, 1996||White; Allen A.||Tool for facilitating application of elastic stockings|
|US5599279 *||Jan 29, 1996||Feb 4, 1997||Gus J. Slotman||Surgical instruments and method useful for endoscopic spinal procedures|
|US5620458 *||Mar 16, 1994||Apr 15, 1997||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical instruments useful for endoscopic spinal procedures|
|US5649929 *||Jul 10, 1995||Jul 22, 1997||Callaway; George Hadley||Knee joint flexion-gap distraction device|
|US5697889 *||May 5, 1995||Dec 16, 1997||Gus J. Slotman||Surgical instruments useful for endoscopic spinal procedures|
|US5755732 *||Feb 11, 1997||May 26, 1998||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical instruments useful for endoscopic spinal procedures|
|US5782832 *||Oct 1, 1996||Jul 21, 1998||Surgical Dynamics, Inc.||Spinal fusion implant and method of insertion thereof|
|US5885299 *||Mar 14, 1996||Mar 23, 1999||Surgical Dynamics, Inc.||Apparatus and method for implant insertion|
|US5935151 *||Dec 15, 1995||Aug 10, 1999||Broughton; Bruce G.||Vertebral distraction pump|
|US5968098 *||Oct 22, 1996||Oct 19, 1999||Surgical Dynamics, Inc.||Apparatus for fusing adjacent bone structures|
|US6004326 *||Sep 10, 1997||Dec 21, 1999||United States Surgical||Method and instrumentation for implant insertion|
|US6063088 *||Mar 24, 1997||May 16, 2000||United States Surgical Corporation||Method and instrumentation for implant insertion|
|US6080155 *||Feb 27, 1995||Jun 27, 2000||Michelson; Gary Karlin||Method of inserting and preloading spinal implants|
|US6083225 *||Jul 8, 1997||Jul 4, 2000||Surgical Dynamics, Inc.||Method and instrumentation for implant insertion|
|US6096038 *||Jun 7, 1995||Aug 1, 2000||Michelson; Gary Karlin||Apparatus for inserting spinal implants|
|US6120503 *||Sep 5, 1997||Sep 19, 2000||Michelson; Gary Karlin||Apparatus instrumentation, and method for spinal fixation|
|US6123705 *||Oct 1, 1996||Sep 26, 2000||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US6136001 *||Jul 31, 1998||Oct 24, 2000||Michelson; Gary Karlin||Apparatus and method for linking spinal implants|
|US6149650 *||May 8, 1998||Nov 21, 2000||Michelson; Gary Karlin||Threaded spinal implant|
|US6190414||Oct 31, 1996||Feb 20, 2001||Surgical Dynamics Inc.||Apparatus for fusion of adjacent bone structures|
|US6210412||Jun 7, 1995||Apr 3, 2001||Gary Karlin Michelson||Method for inserting frusto-conical interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US6224595||Apr 20, 1998||May 1, 2001||Sofamor Danek Holdings, Inc.||Method for inserting a spinal implant|
|US6245072||Mar 9, 1999||Jun 12, 2001||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Methods and instruments for interbody fusion|
|US6261296||Oct 1, 1999||Jul 17, 2001||Synthes U.S.A.||Spinal disc space distractor|
|US6264656||May 8, 1998||Jul 24, 2001||Gary Karlin Michelson||Threaded spinal implant|
|US6267763||Mar 31, 1999||Jul 31, 2001||Surgical Dynamics, Inc.||Method and apparatus for spinal implant insertion|
|US6270498||Jun 7, 1995||Aug 7, 2001||Gary Karlin Michelson||Apparatus for inserting spinal implants|
|US6364880||May 2, 2000||Apr 2, 2002||Gary Karlin Michelson||Spinal implant with bone screws|
|US6436098||Jan 16, 1996||Aug 20, 2002||Sofamor Danek Holdings, Inc.||Method for inserting spinal implants and for securing a guard to the spine|
|US6520967||May 15, 2000||Feb 18, 2003||Cauthen Research Group, Inc.||Spinal implant insertion instrument for spinal interbody prostheses|
|US6582431||Nov 5, 1999||Jun 24, 2003||Howmedica Osteonics Corp.||Expandable non-threaded spinal fusion device|
|US6595995||Dec 21, 2000||Jul 22, 2003||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Methods and instruments for interbody fusion|
|US6635086||May 30, 2001||Oct 21, 2003||Blacksheep Technologies Incorporated||Implant for placement between cervical vertebrae|
|US6712825||Jun 14, 2001||Mar 30, 2004||Max Aebi||Spinal disc space distractor|
|US6758849||Aug 18, 2000||Jul 6, 2004||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US6764491||May 15, 2001||Jul 20, 2004||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US6770074||Nov 17, 2001||Aug 3, 2004||Gary Karlin Michelson||Apparatus for use in inserting spinal implants|
|US6814737||Feb 10, 2003||Nov 9, 2004||Cauthen Research Group, Inc.||Spinal implant insertion instrument for spinal interbody prostheses|
|US6830570||Oct 23, 2000||Dec 14, 2004||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US6875213||Feb 21, 2003||Apr 5, 2005||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Method of inserting spinal implants with the use of imaging|
|US6899734||Mar 23, 2001||May 31, 2005||Howmedica Osteonics Corp.||Modular implant for fusing adjacent bone structure|
|US6923810||Jun 7, 1995||Aug 2, 2005||Gary Karlin Michelson||Frusto-conical interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US6972019||Jan 23, 2001||Dec 6, 2005||Michelson Gary K||Interbody spinal implant with trailing end adapted to receive bone screws|
|US6981990 *||Aug 4, 2003||Jan 3, 2006||Cervitech, Inc.||Cervical prosthesis with insertion instrument|
|US7060073||Apr 10, 2002||Jun 13, 2006||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US7097647||Jan 25, 2003||Aug 29, 2006||Christopher Paige Segler||Tarsal joint space distractor|
|US7160304 *||Mar 25, 2003||Jan 9, 2007||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Method for preparing a space between adjacent vertebrae to receive an insert|
|US7207991||Mar 18, 2002||Apr 24, 2007||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Method for the endoscopic correction of spinal disease|
|US7255698||Aug 11, 2003||Aug 14, 2007||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Apparatus and method for anterior spinal stabilization|
|US7264622||Oct 24, 2003||Sep 4, 2007||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||System for radial bone displacement|
|US7291149||Oct 4, 1999||Nov 6, 2007||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Method for inserting interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US7300440||May 21, 2003||Nov 27, 2007||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Methods and instruments for interbody fusion|
|US7303584||Apr 22, 2005||Dec 4, 2007||Howmedica Osteonics Corp.||Modular implant for fusing adjacent bone structure|
|US7326214||Aug 9, 2003||Feb 5, 2008||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Bone cutting device having a cutting edge with a non-extending center|
|US7361193||Nov 25, 2003||Apr 22, 2008||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US7399303||Aug 20, 2002||Jul 15, 2008||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Bone cutting device and method for use thereof|
|US7431722||Jun 6, 2000||Oct 7, 2008||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Apparatus including a guard member having a passage with a non-circular cross section for providing protected access to the spine|
|US7442209||Nov 30, 2005||Oct 28, 2008||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Implant with trailing end adapted to receive bone screws|
|US7452359||Jun 7, 1995||Nov 18, 2008||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Apparatus for inserting spinal implants|
|US7481812||May 26, 2006||Jan 27, 2009||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US7491205||Jun 7, 1995||Feb 17, 2009||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Instrumentation for the surgical correction of human thoracic and lumbar spinal disease from the lateral aspect of the spine|
|US7534254||Jun 7, 1995||May 19, 2009||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Threaded frusto-conical interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US7569054||Nov 8, 2005||Aug 4, 2009||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Tubular member having a passage and opposed bone contacting extensions|
|US7608105||Jul 20, 2005||Oct 27, 2009||Howmedica Osteonics Corp.||Methods of inserting conically-shaped fusion cages|
|US7611514||Feb 14, 2004||Nov 3, 2009||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Spinal interspace shaper|
|US7615052 *||Apr 29, 2005||Nov 10, 2009||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Surgical instrument and method|
|US7686805||Jul 1, 2004||Mar 30, 2010||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Methods for distraction of a disc space|
|US7691148||Mar 19, 2005||Apr 6, 2010||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Frusto-conical spinal implant|
|US7722619||Apr 25, 2006||May 25, 2010||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Method of maintaining distraction of a spinal disc space|
|US7794502||Oct 28, 2008||Sep 14, 2010||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Implant with openings adapted to receive bone screws|
|US7828800||May 18, 2009||Nov 9, 2010||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Threaded frusto-conical interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US7837732||Nov 19, 2004||Nov 23, 2010||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Intervertebral body fusion cage with keels and implantation methods|
|US7857818 *||Mar 30, 2007||Dec 28, 2010||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Method and apparatus for delivering an intervertebral disc implant|
|US7887565||Feb 18, 2006||Feb 15, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Apparatus and method for sequential distraction|
|US7914530||Apr 25, 2006||Mar 29, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Tissue dilator and method for performing a spinal procedure|
|US7914554||Mar 15, 2002||Mar 29, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Spinal implant containing multiple bone growth promoting materials|
|US7918855||Nov 3, 2009||Apr 5, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Spinal interspace shaper|
|US7935124||Aug 7, 2003||May 3, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US7935148||Jan 9, 2006||May 3, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Adjustable insertion device for a vertebral implant|
|US7942933||Apr 3, 2010||May 17, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Frusto-conical spinal implant|
|US7967863||Dec 12, 2008||Jun 28, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US7976566||Mar 25, 2002||Jul 12, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Apparatus for insertion into an implantation space|
|US7993347||Jul 27, 2000||Aug 9, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Guard for use in performing human interbody spinal surgery|
|US7998215||Dec 12, 2008||Aug 16, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US8057475||Nov 9, 2010||Nov 15, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Threaded interbody spinal fusion implant|
|US8066705 *||Feb 21, 2003||Nov 29, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Instrumentation for the endoscopic correction of spinal disease|
|US8066707||Nov 15, 2005||Nov 29, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Method for preparing a space in bone to receive an insert|
|US8162951||Jan 31, 2008||Apr 24, 2012||Innomed, Inc.||Femoral tibial spreader with tensor measurement|
|US8167946||Sep 14, 2010||May 1, 2012||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Implant with openings adapted to receive bone screws|
|US8226652||Nov 14, 2011||Jul 24, 2012||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Threaded frusto-conical spinal implants|
|US8251997||Nov 29, 2011||Aug 28, 2012||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Method for inserting an artificial implant between two adjacent vertebrae along a coronal plane|
|US8317794||Nov 29, 2011||Nov 27, 2012||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Device for preparing a space in bone to receive an insert|
|US8337559||Jun 1, 2010||Dec 25, 2012||Globus Medical, Inc.||Expandable vertebral prosthesis|
|US8343188||Apr 23, 2012||Jan 1, 2013||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Device and method for locking a screw with a bendable plate portion|
|US8353909||Apr 25, 2006||Jan 15, 2013||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Surgical instrument for distracting a spinal disc space|
|US8377063||Mar 18, 2011||Feb 19, 2013||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Method for preparing a space in the human spine|
|US8409292||May 17, 2011||Apr 2, 2013||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Spinal fusion implant|
|US8491653||Oct 4, 2010||Jul 23, 2013||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Intervertebral body fusion cage with keels and implantation methods|
|US8491654||Jul 14, 2011||Jul 23, 2013||Warsaw Orthopedic Inc.||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US8668741||May 1, 2012||Mar 11, 2014||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Implant with openings adapted to receive bone screws|
|US8679118||Jul 23, 2012||Mar 25, 2014||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Spinal implants|
|US8721723||Jan 12, 2009||May 13, 2014||Globus Medical, Inc.||Expandable vertebral prosthesis|
|US8734447||Jun 27, 2000||May 27, 2014||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Apparatus and method of inserting spinal implants|
|US8758344||Aug 28, 2012||Jun 24, 2014||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Spinal implant and instruments|
|US8979857||Oct 6, 2004||Mar 17, 2015||DePuy Synthes Products, LLC||Modular medical tool and connector|
|US9107649||May 17, 2011||Aug 18, 2015||Warsaw Orothpedic, Inc.||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US9220609||Feb 24, 2010||Dec 29, 2015||Spinewelding Ag||Spine stabilization device, and method and kit for its implantation|
|US9610072 *||Sep 17, 2014||Apr 4, 2017||Apx Opthalmology Ltd.||Iris retractor|
|US9788824 *||Apr 3, 2017||Oct 17, 2017||Apx Opthalmology Ltd.||Iris retraction method|
|US20020099378 *||Mar 25, 2002||Jul 25, 2002||Michelson Gary Karlin||Apparatus, instrumentation and method for spinal fixation|
|US20020165550 *||Apr 10, 2002||Nov 7, 2002||George Frey||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US20030135220 *||Feb 10, 2003||Jul 17, 2003||Cauthen Joseph C.||Spinal implant insertion instrument for spinal interbody prostheses|
|US20030187448 *||Mar 25, 2003||Oct 2, 2003||Michelson Gary K.||Method for preparing a space between adjacent vertebrae to receive an insert|
|US20030195519 *||May 21, 2003||Oct 16, 2003||Thomas Zdeblick||Methods and instruments for interbody fusion|
|US20040015168 *||May 13, 2003||Jan 22, 2004||Sulzer Spine-Tech Inc.||Apparatus and method for spinal stabilization|
|US20040030346 *||Aug 7, 2003||Feb 12, 2004||George Frey||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US20040117020 *||Nov 25, 2003||Jun 17, 2004||George Frey||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US20040147935 *||Jan 25, 2003||Jul 29, 2004||Christopher Segler||Tarsal Joint Space Distractor|
|US20040162563 *||Feb 14, 2004||Aug 19, 2004||Michelson Gary K.||Spinal interspace shaper|
|US20050033428 *||Aug 4, 2003||Feb 10, 2005||Cervitech, Inc.||Cervical prosthesis with insertion instrument|
|US20050177173 *||Apr 14, 2005||Aug 11, 2005||Max Aebi||Spinal disc space distractor|
|US20050187630 *||Apr 22, 2005||Aug 25, 2005||Howmedica Osteonics Corp.||Modular implant for fusing adjacent bone structure|
|US20060074432 *||Oct 6, 2004||Apr 6, 2006||Depuy Spine, Inc.||Modular medical tool and connector|
|US20060079961 *||Nov 30, 2005||Apr 13, 2006||Michelson Gary K||Implant with trailing end adapted to receive bone screws|
|US20060100633 *||Nov 15, 2005||May 11, 2006||Michelson Gary K||Method for preparing a space in bone to receive an insert|
|US20060178752 *||Apr 3, 2006||Aug 10, 2006||Yaccarino Joseph A Iii||Compound bone structure of allograft tissue with threaded fasteners|
|US20060247648 *||Apr 29, 2005||Nov 2, 2006||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Surgical instrument and method|
|US20060264968 *||May 26, 2006||Nov 23, 2006||George Frey||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US20070161962 *||Jan 9, 2006||Jul 12, 2007||Edie Jason A||Device and method for moving fill material to an implant|
|US20070162129 *||Jan 9, 2006||Jul 12, 2007||Edie Jason A||Adjustable insertion device for a vertebral implant|
|US20090062921 *||Oct 28, 2008||Mar 5, 2009||Michelson Gary K||Implant with openings adapted to receive bone screws|
|US20090105836 *||Dec 12, 2008||Apr 23, 2009||George Frey||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US20090177285 *||Dec 12, 2008||Jul 9, 2009||George Frey||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|US20090198240 *||Jan 31, 2008||Aug 6, 2009||Kaufman David L||Femoral Tibial Spreader with Tensor Measurement|
|US20100094299 *||Nov 3, 2009||Apr 15, 2010||Michelson Gary K||Spinal interspace shaper|
|US20100274358 *||Feb 24, 2010||Oct 28, 2010||Spinewelding Ag||Spine stabilization device, and method and kit for its implantation|
|US20100298942 *||Jun 1, 2010||Nov 25, 2010||Noah Hansell||Expandable Vertebral Prosthesis|
|US20110009966 *||Sep 14, 2010||Jan 13, 2011||Michelson Gary K||Implant with openings adapted to receive bone screws|
|US20110040342 *||Oct 21, 2010||Feb 17, 2011||Trieu Hai H||Method and apparatus for delivering an intervertebral disc implant|
|US20110154957 *||Dec 29, 2009||Jun 30, 2011||Wen-Pin Wang||Pliers for chain link|
|US20110172770 *||Mar 18, 2011||Jul 14, 2011||Michelson Gary K||Method for preparing a space in the human spine|
|US20120232351 *||Nov 2, 2010||Sep 13, 2012||Ehud Assia||Iris retractor|
|US20150065809 *||Sep 17, 2014||Mar 5, 2015||Apx Ophthalmology Ltd.||Iris retractor|
|EP0077159A1 *||Oct 4, 1982||Apr 20, 1983||Brian Norman Atkins||Vertebrae spreader|
|EP0752830A1 *||Mar 28, 1995||Jan 15, 1997||MICHELSON, Gary Karlin||Apparatus, instrumentation and method for spinal fixation|
|EP0752830A4 *||Mar 28, 1995||Dec 9, 1998||Michelson Gary K||Apparatus, instrumentation and method for spinal fixation|
|EP1049428A1 *||Nov 19, 1999||Nov 8, 2000||Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation||Compound bone structure fabricated from allograft tissue|
|EP1049428A4 *||Nov 19, 1999||Sep 22, 2004||Musculoskeletal Transplant||Compound bone structure fabricated from allograft tissue|
|EP1148847A1 *||Dec 18, 1999||Oct 31, 2001||Lifenet||Composite bone graft, method of making and using same|
|EP1148847A4 *||Dec 18, 1999||Dec 1, 2004||Lifenet||Composite bone graft, method of making and using same|
|EP1808133A1 *||Sep 28, 1999||Jul 18, 2007||Synthes GmbH||Spinal disc space distractor|
|EP2431007A1 *||Dec 18, 1999||Mar 21, 2012||Lifenet||Composite bone graft, method of making and using same|
|WO2000019911A3 *||Sep 28, 1999||Jul 13, 2000||Max Aebi||Spinal disc space distractor|
|WO2000040177A1||Dec 18, 1999||Jul 13, 2000||Lifenet||Composite bone graft, method of making and using same|
|WO2001028469A3 *||Oct 23, 2000||Jan 3, 2002||Sdgi Holdings Inc||Devices and techniques for a posterior lateral disc space approach|
|WO2006092488A1 *||Feb 28, 2006||Sep 8, 2006||Jean Chaignaud||Bipolar forceps with pre-defined automatic clamping for open surgery|
|U.S. Classification||606/90, 81/302, 29/239, 606/86.00R, 600/219|
|International Classification||A61B17/88, A61F2/44, A61B17/28, A61B17/02, A61F2/00, A61F2/28|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B2017/0256, A61F17/00, A61F2002/30433, A61F2230/0069, A61F2002/30225, A61F2250/0063, A61B17/2812, A61F2002/30599, A61F2/442, A61F2/446, A61F2002/2839, A61F2220/0041, A61B17/025|
|European Classification||A61B17/02J, A61F2/44F2, A61B17/28D, A61F17/00|