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Publication numberUS3917066 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 4, 1975
Filing dateMar 22, 1973
Priority dateMar 22, 1973
Publication numberUS 3917066 A, US 3917066A, US-A-3917066, US3917066 A, US3917066A
InventorsCloyd Harold S
Original AssigneeNosco Plastics
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Palletized load with compression frame
US 3917066 A
Abstract
A rectangular palletized load having a hollow rectangular compression frame engaging the upper periphery of the load, the frame having vertically spaced planar surfaces parallel to each other, the lower surface for transmitting a vertical hold down force from strapping to the load and the upper surface for receiving a pallet stacked on top of the frame. The sides and ends of the frame each consist of a lattice of intersecting ribs united to each other at the intersections and with edges normal to said surfaces. In a preferred form the sides and ends of the frame are latched together at the corners of the frame so as to permit knock down shipping.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [191 Cloyd Nov. 4, 1975 PALLETIZED LOAl) WITH COMPRESSION [73] Assignee: Nosco Plastics, Incorporated, Erie,

[22] Filed: Mar. 22, 1973 [21] Appl. No.: 343,934

[52] US. Cl. 206/386; 108/51; 220/234 [51] Int. Cl B651! 85/00; B65d 71/00 [58] Field of Search 206/386; 220/234; 108/51,

3,675,595 7/1972 Sullivan 108/51 3,750,598 8/1973 Campbell et a1 108/51 3,756,429 9/1973 Fleischer et a1. 206/386 3,776,145 12/1973 Anderson et a1. 108/51 Primary ExaminerGeorge E. Lowrance Assistant Examiner-Joseph Man- Fu Moy Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Ralph l-lamman [57] ABSTRACT A rectangular palletized load having a hollow rectangular compression frame engaging the upper periphery of the load, the frame having vertically spaced planar surfaces parallel to each other, the lower surface for transmitting a vertical hold down force from strapping to the load and the upper surface for receiving a pallet stacked on top of the frame. The sides and ends of the frame each consist of a lattice of intersecting ribs united to each other at the intersections and with edges normal to said surfaces. In a preferred form the sides and ends of the frame are latched together at the corners of the frame so as to permit knock down shipping.

6 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures FIG.

US. Patent Nov. 4, 1975 Sheet 2 of 2 3,917,066

F'IG.4

PALLETIZED LOAD WITH COMPRESSION FRAME In shipping palletized loads of bottles and the like, a hollow rectangular compression frame is required to transmit hold down forces from steel strapping to the top of the load and to receive the weight of one or more pallets stacked on top of the frame. The frame is of the same outside dimensions as the pallet (44 X 56") and the sides and ends of the frame are 1'' thick and 4" wide. Heretofore the compression frames have been made of four pieces of wood class C species NWPMA grade A $25 with the grain extending lengthwise of each piece.

This invention is intended to decrease the weight and increase the life of compression frames by making the frames of plastic in the form of a grid of intersecting ribs edgewise to the load. This structure optimizes the structural properties of the plastic so that the cost is substantially equal to the wood frame but the weight is much less and the life as measured by the number of trips is much greater. In a preferred form in which the sides and ends of the frame are latched together at the corners of the frame, after each use the frame maybe knocked down for the return shipment for reuse as long as the parts function.

In the drawing, FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a loaded pallet, FIG. 2 is an end view of FIG. 1, FIG. 3 is a fragmentary top plan view of an end piece of the compression frame, FIG. 4 is a fragmentary top plan view of a side piece of the compression frame, FIG. 5 is a section on line 5-5 of FIG. 3, FIG. 6 is a section on line 6-6 of FIG. 3, FIG. 7 is a section on line 7-7 of FIG. 4, and FIG. 8 is a diagrammatic view showing the moments and forces applied to the frame by the strapping when shipping small mouth bottles of large capacity.

In FIGS. 1 and 2 there is shown a pallet 1 with fork lift openings 2 on the upper surface 3 of which is mounted a load 4 held in place by lengthwise steel strapping 5, 6, 7 and crosswise steel strapping 8, 9, 10. Similar fork lift openings are in the other sides of the pallet which are not shown. The load has the general shape of a rectangular parallelepiped or prism. The particular load shown consists of three tiers of empty bottles 11 (only a few of which are shown), each resting on a sheet 12 of particle board. This is a typical load for bulk shipment of empty bottles from the manufacturer. Other loads might consist of empty cans, etc.

All of the loads require a hollow rectangular compression frame 13 registering with the underlying pallet load for transmitting hold down forces to the top of the load from the steel strapping 5-10. The forces transmitted by the frame are substantially entirely compression. When loaded pallets are stacked one on top of the other the compression frame of the lowermost pallet must in addition carry the gravity load of the upper pallets, which is also a compression force.

The sides and ends of the compression frame 13 comprise a lattice or grid of lengthwise and crosswise extending ribs 14, 15 arranged edgewise normal to the upper and lower planar surfaces l6, 17 of the frame and united to each other at the points of intersection. For the particular frame shown which was designed for 3,000 pound bulk loads of bottles on a standard 44" X 56" pallet, the outside dimensions of the frame were 44" X 56", the ribs 14, 15 were substantially 3/32" thick, 1'' in height and arranged on centers so seven ribs lengthwise of each of the side and end pieces resulted in the same l X 4" cross section envelope of the prior art wood frame. These dimensions are by way of example and not of limitation. This produced an extremely rigid structure in the compression direction which, due to the open spaces between the ribs, was much lighter than the wood frame it replaced. The open spaces between the ribs are enough smaller than the smallest bottle top so the load can be transmitted from the frame directly to the bottle tops. For example, the bottle top for the standard crown cap always contacts two or more intersecting ribs. Rigid polyethylene, one of the plastics suitable for the frame, floats in water so that the open spaces between the intersecting ribs provide visual indication of the weight saving. Plastic has a further advantage that it does not splinter and, therefore, eliminates the wood splinter problem so troublesome to the food processing industry.

Another advantage of the plastic compression frame is the guideways 18 for the steel strapping. These guideways consist of walls 19 recessed below the upper surface 16 of the ribs 14, 15. Three such guideways are present in each of the end and side pieces of the frame arranged adjacent the corners and at the mid sections of the side and end pieces. The guideways provide positive location of the strapping.

In FIGS. 1 and 2 the compression frame 13 is shown as a one piece construction in which the side and end pieces 20 and 21 are molded as a single unit. In FIGS. 3-6 there is shown an alternate construction in which each side and end piece is molded as a single unit and the pieces are then latched together to form the complete frame. This offers further savings in molding and shipping costs. Molding of the individual side and end pieces can be eflected in a smaller press because more efficient use is made of the press platen area. The separate side and end pieces take up less space for shipping. The latch connection permits easy assembly and disassembly so that the frame may be easily assembled for use or disassembled for return for reuse.

FIGS. 3 and 5 show one end of an end piece 21. The opposite end is of the same construction and the mid section is a lattice of longitudinal and cross ribs 14, 15 as shown in FIG. 1. The end piece could be provided with the impact absorbing corner construction of US. Patent No. 3,750,598.

FIGS. 4 and 6 show one end of a side piece 20 and FIG. 6 further shows one of the latch connections between an end piece and a side piece. As was the case with the end pieces 21, the side pieces are of identical construction and the end construction shown in FIG. 4 is duplicated at the opposite end.

In both the side and end pieces the main portion is made up of uniformly distributed lengthwise and crosswise extending ribs of the construction shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 so that theload carrying properties are unchanged. Corresponding parts are indicated by the same reference numerals.

The connection between side and end pieces 20, 21 is made by interlocking joint means such as two T-shaped projections 22 outstanding from cross rib 23 extending across the full width of the side piece 20 and two complementary T-slots 24 recessed into the adjoining end of the end piece 21. The lower ends of the T-slots 24 as well as the lower ends of the grid openings 25 in the entire corner section of the end piece are closed by a stop plate 26 hinged by a hinge member 27 to the portion of edge 28 enclosed by bracket 29. The stop plate 26 is molded in the position shown in full lines in FIG. 5 and after molding is swung to the dotted line position where latch 30 is hooked over the upper edge of rib 31. In the dotted line position, the stop plate 26 closes the lower ends of the T-slots 24. The stop plate 26 could obviously be hinged to the adjoining edge 28a of the corner since its function is to close the lower ends of the T- slots 24.

In the head portion of each of the T-slots are three latches 32, 33, 34, each of similar construction. As shown in FIG. 6, latch 33 is integral with the upper edge of a vertical wall 35, the lower edge of which is integral with a horizontal wall 36 bridging the space be tween the lower ends of longitudinal and crosswise extending ribs 14, 15. The vertical wall 35 is separated from cross ribs by grooves 37 and the outermost tip 38 of the latch extends into the T-slot 24. The latches 32 and 34 are of similar construction, the latch 32 being integral with a vertical wall similar to 35 extending upwardly from a bottom wall 39 similar to 36 and the latch 34 being integral with a vertical wall similar to wall 35 extending upward from a bottom wall 40 similar to wall 36. The latch members 32 and 34 likewise extend into the T-slots 24.

The side section is assembled to the adjoining end section 21 by moving the projecting T-sections 22 over the T-slots 24 and pushing downward when the Tsections register with the slots. As the T-sections are pushed downward, the heads 41 engage the latches 32, 33, 34 and cam the latches outward. When the T-sections 22 bottom against the stop plate 26, the latches 32, 33, 34 snap over the upper edges of the heads 41 as shown in FIG. 6.

When assembled, the upper and lower surfaces of the end and cross pieces lie in a common plane with no projections which could interfere with the operation.

The interfitting T and T-slot connections provide the required corner rigidity to maintain the required rectangular outline. To further rigidify the corner sections of the frame, the upper ends of the openings between the grids in the area bounded by 42, 43, 44, 45 may be closed by a solid wall 46 and the lower ends of the grid openings in the area 47, 48, 49, 50 may likewise be closed by solid walls 51. The walls 46, 51 further tie the, ribs together and rigidify the corner sections.

To disassemble the corner sections, the latches 30 are merely pushed outward clear of the adjoining wall surface 31. This permits the stop plate 26 to swing downward out of the way and the T-sections 22 may be easily pushed out the open ends of the T-slots 24. The T-slot joint is an example of the class of interlocking or dovetail joints which may be used.

The latches merely hold the parts together and do not take any of the strapping or compression loads. Latch 30 merely holds stop plate 26 in position. Latches 32, 33, 34 hold the T-sections 22 in the T-slots 24.

FIG. 8 illustrates the forces and moments present when the load consists of quart size beverage bottles. The bottle top 52 is spaced substantially inward of the outer edge of the compression frame member 53 so the forces from strap 54 which ordinarily range from 300 to 350 lbs. are applied to the outer corner 55 and tend to bend the frame member as indicated by dotted lines 56. These forces tend to split the members of the prior art wood frame due to the lengthwise grain of the wood. In the frame of this application, the ribs are much better adapted to withstand these forces and the plastic has no tendency to split. The life of the frame as measured by the number of trips is greatly increased.

What is claimed is:

1. A pallet having a rectangular load carrying surface and fork lift openings below said surface, a load in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped on said surface, said load comprising a plurality of tiers of bottles and the like with the bottle tops uppermost, a hollow rectangular cornpression frame engaging the tops of the bottles in the upper periphery of the load, strapping for 1 holding the load on the pallet, said strapping extending from the pallet up one side of the load over the top of the frame and down the opposite side of the load to the pallet and also extending from the pallet up one end of the load over the top of the frame and down the opposite end of the load to the pallet, said compression frame comprising two side pieces and two end pieces forming a hollow rectangle registering with an underlying load carrying surface of the pallet said pieces being united at the corners and having lower planar surfaces engaging the bottle tops of the top tier of the upper periphery of said load and upper planar surfaces for receiving an upper pallet stacked on top of said frame so the load received by said frame from said upper pallet is transmitted from the frame directly to the bottle tops of the top tier of the upper periphery of said load, said side and end pieces each comprising a lattice of intersecting ribs united to each other at the intersections, said ribs extending edgewise between and being normal to said surfaces with the upper edges of said ribs comprising said upper planar surface and the lower edges of said ribs comprising said lower planar surface.

2. The pallet of claim 1 in which said end and side pieces have abutting ribs and one piece has a socket, with an opening through its rib and the other piece has a projection interlocking with said socket and said opening, said socket having one end open, and means for closing the other end of the socket.

3. The pallet of claim 2 in which said projection, is slidable through said socket and opening in a direction normal to said surfaces.

4. The pallet of claim 3 in which said one piece has a releasable latch for said stop plate.

5. The pallet of claim 3 in which said socket has latch means blocking movement of said projection out of said socket in a direction away from said stop plate.

6. A pallet having a rectangular load carrying surface and fork lift openings below said surface, a load in the form of arectangular parallelepiped ,on said'surface, a compression frame engaging the upper periphery of the load, strapping for holding the load on the pallet, said strapping extending from the pallet up one side of the load over the top of the frame and down the opposite side of the load to the pallet and also extending from the pallet up one end of the load over the top of the frame and down the opposite end of the load to the pallet, said compression frame comprising two side pieces and two end pieces forming a hollow rectangle registering with an underlying load carrying surface of the pal let, said pieces being united atthe corners and having lower planar surfaces for engaging the upper periphery of said load and upper planar surfaces for receiving a palletstacked on top of the frame, said side and end pieces each comprising a lattice of intersecting ribs. united to each other at the intersections, said ribs ex-. tending edgewise between and being normal to said.

surfaces with the upper edges of said ribs comprising said upper planar surface and the lower edges of said ribs comprising said lower planar surface, said end and side pieces having abutting ribs, one piece having a P i an P f through rib f h other surfaces, and said one piece having a releasable stop piece having a pro ection mterelockmg with sa1d socket f and said opening, said projection being slidable Plate blocking sa1d mg 0 Sal projectlon through said socket and in a direction normal to said

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4295568 *Aug 8, 1979Oct 20, 1981Orpen Kenneth S EPressure frame with bowed side members
US4492153 *Dec 13, 1982Jan 8, 1985Kraft, Inc.Knock-down plastic cheese curing container
US4735321 *May 2, 1986Apr 5, 1988The Coca-Cola CompanyMobile extra display module
US4865202 *Mar 31, 1988Sep 12, 1989The Coca-Cola CompanyMobile extra display module
US5607056 *May 2, 1995Mar 4, 1997Macro-Systems Packaging Ltd.Transit packaging having reduced content
US5823343 *Apr 11, 1997Oct 20, 1998Heffernan; Darryl JamesFor packaging flat materials
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US6389990Jun 25, 2001May 21, 2002Rehrig Pacific CompanyMethod of reinforcing a plastic pallet
US6644219Sep 1, 2001Nov 11, 2003Rehrig Pacific CompanyPallet assembly
US6705237Aug 24, 2001Mar 16, 2004Infiltrator Systems, Inc.Plastic pallet design
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Classifications
U.S. Classification206/597, 220/23.4, 108/55.1, 206/600
International ClassificationB65D71/70, B65D71/00, B65D71/04, B65D71/02
Cooperative ClassificationB65D2571/00055, B65D71/70, B65D71/0096, B65D2571/00117
European ClassificationB65D71/70, B65D71/00P1A