Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3918100 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 11, 1975
Filing dateMay 13, 1974
Priority dateMay 13, 1974
Publication numberUS 3918100 A, US 3918100A, US-A-3918100, US3918100 A, US3918100A
InventorsBevil J Shaw, Richard P Miller
Original AssigneeUs Navy
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Sputtering of bone on prostheses
US 3918100 A
A system of coating prostheses with ground bone particles is presented. Prostheses made of various metals and other substances are coated using rf sputtering techniques to form a film which adheres to the device, stimulates living bone attachment thereto and which is ultimately replaced by new bone. Beef cattle bone material, some ground to 125 mesh and the remainder in chunks, has been successfully used in one embodiment as the coating applied by the rf sputtering process.
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

' iJnited States Patent [1 1 Shaw et :11.

[4 1 Nov. 11, 1975 1 1 SPUTTERING OF BONE ON PROSTHESES [75] Inventors: Bevil .1. Shaw, Murrysville; Richard P. Miller, Pittsburgh. both of Pa.

221 Filed: May 13, 1974 [21] Appl. No.: 469.182

[52] U.S.Cl. v.3/1.9; 3/1.91:3/1.911; 3/1912; 3/1913; 32/10 A; 128/92 C; 128/92 G; 204/192 [51] Int. Cl. A61F 1/00; C23C 15/00 [58] Field of Search 204/192. 298: 3/19. 1.911. 3/1912. 1.913; 32/10 A; 128/92 C. 92 G [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2.239.642 4/194] Burkhardt ct a1 204/192 2.537.070 1/1951 Longfellow 128/92 BA 3.593.342 7/1971 Niebauer et a1. 3/1

3.605.123 9/1971 Hahn 3/1 3.609.367 10/1971 Hodosh.... 32/10 A 3.635.811 1/1972 Lane 204/192 3.789.029 1/1974 Hodosh... 260/25 R 3.790.507 2/1974 Hodosh 260/25 R Primary lirami)wr.1ohn H. Mack Ass/Mun! liraiinerAaron Weisstuch Allurney. Agent. or" FirmR. S. Sciascia; C. E. Vautrain. Jr.

[57] ABSTRACT A system of coating prostheses with ground bone particles is presented. Prostheses made of various metals and other substances are coated using if sputtering techniques to form a film which adheres to thedevice. stimulates living bone attachment thereto and which is ultimately replaced by new bone. Beet cattle bone material. some ground to 125 mesh and the remainder in chunks. has been successfully used in one embodiment as the coating applied by the if sputtering process.

12 Claims. N0 Drawings 1 SPUTTERING OF BONE ON PROSTHESES The present invention concerns improvements in bone replacement prostheses and, more particularly,

electrode at high energy levels for deposit on a prosthesis. Bone material from beef cattle has been successfully adhered by this method to prostheses of polished stainless steel and aluminum, and to Pyrex test tubes the sputtering of bone onto such prostheses to form a 5 and microscope slides. covering which stimulates bone growth and attachment Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to natural bone. to provide a system for forming prostheses having a Despite recent advances in the field of prosthetic refilm which adheres to the prosthesis base and to which placement of bone, effective prosthetic replacement living bone may adhere. has not been achieved. Where total bone replacement Another object of this invention is to provide a sysis necessary, as in hip prostheses, present methods and tem for forming hip joint prostheses wherein a metallic devices are not adequate. The stresses in this area can form provides the necessary structural strength and a be very large as indicated by estimated forces of up to film of adhered bone particles provides a base for joinfour times the weight of the body and, consequently, ing the form to the living bone. the prosthesis to be inserted has to be very strong as A further object of this invention is to provide a proswell as resistant to corrosion, stress corrosion, and fathesisfor use in areas of large stresses and to which is tigue. Some advances in bone replacement in this area adhered a coating of bone particles to promote bone include the use of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum algrowth and attachment to living bone. loy, Vitallium, which has proved to be generally satis- Other objects, advantages and novel features of the factory and has an apparent advantage of case-hardeninvention will become apparent from the following deing with use. This alloy provides a structurally sound tailed description thereof. answer to the mechanical wearing problem between Bone material has been successfully deposited on mithe acetabulum, or hip-cup, and the femoral head proscroscope slides and pieces of aluminum and stainless thesis. in addition, high density polyethylene has been steel by rfsputtering. The rf sputtering process used infound to be suitable as a lubricant between these workvolved the ionized gas bombardment of an electrode to ing parts since it has a low wearing rate, is resistant to emit atoms or molecules of that electrode at high encreep, and has no toxic effects. Thus, some of the eleergy levels for deposit on a substrate. Sputtering was ments for forming a highly satisfactory metallic, prosconducted at low power densities to the target, 0.19 thesis exist. However, the overall problem is not comwatts/cm to 0.81 watts/cm to prevent thermal depletely solved since it is believed that both 316 stainless composition of the bone. Spark source mass spectrosteel and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum implants may metric analysis and X-ray analysis verify that the sputbe carcinogenic in rats. tered films have the same atomic composition as pure In addition to the suspected deficiencies in stainless bone target material. Scanning electron micrographs steel and the cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, the indicate that the films are amorphous in character. Debone and pin inserts occasionally lose intimate contact tails of the procedures are now presented. due to the large forces acting on the femur around the intramedullary pin of the hip bone prosthesis. This loss EXPERIMENTS of contact leads tofailure of the prosthetic device and Bone chips obtained from steer bone were used as presents a need for a method and/or means for encourthe target, or cathode, in the sputtering system. The aging bone attachment to the implant. 4O bone was first boiled in lye to remove muscle and fatty The deficiencies associated with hip bone replacetissues and then cleaned in boiling water. Next, small ment also exist in relation to replacement of bone in rebone chips were machined for use as a powder-type tarpairing the damage sustained in such instances as gunget and then heated at 120C for 60 hours to remove shot wounds and vehicle accidents. Here there has moisture and .to outgas the target material. The dried been less success since the bone does not appear to albone chips were placed on an aluminum backing plate ways grow along the-prosthesis fillingthe gap-This efand held by an aluminum oxide retaining ring, the tarfect may be due to the prosthesis itself, but could also get size being 12.2 cm dia X 0.4 cm height. Further outbe due to thetraumatized tissue in the injured area. gassing was accomplished by pumping under high vac- This kind of woundis of particular concern to the uum for approximately 15 hours, and the target was armed services. Necrosis, i.e. failure of bone to grow presputtered for a minimum of 40 minutes at 1.63 and unite around the break therein, is'not uncommon watts/cm? in these accidents. The present invention provides a The substrates used for bone deposition were either method whereby bone may be deposited on any prosactual implant materials such as 316 L stainless steel, thesis and, by virtue of the presence of the deposited impervious A1 0 porous A1 0 and a composite porbone, living bone is encouraged to grow around the ous-impervious A1 0 or glass microscope slides for prosthetic implant and to reunite about the implant. rate determination runs, procedure limitation experi- According to the present invention, prostheses may ments and thickness measurements. All substrates were be formed by coating metallic substrates'with bone parcleaned with methyl alcohol and air dried in an enviticles by means of rf sputtering in a vacuum. One rf ronmental hood prior to insertion into the vacuum sputtering process may be that of ionized inert gas chamber. bombardment of an electrode to emit atoms of the Sputtering parameters were as follows:

Most of the runs were left under a Pump Down:

high vacuum overnight (-15 hours) to remove moisture and outgas the target. Some low power level runs could be sufficiently outgassed in as little as three hours.

-continued Blank Off Pressure:

ionization gauge).

Operating Pressure:

Pirani-typc gauge).

Argon Flow Rate: 45 cc/min of gettered argon Cathode-Anode Distance: -2 inches Presputter: 40 minutes at 1.63 watts/cm Substrate Temperatures: 210C at 1.08 watts/cm 375C at 3.26 watts/cm Sputtering Run Times: l-ll hours Procedure Limitations:

The upper power level was determined by the temperature limitation of the rubber hoot gaskets and O-ring used as vacuum seals on the sputtering chamber. [f the target material is sufficiently outgassed. the bone target may be run at power densities exceeding 3.85 watts/cm provided the vacuum system has metal seals.

water-cooled chamber. and end plates.

The color of the sputtered films obtained from the experiments ranged from a transparent light brown on glass and stainless steel, and beige, to almost black on A1 The films on A1 0 tended to be darker in color as thickness increased.

All of the sputtered coatings exhibited excellent adherence to each of the substrate materials. All samples passed the Scotch tape adherence test performed by ripping a piece of pressed-on Scotch tape from the coated substrate. The films could hardly be removed by scraping with a knife.

Sputtering rates and corresponding. substrate temperatures were determined for rf power input to the target ranging from 1.08 watts/cm to 3.26 watts/cm Deposition rates were determined on masked glass substrates in a four hour sputtering run. Film thickness was measured on a Rank, Taylor, Hobson Tallystep 1 machine and deposition temperatures were monitored usinga PT/PT RH thermocouple located in good thermal.

contact on the substrate holder. Deposition rates ranged from 375A/hr at 1.08 watts/cm to 2370A/hr at 3.26 watts/cm? Substrate temperatures ranged from 210C at 1.08 watts/cm to 375C at 3.26 watts/cm? Specular reflectance analysis and transmission spectrums were performed on coated glass, stainless steel, and A1 0 substrates. Although no definite identification of the coatings on the glass substrates could be made at power densities up to 3.85 watts/cm the films sputtered onto A1 0 and stainless steel at power densi ties up to 1.63 watts/cm were shown by spectrographic analysis to have the same molecular composition as the original bone material. In addition, it was shown that material taken from the target was identical to the original bone.

The following materials were covered with bone for in vivo evaluation.

1. Impervious A1 0 2. Porous A1 0 3. A1 0 composite having an impervious inner core and a porous skin.

The substrates were cleaned in methyl alcohol and air dried in an environmental hood. They were then mounted, i.e. wire held, on a substrate holder along 1.0 X 10" mm Hg to 6,5 X10 mm Hg (as measured on a Bayard-Alpert Type 3.4 X 10" mm Hg (as measured with a with a sample for analysis, a masked glass slidefor thickness measurements, and a PT/PT 10% RH thermocouple. The specimens were coated on two side, re-- quiring two runs. The sputtering power density was 2.17 watts/cm and deposition temperatures were 374C and 362C. Resulting film thickness were 8500A and 9000A, i.e. an average deposition rate of l250A/hr- Although the results do not conclusively show that the material transferred on sputtering is identical to actual bone, spectrographic analysis shows that the chemical composition is virtually identical to the original bone, and other analysis shows that the same molecular bondingis present. The primary difference between the two is that the sputtered material is amorphous as opposed to the original crystalline structure.

Films applied by the system of the present invention.

have been subjected to spark source mass spectrometric analysis and scanning electron microscope analysis with X-ray analysis. Results of the spark source mass.

spectrometric analysis indicate that not only are the major components of the film the same as original bone, but also some characteristic lines of the structure are reproduced in the spectra of the deposit.

There isthus provided a system for coating prosthetic devices with material which will enhance healing at a 1 bone implant as well as promote bone growth and attachment to the implant. Prosthetic devices made according to the present invention are structurally capable of withstanding even the very large forces which act on the femur in hip bone replacement. In constrast with prior methods and devices, prostheses may now be coated with a bone substance which has been found to adhere to structural forms by impingement through the rf sputtering process. Such a coating formed in such a manner assures that virtually any shape of the strut tural form will receive a uniform coating over its entire surface. Where necessary, the structural form or prosthesis may be rotated during the sputtering process to assure uniform distribution of bone particles over the entire exterior surface of the prosthesis.

The present invention demonstrates that bone particles as well as phosphosilicate glass, dielectric material,

etc. may be if sputtered on a target. Not only may such a natural substance be deposited on a target, but under proper conditions of temperature and voltage the bone particles may be made to impinge upon and adhere to the target. The prostheses particularly adapted to the present system are ones which require substantial strength such as those for use in hip joint repair. However, the bone material may be made to adhere on forms having less strength, i.e. those made of sub stances such as metallic ceramics, glass and similar materials.

This adaptability of bone particles to adhere to metal surfaces leads to the formation of prosthetic devices in which the coating performs two important functions, one being that of covering the metallic base with a medium that is both non-toxic and will also induce bone growth, and the other being to provide a coating of a natural bone material. Even though this bone material coating is a foreign substance, it should not be rejected by the body in which the device is implanted since ivory which is also a foreign body is not rejected and, in fact, has been used successfully as an implant. Sputtered bone, therefore, when implanted in a human should behave the same as ivory implants have, i.e. be adaptable to being built upon by bone formed by body processes.

It has been determined that a coating thickness of substantially 1 micron is preferable to induce new bone growth and enhance the healing of a simple fracture or other bone damage. Such a thickness is also compatible with the present procedure for impinging bone particles on a metallic prosthesis in that appreciably thicker coatings tend to crack and break off when the prosthesis cools down. That is, the metallic prosthesis is raised to temperatures on the order of 350C to 400C by the impinging particles. In cooling down thereafter, a metallic substrate contracts more than the bone coating and partial separation can occur if the coating is too thick.

Sputtered-bone-coated prostheses made according to the present invention first induce living bone to grow on the implant and then to absorb and replace the implant coating over an extended period of time. This bone replacement process occurs on a non-toxic substrate or structural material which is implicitly in contact with the bone part of the body. The new bone growth promoted by the sputtered bone coating also results in the elimination of secondary grafting operations wherein bone is removed from the host and reintroduced in the area where bone is missing, e.g. in gunshot wounds. Two important areas for strengthening by prostheses coated according to the present invention thus are along the intramedullary pin of a hip-prostheses and in and around prostheses used for bone replacement in gunshot wounds where necrosis is particularly prevalent.

Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings.

What is claimed is:

l. A prosthesis for use as a bone implant comprising:

to be replaced; and a coating of bone material impinged upon and adhered to said prosthesis by rf sputtering,

whereby said bone material will induce living bone growth around the implant and. additionally, will eliminate the necessity for bone grafting.

2. The prosthesis as defined in claim 1 wherein the material of said metallic base is selected from the nontoxic group consisting of stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, titanium and titanium alloys and said coating is formed by an rf sputtering process.

3. The prosthesis as defined in claim 2 wherein the bone implant is presputtered for substantially 40 minutes at a power density on the order of 1.63 watts per cm 4. The prosthesis as defined in claim 3 wherein sputtering is conducted at power densities to the target in the range of from 0.19 watts per cm to 0.81 watts per cm to avoid thermal decomposition of the bone particles.

5. The prosthesis as defined in claim 4 wherein said bone material forming said coating is animal bone ground in part to a 125 mesh and in part in pieces of substantially greater size,

said bone material baked at substantially 125C for substantially 18 hours prior to presputtering to evaporate moisture from the bone,

said coating having a thickness of substantially 1 micron.

6. A method of forming a bone replacement or bone repair prosthesis comprising adhering bone particles to a prosthetic form by rf sputtering.

7. The method of claim 6 wherein the prosthetic form is positioned at the cathode of the rf sputtering means at a distance of substantially 2 inches from the anode thereof.

8. The method of claim 7 wherein the sputtering is conducted at power densities to the target in the range of from 0.19 watts per cm to 0.81 watts per cm to avoid thermal decomposition of the bone particles.

9. The method of claim 8 wherein the prosthetic form is presputtered for substantially 40 minutes at a power density of substantially 1.63 watts per cm 10. The method of claim 9 wherein sputtering is performed at an operating pressure of substantially 3.5 X 10 mm Hg and said bone particles are applied to a coating thickness of substantially 1 micron.

11. The method of claim 10 wherein the bone particles are derived from ground animal bone having a consistency in part of substantially 125 mesh and in part of substantially larger pieces,

said bone particles baked at substantially 125C for substantially 18 hours to evaporate moisture therefrom.

12. The method of claim 10 wherein the bone particles are obtained by machining bone chips to a powder form and heating the powder to substantially C for substantially 60 hours to remove moisture and gases therefrom.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2239642 *May 21, 1937Apr 22, 1941Bernhard BerghausCoating of articles by means of cathode disintegration
US2537070 *Dec 27, 1948Jan 9, 1951Puy Mfg Company Inc DeSurgical appliance and method for fixation of bone fragments
US3593342 *Jan 27, 1969Jul 20, 1971Cutter LabProsthetic joint
US3605123 *Apr 29, 1969Sep 20, 1971Melpar IncBone implant
US3609867 *Mar 10, 1969Oct 5, 1971Research CorpPlastic bone composition
US3635811 *Nov 6, 1967Jan 18, 1972Warner Lambert CoMethod of applying a coating
US3789029 *Oct 4, 1971Jan 29, 1974Research CorpPlastic bone composition and method of making same
US3790507 *Jul 6, 1970Feb 5, 1974Research CorpPlastic bone composition
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4146936 *Dec 29, 1976Apr 3, 1979Sumitomo Chemical Company LimitedImplants for bones, joints and tooth roots
US4186486 *Nov 4, 1977Feb 5, 1980Maurice GordonDental prosthesis
US4202055 *May 12, 1977May 13, 1980Battelle-Institut E.V.Anchorage for highly stressed endoprostheses
US4259072 *Jul 25, 1979Mar 31, 1981Kyoto Ceramic Co., Ltd.Ceramic endosseous implant
US4291013 *Oct 9, 1979Sep 22, 1981Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter HaftungMedicinally useful, shaped mass of collagen resorbable in the body
US4322398 *Feb 21, 1979Mar 30, 1982Battelle Institut E.V.Implantable drug depot and process for the production thereof
US4338926 *Nov 21, 1980Jul 13, 1982Howmedica, Inc.Bone fracture prosthesis with controlled stiffness
US4347234 *Jun 15, 1981Aug 31, 1982Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter HaftungMedicinally useful, shaped mass of collagen resorbable in the body
US4366183 *Jun 10, 1981Dec 28, 1982Societe Europeene De PropulsionProcess for making bioactive coatings on osseous prostheses, and prostheses thus obtained
US4521192 *Jul 21, 1983Jun 4, 1985Linkow Leonard IOral implant for oversized dental support openings
US4596574 *May 14, 1984Jun 24, 1986The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaBiodegradable porous ceramic delivery system for bone morphogenetic protein
US4743229 *Sep 29, 1986May 10, 1988Collagen CorporationCollagen/mineral mixing device and method
US4789663 *Jul 5, 1985Dec 6, 1988Collagen CorporationMethods of bone repair using collagen
US4908030 *Apr 29, 1987Mar 13, 1990Vent-Plant Corporation, Inc.Method of manufacturing synthetic bone coated surgical implants
US5015256 *Mar 30, 1988May 14, 1991Ab IdeaMethod and means for fixing a joint prosthesis
US5035711 *Sep 5, 1990Jul 30, 1991Kabushiki Kaisya Advance Kaihatsu KenkyujoTranscutaneously implantable element
US5061286 *Aug 18, 1989Oct 29, 1991Osteotech, Inc.Osteoprosthetic implant
US5108436 *Nov 23, 1988Apr 28, 1992Collagen CorporationImplant fixation
US5143730 *Jul 25, 1989Sep 1, 1992Henkel Kommanditgesellschaft Auf AktienResorbable bone wax
US5217496 *Sep 30, 1992Jun 8, 1993Ab IdeaImplant and method of making it
US5258029 *May 23, 1990Nov 2, 1993Collagen CorporationMethod for improving implant fixation
US5697932 *Nov 9, 1994Dec 16, 1997Osteonics Corp.Bone graft delivery system and method
US6045555 *Dec 10, 1997Apr 4, 2000Osteonics Corp.Bone graft delivery system and method
US6142998 *Jan 3, 2000Nov 7, 2000Howmedica Osteonics Corp.Bone graft delivery surgical instruments
US6296645Apr 9, 1999Oct 2, 2001Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.Intramedullary nail with non-metal spacers
US6309395Apr 25, 2000Oct 30, 2001Howmedica Osteonics Corp.Bone graft delivery surgical instruments
US6371988Jan 18, 2000Apr 16, 2002Sdgi Holdings, Inc.Bone grafts
US6379385Jan 6, 2000Apr 30, 2002Tutogen Medical GmbhImplant of bone matter
US6709436May 22, 2000Mar 23, 2004Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.Non-metal spacers for intramedullary nail
US6783529Oct 19, 2001Aug 31, 2004Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.Non-metal inserts for bone support assembly
US6786908Aug 2, 2001Sep 7, 2004Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.Bone fracture support implant with non-metal spacers
US6808527Mar 25, 2002Oct 26, 2004Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.Intramedullary nail with snap-in window insert
US7276081Nov 23, 1999Oct 2, 2007Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Bone grafts
US7410488Feb 18, 2005Aug 12, 2008Smith & Nephew, Inc.Hindfoot nail
US7655009Nov 30, 2004Feb 2, 2010Smith & Nephew, Inc.Humeral nail
US7892261Jan 13, 2004Feb 22, 2011P Tech, LlcSpinal implant and methods for changing spatial relationships between vertebrae
US7981156Feb 18, 2004Jul 19, 2011Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Bone grafts
US8486066 *May 15, 2003Jul 16, 2013Bonutti Skeletal Innovations LlcSpacer
US8795363Mar 19, 2013Aug 5, 2014Bonutti Skeletal Innovations LlcWedge apparatus for use in operating on a bone
US8956417Jan 18, 2013Feb 17, 2015Bonutti Skeletal Innovations LlcJoint spacer
US9044322Jul 29, 2014Jun 2, 2015Bonutti Skeletal Innovations LlcMethod and apparatus for use in operating on a bone
US9044341Jan 13, 2004Jun 2, 2015Bonutti Skeletal Innovations LlcJoint spacer
US9050152Dec 17, 2014Jun 9, 2015Bonutti Skeletal Innovations LlcMethod and apparatus for use in operating on a bone
US20030195629 *Apr 2, 2002Oct 16, 2003John PaffordBone grafts
US20030199881 *May 15, 2003Oct 23, 2003Bonutti Peter M.Method and apparatus for use in operating on a bone
US20040002759 *Jun 27, 2003Jan 1, 2004Ferree Bret A.Fusion and arthroplasty devices configured to receive bone growth promoting substances
US20040153072 *Jan 13, 2004Aug 5, 2004Bonutti Peter M.Spinal spacer
US20040254582 *Jan 13, 2004Dec 16, 2004Bonutti Peter M.Joint spacer
US20050004672 *Feb 18, 2004Jan 6, 2005John PaffordBone grafts
US20050098237 *Nov 10, 2003May 12, 2005Medlin Dana J.Case hardened orthopedic implant
US20080058822 *Oct 30, 2007Mar 6, 2008Bonutti Peter MJoint spacer
USRE44501Aug 12, 2010Sep 17, 2013Smith & Nephew, Inc.Hindfoot nail
USRE46008Sep 13, 2012May 24, 2016Smith & Nephew, Inc.Hindfoot nail
USRE46078May 30, 2012Jul 26, 2016Smith & Nephew, Inc.Hindfoot nail
DE2620907A1 *May 12, 1976Nov 17, 1977Battelle Institut E VVerankerung fuer hochbelastete endoprothesen
DE3447583A1 *Dec 28, 1984Jul 10, 1986Battelle Institut E VVerfahren zur herstellung implantierbarer knochenersatzwerkstoffe
EP0022724A1 *Jul 11, 1980Jan 21, 1981ANVAR Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la RechercheBiodegradable implant, usable as bone prosthesis
EP0130916A1 *Jun 29, 1984Jan 9, 1985SOCIETE EUROPEENNE DE PROPULSION (S.E.P.) Société Anonyme dite:Method of producing bioactive calcium phosphate deposits, and products so obtained
EP0149425A1 *Dec 14, 1984Jul 24, 1985Mathys Co RobertGlenoid cavity made of plastics
EP0470305A1 *Aug 7, 1990Feb 12, 1992Osteotech, Inc.,Osteoprosthetic implant
EP0501595A1 *Mar 30, 1988Sep 2, 1992Ab IdeaMethod and means for fixing a joint prosthesis
EP0688194A1 *Jan 12, 1994Dec 27, 1995Etex CorporationMethods of coating implants with bony structure
EP0688194A4 *Jan 12, 1994Sep 18, 1996Etex CorpMethods of coating implants with bony structure
WO1988007355A1 *Mar 30, 1988Oct 6, 1988Ab IdeaMethod and means for fixing a joint prosthesis
WO1989012472A1 *Jun 13, 1989Dec 28, 1989Ab IdeaImplant and method of making it
U.S. Classification128/898, 623/923, 606/76, 204/192.15
International ClassificationA61L27/36, A61F2/30, A61F2/00
Cooperative ClassificationY10S623/923, A61F2310/00023, A61F2310/00029, A61F2310/00958, A61F2310/00017, A61L27/3608, A61L27/365, A61F2/30767
European ClassificationA61L27/36B2, A61L27/36F2B, A61F2/30L