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Publication numberUS3918134 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 11, 1975
Filing dateApr 4, 1973
Priority dateApr 4, 1973
Publication numberUS 3918134 A, US 3918134A, US-A-3918134, US3918134 A, US3918134A
InventorsDean William Bruce
Original AssigneeJohnson & Johnson
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Drapery fabrics and methods of making the same
US 3918134 A
Abstract
Methods of forming stabilized, open-weave drapery fabrics having excellent surface coverage, high color intensity, and low light penetration per unit weight comprising: weaving an open-weave drapery fabric from (1) a warp containing from about 16 to about 24 ends per inch of relatively flattened oval strip or ribbon saran having an average thickness of from about 11/2 mils to about 3 mils and an average width of from about 20 mils to about 35 mils and (2) a filling of modacrylic yarns having a yarn size of from about 8/1 to about 4/1 cotton count, there being from about 12 to about 16 filling picks per inch; and calendering said open-weave drapery fabric at elevated temperatures and under sufficient pressure as to flatten the filling yarns; and the resulting stabilized, open-weave drapery fabrics.
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United States Patent Dean Nov. 11, 1975 DRAPERY FABRICS AND METHODS OF 3,327,468 6/1967 Page 57/140 R MAKING THE SAME 3,549,470 12/1970 Greenwald et a1 28/72 FT I 3,606,914 9/1971 Maiwald et a1. 139/420 R Inventor: am Bruce an, 3,716,446 2/1973 Dean 139/420 R [73] Assigneez Johnson & Johnson, New 3,731,351 5/1973 Kocay et al. 28/76 R Brunswlck Primary Examiner-James Kee Chi [22] Filed: Apr. 4, 1973 21 Appl. No.2 347,934 [57] TR Methods of forming stabilized, open-weave drapery fabrics having excellent surface coverage, high color [52] US. Cl; 28/72 FT; 139/420 R intensity and low light penetration per unit weight [51] Int. Cl.- D06C /00; D03D 15/00 comprising: weaving an Open weave drapery fabric [58] Fleld 0f Search 139/420 R, 420 A, 426 R, from 1 a warp containing f about 1 to about 24 139/383 R; 28/72 R, 72 FT; 161/91, 92 ends per inch of relatively flattened oval strip or rib- 57/140 140 I bon saran having an average thickness of from about 1 /2 mils to about 3 mils and an average width of from [56] References Clted about mils to about mils and (2) a filling of UNITED STATES PATENTS modacrylic yarns having a yarn size of from about 8/1 2,312,089 2/1943 GObellle 139/420 A to about ton count, there ng r m a ut 12 2,354,435 7/1944 Stedman 139/420 R to about 16 filling ,picks per inch; and calendering said 2,712,170 7/1955 Phillips 28/76 R open-weave drapery fabric at elevated temperatures 2712334 7/1955 Black et 139/426 R and under sufficient pressure as to flatten the filling 2,768,652 10/1956 Hendley 139/420 R yams; and the resulting stabilized Open weave drap 2,812,782 11/1957 Stevens 1 139/420 R y fabrics 2,903,021 9/1959 Holden et a1. 139/426 R I 3,033,239 5/1962 Kenin 139/420 R 4 Cla'ims, 4 Drawing Figures 2.. 2.. t I I l I /Z DRAPERY FABRICS AND METHODS OF MAKING THE SAME Drapery fabrics include decorative and functional textile materials, such as curtains, drapes, hangings, and the like, which are generally suspended and hang loosely from rods, rails, hangers, hooks, and the like. Drapery fabrics should be light in weight but must possess sufficient weight properties as to physically hang and drape properly. Drapery fabrics should also possess sufficient surface coverage, color intensity and low light penetration as to afford necessary esthetic and functional characteristics and, or course, be economical to manufacture.

Many of these requirements are diametrically opposed to each other and drapery fabrics have therefore generally combined a compromise of most of these conflicting requirements. The purpose and object of the present invention is therefore to combine as many of these properties in drapery fabrics without substantially losing any one of the required or essential properties and characteristics.

It has been found that such purpose and object and others which will become clear from a further reading of this disclosure may be achieved by the improved methods of the present invention which involve weaving an open-weave drapery fabric from (1) a warp containing from about 16 to about 24 ends per inch of relatively flattened oval strip or ribbon saran having an average thickness of from about 1 /2 mils to about 3 mils and an average width of from about 20 mils to about 35 mils and (2) a filling of modacrylic yarns having a yarn size of from about 8/1 to about 4/1 cotton count, there being from about 12 to about 16 picks per inch; and calendering the resulting open-weave drapery fabric at elevated temperatures and under sufficient pressure as to soften, mold and generally flatten the filling yarns.

The resulting fabrics, when made into drapery fabrics, are found to possess the necessary properties and characteristics of good hanging and drape qualities, excellent surface coverage, color intensity and low light penetration per unit weight, along with excellent economy of manufacture.

In the following specification and accompanying drawings, there are described and illustrated preferred embodiments of the invention but it is to be understood that the inventive concept is not to be considered limited to the embodiments disclosed except as determined by the scope of the appended claims. Referring to the accompanying drawings:

FIG. 1 is a fragmentary schematic flow chart depicting the manufacturing method of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross section of one of the relatively flattened oval strip saran warp materials taken at right angles to the long axis of the flat strip;

FIG. 3 is a cross section of one of the modacrylic filling yarns prior to weaving and calendering, taken at right angles to the long axis of the filling yarn, showing its generally round or circular cross sections; and

FIG. 4 is a cross section of one of the modacrylic filling yarns subsequent to calendering, taken at right angles to the long axis of the filling yarn, showing its generally flattened cross section.

With reference to the drawings and particularly FIG. 1 therein, there is schematically shown a conventional loom 10 into which a warp sheet of relatively flattened oval strip saran ribbons 12 is fed in conventional fashion.

WARP

The warp is made of saran ribbons of relatively flattened oval strip materials 12 having an average thickness of from about 1 /2 mils to about 3 mils and an aver age width of from about 20 mils to about 35 mils. A typical cross section is shown in FIG. 2. The warp sheet contains from about 16 to about 24 ends per inch and is thus relatively an openly spaced warp. Its width is generally in the range of from about 30 inches to about 84 inches.

As used herein, the word saran is a generic term for a manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least per cent by weight of vinylidene chloride units (-CH CCI Saran will not support combustion and is self-extinguishable. It has a specific gravity of 1.7, a moisture regain of only 0.1, a softening or sticking point of from about 240 to about 320F., and a melting point of from about 335 to about 350F.

Modacrylic filling yarns 14 are interwoven with the relatively flattened oval strip saran warp ribbons 12 in conventional weaving fashion and the resulting is an open-weave fabric 16.

FILLING The filling yarns 14 are made of modacrylic yarns in the yarn size range of from about 8/ 1 to about 4/1 cotton count, or as is often stated 8s yarns single to 4s yarn single. A typical round or circular cross section, prior to weaving, is shown in FIG. 2. Such yarn numbers, of course, indicate the number of hanks per pound, as is well known in the textile and related industIl6S.'

The filling yarns 14 are preferably spun from staple modacrylic fibers having an average denier of from about 1 to about 3, although bulked multifilamentary modacrylic yarns may also be used having a size and weight equivalent to the cotton count range set forth hereinabove.

As used herein, the word modacrylic is the generic name for a manufactured fiber in which the fiberforming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of less than about 85 per cent, but at least about 35 per cent, by weight of acrylonitrile units except when the term qualifies as rubber or anidex. Dynel is the most popular known trademark for modacrylic spun yarns, multifilaments, and monofilaments. Modacrylics will not support combustion and are selfextinguishable. They have specific gravities from about 1.30 to about 1.36, softening or sticking temperatures of from about 250 to about 325F., which is considered as its moldable range.

The resulting fabric 16, when made up into drapery fabrics so that the warp of relatively flattened oval strip or ribbon saran materials hangs vertically, thus enhances the hanging and drape qualities and represents an excellent improvement over existing drapery fabrics. Such improvement is all the more increased when the fabric is exposed to a subsequent calendering process under heavy pressure and elevated temperature for the purpose of flattening the modacrylic spun yarn into the plane of the drapery fabric. This flattening of the filling yarn and its molding into a relatively flattened cross-section, such as illustrated in FIG. 4 of the drawings, is a feature of the present invention.

CALENDERING As shown in FIG. 1, the open-weave fabric 16 is fed into a conventional calender, l8. Calendering is essentially an ironing process wherein fabric is continuously run through the press nip of at least two rotating heated, pressure-applying rolls of a calender which is a heavy weight textile machine. One of the rotating rolls is usually made of a hard material such as chilled steel; the other roll is quite often made of a softer material. The rolls are adapted to be heated usually internally by gas, electric, or steam to any desired elevated temperature which in the present invention is sufficient to bring the fabric surface temperature into the range of from about 250 to about 300F.

The rolls exert considerable pressure upon the fabric 16 passing therethrough, which, in the present invention, is in the range of from about to about 60 tons as exerted against a fabric having a width of about 48 inches, for example. Heavier calenders, capable of exerting up to 100 tons across the full width of the fabric may also be used, if desired or required. The fabric passing through such calenders may move at a rate as low as about 50 yards per minute or less up to about 200 yards per minute or more depending upon the cir cumstances involved.

If desired, the fabric 16 may be passed through the nip several times for successive pressings and moldings. Following the calendering process, the calendered fab ric 16' is then wound up on take-up rolls at the back of the calendering machine.

During the calendering, the modacrylic filling yarns 14 which are originally more or less round or circular in cross section, as shown in FIG. 3, are flattened as shown in FIG. 4 so that they are more relatively flattened oval and lie more within the plane of the fabric and possess less or no tendency to roll or move out of or shift from the position as originally woven.

Additionally, these relatively flattened oval modacrylic filling yarns 14', with their relatively flat upper and lower surfaces, along with the flat surfaces of the flat strip saran warp 12 provide excellent surface coverage, high color intensity and low light penetration per unit weight of fabric.

And, it is also to be noted that the calendered fabric is flatter and more planar and yields a more pleasing view to the eye and a better hand.

The inventionwill be further illustrated in greater detail by the following specific examples. It should be understood, however, that although these examples may describe in particular detail some of the more specific features of the invention, they are given primarily for purposes of illustration and the invention in its broader aspects is not to be construed as limited thereto.

EXAMPLE I Drapery fabric is made up to the following specifications: 2% mils X 28 mils saran relatively flattened oval strip warp, 18 ends per inch; 8/1 Dynel modacrylic filling yarns, polymerized from approximately 40% acrylonitrile and approximately 60% vinyl chloride, 14 picks per inch; weight of fabric is 0.226 poundsper linear yard; 48 inches wide. Calendering pressure is l-nip, 40 tons across the 48 inch width at a temperature of about 270F.

Drapery fabric made therefrom is stabilized and possesses excellent surface coverage, high color intensity and low light penetration per unit weight. It is flame re-. tardant. Inspection of the fabric reveals that the modacrylic spun yarns are flattened and actually molded into a relatively flattened .oval cross sectional shape in the plane of the fabric at the pressure and temperature which is exerted during calendering.

EXAMPLE II Drapery fabric is made up to the following specifications: 2% mils X 28 mils saran relatively flattened oval.

strip warp, l8 ends per inch;6/l Dynel modacrylic filling yarns (40% acrylonitrileand 60% vinyl chloride); 14 picks per inch; weight of fabric is 0.287 pounds per linear yard; 48 inches wide. Calendering pressure is l-nip, 40 tons across the 48 inch width at a temperature of about 270F. v

Drapery fabric made therefrom is stabilized and possesses excellent surface coverage, high color intensity and low light penetration per unit weight. It is flame retardant. Inspection of the fabric reveals that the -mod-' acrylic spun yarns are flattened and actually molded into an elliptical or oval cross sectional shape in the plane of the fabric at the pressure and temperature which is exerted during calendering.

EXAMPLE III I Drapery fabric is made up to the following specifications: 2% mils X 28 saran relatively flattened oval strip I warp, 18 ends per inch; 4/1 Dynel modacrylic filling yarns (40% acrylonitrile and 60% vinyl chloride), 14 picks per inch; weight of fabric is 0.336 pounds perlinear yard; 48 inches wide. Calende ring pressure is l-nip, 40 tons across the 48 inch width at a temperature of. about 270F.

Drapery fabric made therefrom is stabilized and possesses excellent surface coverage, high color intensity and low light penetration per unit weight. It is flame re- I tardant. Inspection of the fabric reveals that the modacrylic spun yarns are flattened and actually molded I into a relatively flatly elliptical or oval cross sectional shape in the plane of the fabric at the pressure and temperature which is exerted during calendering.

Although several specific examples of the inventive concept have been described, the same should not be consisting of the following steps in the sequence set forth: weaving an open-weave drapery fabric from (1) a warp containing from about 16 to about 24 ends per inch of relatively flattened oval strip saran having an I average thickness of from about 1V2 mils to about3 mils and an average width of from about 20 mils to about 35 mils and (2) a filling of substantially round modacrylic yarns having a yarn size of from 8/1 to about 4/1 cotton count, there being about 12 to about 16 picks per inch; and calendering said open-weave drapery fabric at elevated temperatures of from about 250F to about 350F and under pressures of from 6 about tons to about 100 tons per 48 inches of fabric 3. A method as defined in claim 1 wherein the filling width as to soften, mold and flatten the filling yarns. yarns are flattened into an oval cross-sectional shape. 2. A method as defined in claim 1 wherein the mod- 4. A method as defined in claim 1 wherein the filling acrylic filling yarn is Dynel," a copolymer of about yarns are flattened into an oval cross-sectional shape in 40% by weight of acrylonitrile and about 60% by 5 the plane of said drapery fabric.

weight of vinyl chloride.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2312089 *Jun 13, 1942Feb 23, 1943Alfred A GobeilleFabric
US2354435 *Aug 20, 1941Jul 25, 1944Firestone Tire & Rubber CoPlastic fabric
US2712170 *Sep 6, 1952Jul 5, 1955Goodyear Tire & RubberTreatment of textile fabrics
US2712834 *May 6, 1952Jul 12, 1955Chicopee Mills IncFire retardant fabric
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US3033239 *Mar 17, 1961May 8, 1962Dow Chemical CoWeaving unsized yarns
US3327468 *Jul 27, 1964Jun 27, 1967Hercules IncDecorative textile strand and fabric embodying same
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4409294 *May 21, 1981Oct 11, 1983Nippon Piston Ring Co., Ltd.Sliding member for use in an internal combustion engine
US4996100 *Feb 13, 1989Feb 26, 1991Druckman N RonaldFabric of mixed yarns
US5651394 *Feb 2, 1996Jul 29, 1997Huyck Licensco, Inc.Papermakers fabric having cabled monofilament oval-shaped yarns
Classifications
U.S. Classification28/165, 139/420.00R
International ClassificationD06C15/00
Cooperative ClassificationD06C15/00
European ClassificationD06C15/00