US 3918230 A
A poured building deck structure having sheet metal structural shapes of a box section as sub-purlins, the upper face of the box section having open slots for engaging sheet metal clips which are secured in the box section when the axis of the clip and the box section are about 90 DEG to each other, the clip engaging and holding formboard adjacent the top face of the box section and the clips then extending substantially vertically upward and then extending substantially horizontally engaging the poured concrete above the formboard to provide uplift resistance to the composite structure. The poured building deck structure of this invention is extremely versatile providing a very economical insulating and fireproof poured gypsum deck structure. The combination structure of this invention permits the use of thinner formboard and thinner concrete, providing lighter weight decks than previously available.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
[ Nov. 11, 1975 United States Patent Carroll BUILDING DECK CONSTRUCTION Inventor: Frank Carroll P k Rd In. Prinmry Examiner-John E. Murtagh ar I ge Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Thomas W. Speckman  Assignee: Decks, Incorporated, Rolling ABSTRACT Meadows, [11.
 Filed? 18v 1974 A poured building deck structure having sheet metal App} 515,892 structural shapes of a box section as sub-purlins, the
upper face of the box section having open slots for engaging sheet metal clips which are secured in the box section when the axis of the clip and the box section are about 90 to each other, the clip engaging and holding forrnboard adjacent the top face of the box section and the clips then extending substantially vertically upward and then extending substantially horizontally engaging the poured concrete above the 06 4 5Hn fl% B y 5 4 3 5 B 5 O m O6 0 E 5 E 3 3 3 9 l W a 3 5 4 2 5 u 3 3 5 u .a mwnl m 3 3 4 3 "U u 7 2 5 "3 m 38 m 5 u m 3 m W 6 u n m 3 m 3 m n e 5 n n S u I U- l L 0 2 c s il U IF 1 2 l 00 5 5 5 l l. I
forrnboard to provide uplift resistance to the compos-  References Cited ite structure. The poured building deck structure of UNITED STATES PATENTS this invention is extremely versatile providing a very economical insulating and fireproof poured gypsum deck structure. The combination structure of this in- 52/489 X vention permits the use of thinner formboard and thin- 52/309 X ner concrete, providing lighter weight decks than pre- 52/ viously available.
52 4 9 X 13 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures Venzie Yetter... Sheahan Sheahan lllllll US. Patent Nov. 11, 197-5 Sheet 2 012 3,918,230
BUILDING DECK CONSTRUCTION This invention relates to building deck construction which may be utilized for interior decks and roof decks. The deck construction of this invention utilizes subpurlins formed from sheet metal and clips formed from sheet metal to provide a deck construction system which is extremely versatile. The deck structures of this invention are generally poured gypsum or other pured concrete-like deck systems wherein rigid formboard is laid on the sheet metal structural shape sub-purlin and held in place by the sheet metal clips. The sheet metal clips further provide uplift resistance to the composite structure. The deck construction of this invention also provides for insulated decks of varying insulation capabilities. The utilization of the sheet metal sub-purlins in the deck construction of this invention allows utilization of various spacings of the sub-purlins and various thicknesses and sizes of the formboard. The deck construction of this invention further provides for utiliza tion of both moisture permeable and moisture impermeable formboards.
The sheet metal sub-purlin shapes utilized in this invention have previously been used with similar sheet metal clips for holding tongue and groove precast deck planks such as sold under the trademark TECTUM by National Gypsum Company. However, the utilization of a similar sub-purlin and sheet metal clip has not been recognized as advantageous in poured deck construction. Conventional poured deck construction utilizes bulb tees or truss tees as subpurlins. Both the bulb tees and truss tees have upstanding portions which govern the spacing due to the projection into the poured gypsum or concrete in an attempt to obtain resistance to uplift. It has been recognized that poured decks utilizing bulb tees as sub-purlins must be used only with moisture permeable formboard and that top drying with ventilators has been unsatisfactory where the bulb tee extends into the poured material.
The deck construction of this invention provides a method of construction in which the sub-purlin is flat on top and is totally beneath the deck structure, thus, providing a framework in which the sub-purlins may be placed at any desired spacing to obtain various strength characteristics and the deck structure is placed on top of the flat upper surface of the sub-purlin. Uplift resistance is obtained by the sheet metal clip extending into the poured structure.
It is an object of this invention to overcome the above disadvantages of prior deck construction.
It is another object of this invention to provide deck construction utilizing sheet metal sub-purlins which are totally beneath the poured deck structure and sheet metal clips which readily attach to the sheet metal subpurlins and extend into the poured deck structure to provide excellent uplift resistance.
It is a further object of this invention to provide deck systems which are extremely flexible with respect to sub-purlin spacing to obtain a wide range of strength characteristics.
It is still another object of this invention to provide an economical, insulating and fireproof poured gypsum roof deck system.
It is another object of this invention to provide a deck structure which has continuous and full insulation, thereby overcoming moisture problems encountered with partially insulated systems.
These and other objects, advantages and features of this invention will be apparent from the description and by reference to the drawings wherein preferred embodiments are shown as:
FIG. 1 is a perspective cutaway view of a deck construction according to one embodiment of this invention;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the deck construction shown in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 3 is a perspective cutaway view of an insulated roofing structure according to one preferred embodiment of this invention.
The sheet metal structural shape utilized in this invention provides excellent structural characteristics while reducing weight and providing a structural shape that can be readily fabricated from sheet metal. To obtain comparable structural strength characteristics the sheet metal shape used in this invention is about 40 percent lighter than the bulb tee section required. It is highly desirable to fabricate structural shapes from sheet metal to minimize energy requirements in production and to conserve steel. Prior attempts to utilize sheet metal shapes in poured deck construction have not been entirely satisfactory. Some prior attempts have utilized sheet metal 1, shapes as substitutes for bulb tees in roof deck construction. Some of these sheet metal .1. shapes while providing sufficient strength in the composite assembled poured roof, do not have satisfactory strength characteristics themselves and in the erection bend over or roll when walked upon by the erectors. This results in very dangerous Working conditions for workers.
The sheet metal structural shapes utilized in this invention provide desirable strength characteristics themselves and sufficient strength characteristics to be walked upon during erection without dangerous bending or rolling. Further, the sheet metal sub-purlins utilized in the deck construction of this invention provide a flat upper surface upon which the base material for the deck construction may be laid. All prior sub-purlins known to the inventor utilized in poured deck construction, have extended into the poured structure and thus the spacing of the sub-purlins has been governed by the width of formboard or rigid board material laid between them. In the deck construction of this invention, the rigid board, such as formboard, is laid on top of the sub-purlin and thus, the sub-purlins may be utilized in closer spacing allowing thinner formboards and poured decks to be placed on top of the closer spaced sub-purlin structure. Previously, design of deck construction of the poured type has been limited by width of boards available which govern the spacing of the sub-purlins since the boards had to be set between the sub-purlins. The deck construction of this invention allows the use of any width or length board to be placed upon the top surface of any desired spacing of subpurlins Referring to FIG. 1, the sheet metal shape utilized in this invention is shown as box section 20 having a lower horizontal base 21 resting upon purlin structure 30, vertical sides 22 and 23 and upper horizontal flanges 24 and 25. Slot 26 between the terminal ends of flanges 24 and 25 is preferred to be continuous to permit the most flexible use of the sheet metal box section. However, it is understood that slot 26 may be'discontinuous and flanges 24 and 25 joining to enclose the top of the box section where it is not necessary to utilize the sheet metal clips.
The sheet metal box sections may be fabricated by well-known roll forming techniques from sheet metal from about gauge to about 14 gauge. It is preferred to use galvanized, commercial grade steel of 16 and 18 gauge.
The depth of the box section to be used as a subpurlin may be about 2 inches to about 3 inches, preferably about 2% inches to about 2 /2 inches. The width of the box section may be about 1 /2 inch to about 2%. inches, preferably about 1% inch to about 2 inches. The slot for receiving the sheet metal clip may be any width to suit the clip section. Slots about three-eighths inch to about three-fourths inch are suitable, about five-eighths inch being preferred. It should be recognized that the above dimensions are governed only by conventionally desired strength characteristics of described uses as sub-purlins and may be outside the above ranges to obtain out-of-the ordinary requirements.
The sheet metal clip is shown as 40 having opposing slots 42 between vertical portion 41 and 43 which engage flanges 24 and 25 of the sheet metal box section so that when the axis of the clip is 90 the axis of the box section, the clip is anchored with the opposing flanges of the top of the box section engaging the slots and vertical portion 41 being within the box section. Vertical portion 43 of the sheet metal clip extends upward from the top of the box section a suitable height to provide, when bent into horizontal portion 44, snug fitting of desired rigid board such as formboard 12 between horizontal portion 44 and the top flanges 24 and 25 of the sheet metal box section. Horizontal portion 44 extends a sufficient distance to provide such snug fitting and then bends to form vertical portion 45 which extends substantially vertically upward for the desired distance to provide a support for reinforcing mesh 14. The sheet metal clip is then provided with substantially horizontal portion 46 which holds the reinforcing mesh 14 and provides for uplift resistance in the poured deck.
Clip is readily inserted at any location into slot 26 by simply turning it so that the axis of the clip and the box section are parallel and inserting the clip for the distance so that slot 42 will engage flanges 24 and 25 and then turning the clip so that axis of the clip is approximately 90 to the axis of the sub-purlin.
The sheet metal clips may be fabricated by well known stamping and bending techniques from sheet metal from about 20 gauge to about l4 gauge. It is preferred to used galvanized, commercial steel of 16 and 18 gauge.
The vertical portion of the clip extending above the box section may be about one-half to abut l /2 inch to accommodate the thickness of various desired formboards. The vertical portion of the clip extending into the sheet metal box section may be any desired length so as to provide adequate stiffness of the clip when the flanges of the box section are engaged in the opposing slots of the clip. Horizontal portion 44 of the clip extends for a suitable distance to adequately hold the formboard in place, about one-half to about l inch being suitable. Vertical portion extends upward for a suitable distance to provide support for reinforcing mesh and to provide suitable height for the poured concrete to firmly engage the clip for uplift resistance about one-half to about 1 inch being suitable. Horizontal portion 46 is of suitable length to provide firm clipping of the poured concrete to provide for uplift resistance about one-half to about 1 /2 inch being suitable.
Referring to FIG. 3, the sheet metal box section subpurlin 20 rests upon structural purlin member 30 and clip 40 secures gypsum formboard against the top of sub-purlin 20. Over formboard 12 is a polymeric foam board 18 having seams at right angles to the seams of formboard 12. It is prefe rred to staple the foam in place to prevent uplift while pouring cement as indicated by staples 51. The foam board may also be adhered to the formboard with any suitable mastic or adhesive. The foam is broken out in the area of each clip 40 so that the poured concrete surrounds the top of the clip to provide uplift resistance. A poured gypsum or lightweight concrete is applied above the foam board with reinforcing mesh 14, gypsum concrete 15 with built-up roofing layers 16 and wear surface 17. This type of gypsum structure may be dried from the top using ventilators shown as 19 and presently available as McKinley Roof Ventilators. This structure provides a primarily top drying system allowing the use of moisture impervious formboards.
The synthetic organic polymer foam may be any substantially rigid organic polymer foam having good insulating properties and preferably a high temperature at which thermal decomposition occurs. Suitable foams include polystyrene, styrene-maleic anhydride, phenolic, such as phenol formaldehyde, polyurethane, vinyl, such as polyvinyl chloride and copolymers of polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl acetate, epoxy, polyethylene, urea formaldehyde, acrylic, polisocyanurate and the like. Preferred foams are selected from the goup consisting of polystyrene and polyurethane. Particularly suitable foams are closed cell foams which provide high insulating properties and low internal permeability to moisture. Such organic polymer foams are substantially rigid bodies of foam and are well known for their low density and outstanding thermal insulating properties. The foam is preferably in board form and may be utilized in sheets of any workable size. It is preferred to have the foam board at right angles to the formboard to minimize seam exposure. Any thickness providing desired insulation is suitable, about 1 inch to about 6 inches being preferred and about 1 inch to about 3 inches being especially preferred.
The gypsum formboard-foam structure as disclosed in my pending application Ser. No. 457,996 may advantageously be used in the roof structure of this invention, permitting complete flexibility with respect to sub-purlin spacing. Likewise, the gypsum formboardfoam construction disclosed in my pending application Ser. No. 410,874 may be utilized in a similar fashion without the need for ventilator 19 since the roof structure disclosed in my pending application Ser. No. 410,874 provides for drying of the gypsum concrete through the bottom of the roof. Further, the deck con struction of this invention eliminates the need for grouting as shown in my above identified co-pending applications and provides for full, continuous insulation.
Any moisture permeable or moisture impervious formboard of a wide variety of sizes may be used in the deck construction of this invention. The structure of this invention allows the use of less expensive water impervious formboard such as felted rock wool materials (such as FESCO board sold by Johns Manfille Com.- pany). Any gypsum formboard, moisture permeable or moisture impermeable, fiberglas or other conventional formboard material is suitable. Formboard thickness of about one-fourth inch to about 2 inches are suitable, about three-eighths inch to about three-fourths inch being preferred. The sub-purlin system with formboard at right angles to the sub-purlines prevents formboard fall-out and undesired deflection experienced with bulb tee and truss tee systems now used.
Any gypsum formboard providing a two'hour fire rating when used with poured gypsum slabs is especially suitable. The least expensive of the gypsum formboards, the rigid one-half inch thick gypsum formboard is suitable for use in the roof structure of this invention, however, various surfaced gypsum formboards having suitable ceiling surfaces may be utilized as long as the incombustibility and flame spread ratings are satisfactory. This invention provides a deck structure in which gypsum formboard may be used as the lower surface.
Previously, lightweight concrete has been poured over galvanized pans rather than formboard since using conventional bulb tee construction which was limited to 32 inch spacing, the gypsum formboard buckled when wet due to the long drying time of lightweight concrete. In view of the structural flexibility of the deck structure of this invention, the sub-purlins may be spaced about 12 to about 36 inches providing a superior base for the gypsum formboard and prevention of such previous buckling. Thus, the poured structure shown as 15 in FIGS. 1 and 2 and satisfactorily be lightweight concrete.
According to present deck construction practice utilizing bulb tee or truss tee sub-purlins with the concomitant spacing of 32 inches, it has not been practical to provide gypsum slabs of less than 2 inches. Previously, it was necessary to have a slab thickness of about 2 inches to cover the upstanding bulb or truss tee. Utilizing the roof structure of this invention, it is practical to use gypsum slabs as thin as about 1 inch by having close sub-purlin spacing. This deck construction provides lighter weight decks.
The gypsum concrete utilized may be preferably standard gypsum concrete. However, modified concretes containing various fillers, such as perlite, aggregate for thermal insulation and lighter weight are suit able, or exploded mica in portland cement is suitable, but not necessary in the roof structure of this invention. The gypsum concrete is especially desirable for use in roof structures not only because it is incombustible but also because the gypsum sets within a few minutes to form a slab that is hard enough to walk upon thereby permitting, in many cases, a waterproof wearing surface to be laid the same day the slab is poured. The thickness of the poured concrete may be about 1 inch to about 4 inches.
In FIG. 1 a built up roofing membrane comprising alternate layers of roofing felt and hot asphalt is shown as 16 with waterproof wearing surface 17 of tar and gravel. Any suitable waterproof wearing surface for flat type roofs is suitable for the roof structure of this invention, or the gypsum concrete may be Waterproofed with plastic membrane, such as on dome type roof structures. Likewise, when used as an interior deck, the concrete top surface may be left exposed.
Any suitable ceiling structuremay be installed beneath the deck structure of this invention as long as suitable ventilation is furnished.- However, in contrast to prior roof structures,- it isnot necessary that the ceiling provide the insulation or fireproofing qualities. The roof structure ofthis invention provides high insulation and fireproof properties without any structure beneath it and may be left exposed. v
While my invention has been described mainly with respect to a roof deck'system, it is also, suitable and intended for any deck system such as flooringceiling in multistory construction 1;
While in' the foregoingspecification this invention has been described in relation to certain preferred embodiments thereof, and many details have been set forth for purpose of illustration, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the invention is susceptible to additional embodiments and that certain of the details described herein can be varied considerably without departing from the basic principles of the invention.
I claim: 1. A poured building deck structure comprising the combination:
structural purlins; sub-purlins of sheet metal structural shapes of a box section having a horizontal base, opposing vertical sides and upper horizontal flanges extending inwardly from the top of said sides forming an open slot between the terminus of said flanges, saud subpurlins at right angles to and said base resting on top of said purlins; formboard adjacent to and secured against the top of said upper horizontal flanges of said subpurlins;
sheet metal clips having a vertical portion extending upwardly and downwardly from opposing slots, each of said opposing slots engaging one of said horizontal flanges of said box section when the axis of said clip and box section are at about to each other, said upwardly extending vertical portion bending to a horizontal portion to engage the top of said formboard securing it against the top of said flanges, then bending to a substantially vertical upward portion and then bending to a substantially horizontal portion to provide uplift resistance when surrounded by concrete;
reinforcing mesh over the top of said clips; and
poured concrete above said formboard and engaging the upper portion of said clips.
2. The building deck structure of claim 1 wherein said formboard is selected from the group consisting of felted rock wool materials, moisture permeable gypsum, moisture impermeable gypsum and fiber glass.
3. The building deck structure of claim 2 wherein said formboard is gypsum formboard.
4. The building deck structure of claim 3 wherein said gypsum formboard is moisture impermeable.
5. The building deck structure of claim 1 wherein said concrete is selected from the group consisting of gypsum and Portland cement containing fillers.
6. The building deck structure of claim 1 wherein a synthetic organic polymer foam is placed on top of said formboard and said concrete poured over said foam.
7. The building deck structure of claim 6 wherein said foam is about 1 inch to about 6 inches thick.
8. The building deck structure of claim 6 wherein said formboard is water impermeable and said deck built up roofing membrane comprising alternate layers of roofing felt and hot asphalt with a waterproof wearing surface of tar and gravel on top is placed over said poured concrete.
12. The building deck structure of claim 1 wherein the spacing of said sheet metal structural shapes is about 12 inches to about 36 inches.
13. The building deck structure of claim 1 wherein said formboard has a thickness of about one-fourth inch to about 2 inches and said concrete has a thickness