US 3919823 A
A mineral surface asphalt strip shingle which when laid in courses on a roof simulates the shadow effects found in wood shingles. The lower or butt edge of the shingle is provided with a plurality of stepped cut-outs of uniform length arranged in a repeat pattern. The shingle is slit upwardly from its butt edge for a portion of its width along a line spaced from the left-hand edge of the shingle. This portion of the shingle between the left-hand edge and the slit is lapped over a corresponding right-hand surface area of an adjacent shingle in the same course thereby creating a shadow effect.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Umted States Patent [191  Bradley Nov. 18, 1975 [5 ROOF SHINGLE 2,205,679 6/1940 Ames 52/557  Inventor. filobert C. Bradley, Downers Grove, Primary Emminer james L Ridgm, JR
' Attorney, Agent, or FirnzArnstein, Gluck,  Assignee: Lloyd A. Fry Roofing Company, Weitzenfeld & Minow Summit, 11]. 22 Filed: Apr. 3, 1974  ABSTRACT A mineral surface asphalt strip shingle which when  App! 457,644 laid in courses on a roof simulates the shadow effects found in wood shingles. The lower or butt edge of the 52 us. Cl 52/557; 52/555 Shingle is provided w plurality of pp Cut-Outs  Int. (:1. E04D1/26;E04D 1/10 of uniform length arranged in a repeat Pattern The 58 new of Search 52/553-560, shingle is sit upwardly from iis buii edge for e poriien j2/522 .526 of its width along a line spaced from the left-hand edge of the shingle. This portion of the shingle be- 5 References Cited tween the left-hand edge and the slit is lapped over a UNn-ED STATES PATENTS corresponding right-hand surface area of an adjacent shingle in the same course thereby creating a shadow 1,495,070 5/1924 Finley 52/555 effect 1,500,709 7/1924 Keller 52/557 7 1.629,146 5/1927 Busha 52/557 5 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures US. Patent Nov. 18, 1975 Sheet 2 of2 3,919,823
ROOF SHINGLE BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to asphaltic composition shingles which when applied in overlapping courses on a roof provide a roof surface having differences in surfaces elevation which produce a pleasing appearance of shadow effects characteristic of wood shingles.
It is an object of this invention to provide an asphaltic composition strip shingle which may be applied to a roof surface in overlapping horizontal courses on a roof and which when so applied results in a pattern of shadow effects characteristic of wood shingles.
Another object of this invention is the provision of a strip shingle of the above type which when applied to a roof surface results in a repeat pattern of shadow effects having a very pleasing appearance.
Still another object of this invention is the provision of a strip shingle of the aforementioned type which can be manufactured without any substantial amount of waste in the cutting from sheet roofing material.
Still a further object of this invention is the provision of a strip shingle which can be installed by a roofer without the exercise of any particular skill.
Other and further objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent from the following description when considered in connection with the accompany drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrating the manner in which the shingles are laid on a roof deck.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a shingle according to the invention.
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary plan view illustrating the underlay constituting the starter course for the shingles applied to a roof deck.
FIG. 4 is a similar view illustrating the first course of shingles applied over the starter course.
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary plan view illustrating the manner in which the shingles are laid on a roof deck.
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view, on an enlarged scale, taken substantially on line 66 of FIG. 5.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view, on an enlarged scale taken substantially on line 77 of FIG. 5.
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view, on an enlarged scale, taken substantially on line 8-8 of FIG. 5.
FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view, on an enlarged scale,
taken substatially on line 9-9 of FIG. 5, and
FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view, on an enlarged scale, taken substantially on line 10-10 of FIG. 5.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT 22, 23, and 24, constituting projections and recesses arranged in a repeat pattern. In the embodiment illustrated, each of the steps 2224 has a length of 4 inches and in each section the step on the extreme left side, namely, step 22a, 22b and 220 has the maximum width, with each succeeding step being progressively reduced in width by approximately inch from a preceding step. Thus, the depth of each step varies by inch from an adjacent step immediately to the left thereof.
Each shingle 20 has projections 26 and 27 on opposite right and left hand edges respectively, with lower and upper horizontal edges 28 and 29 respectively, being in horizontal registration and constituting guide means for positioning the shingle. Preferably, the horizontal edges 28 and 29 are located 4% inches from the top edge 31 of the shingle. The shingle 20 is provided with a slit or knife-edge cut 32 extending upwardly from its butt edge 21 for approximately 6 inches along a line spaced 4 inches from the left hand edge of the shingle. The slit 32 coincides with the right hand edge of the step 22a. Deposits of adhesive may be provided at 30 to make the shingles self sealing.
Shingles of the form described are laid on a roof deck 33 in the manner illustrated in FIGS. 35. Thus, referring to FIG. 3, a suitable starter course 34 is first laid along the lower marginal edge of the roof deck 33. This starter course preferably, may comprise shingles 20, such as illustrated in FIG. 2, from which a strip width of 4V2 inches has been trimmed from each butt edge 21. The first element 34a laid down in the starter course constitutes the left hand one-half 18 inches) of a trimmed shingle which is rotated and is arranged so that its severed edge 36 extends inch beyond the rake 33a of the roof deck and its lower edge 37 extends inch beyond the cave edge 38 of the roof deck 33.
The second element 34b is next rotated 180 and is applied in linear alignment with the first element 34a with its left-hand portion overlapping the first element 34a to a length 4 inches. The next succeeding elements 346 are then applied, as above, each in overlapping relation to a preceding element. It will be understood that the lower edges 37 of the elements 34 comprising the starter course form a straight line parallel to and spaced from the cave edge 38.
An alternate starter course, not shown, could comprise a 9 inch wide strip of asphaltic sheet material in 6 or 9 foot lengths applied to a roof deck in the same relationship, as above, with its side and lower edges extending beyond the rake and eave edge of the roof, respectively. Succeeding sections of strip material would overlap the preceding section by 4 inches.
In either of the foregoing arrangements the modified shingles 34 or strips are nailed to the roof deck 33 with the nails 40 being spaced, as shown in FIG. 3, along a line 1% inches up from the lower edge 37, 1 inch from each side edge and approximately at l 1 inch intervals.
The first course of shingles 41, as shown in FIG. 4, is next applied over the starter course 34. The first shingle 41a in this course is prepared by severing a shingle 20 along the slit 32, removing the severed 4 inch length 22a and superposing the remaining 32 inch length directly over the starter course 34 in the lower left hand corner of the roof deck, with the left edge and the widest butt edges of the shingle coincident with the corresponding edges 36 and 37 respectively of the starter course 34. The horizontal edges 28 and 29 afford guide means for alignment with the upper edge 35 of the starter course 34. The shingle 41a is secured with four nails 40 arranged along a line approximately 5% inches above the butt edge. The first nail 40 is located l inch from the rake 33a. The second and third nails 40 are located respectively in vertical registration with the left-hand edges of steps 22b and 22c. The fourth nail is located 1 inch from the right-hand edge of the shingle. Thus, thespace between the outer and adjacent inner nails is approximately ll inches while the space between the inner nails is approximatiely 12 inches.
The second and succeeding full shingles 41b, 41(- of the first course 41 are applied in linear alignment with the first shingle 41a, with the left hand portion 22a (4 inches) of each shingle overlapping a right hand portion 240 of a preceding shingle and with the left hand edge of the slit 32 being disposed in closely abutting relationship to the right-hand edge of projection 26 of the preceding shingle. Each of the shingles is secured by nailing, in the manner as above described in relation to the first shingle.
The second course includes a first shingle 42a from which a 12 inch long section has been cut from the lefthand portion, leaving a 24 inch section remaining. This is applied over the first course 41 with the cut edge in registration with the left-hand edge of the first course of shingles and with the guide'edge 28 aligned with the top edge 44 of the first course of shingles 41. The second and succeeding shingles 42b and 420 are applied in linear alignment with the first shingle, with a 4 inch overlap and the respective slit edges 32 in closely abutting relationship to a preceding shingle, exactly as in the first course. It will be understood that the horizontal edges 28 and 29 at the sides of each shingle afford means for aligning the shingles with the upper edge of the preceding course, although it is desirable to employ a chalk line every few courses to assure proper horizon tal alignment.
The third course 46 is applied, as above described, except that an additional 8 inches is removed from the left hand edge of the first shingle 46a before the same is nailed in position. Thus, the first shingle 46a in this course has a length of 16 inches.
In the fourth course 47 an additional 8 inches is removed from the left hand edge of the first shingle 47a leaving a shingle length of 8 inches which is applied together with the succeeding full shingles, in the manner above described.
In the fifth course 48 the procedure followed is the same as that described for the first course i.e., the first shingle 48a of the course is severed along the slit line 32 leaving an effective length of 32 inches which is then superposed over the fourth course 47 in the manner hereinabove described. Thus, the installation of the shingles on the roof deck is completed by repeating the sequence of procedures for the first four courses, as above described. It will be seen that each succeeding course of shingles overlaps the head portion of a preceding course of shingles leaving an exposed area approximately 4 /2 inches wide.
As seen in FIGS. 1 and 5, a left hand 4 inch portion 220 of each full shingle overlaps a corresponding right-hand portion 24c of the preceding shingle in the same course. The overlap which is disposed in the plane above the remainder of the shingle, in each case,
4 produces a shadow effect which is repeated in a predetermined pattern. It will, of course, be understood that the character of the shadows will vary dependent upon many factors, for example, the time of day, the intensity of sun light, the angle of the sun, the slope of the roof and the position of the viewer.
Various changes coming within the spirit of my invention may suggest themselves to those skilled in the art; hence, l do not wish to be limited to the specific embodiments shown and described or uses mentioned, but intend the same to be merely exemplary, the scope of my invention being limited only by the appended claims.
1. A roof deck covering composed of a plurality of asphaltic composition shingles arranged in a plurality of courses, each of said shingles being of generally rectangular outline, and including three similar sections, each section having three butt edge steps arranged in a repeat pattern with the step at the left-hand side of the section having the maximum width in the direction of the width of the shingle, and each of the next two integral succeeding steps in the section being progressively reduced slightly in width while being of substantially the same length as the step at the left-hand side of the section, each of said courses including a first shingle disposed at the left-hand edge of the roof deck and a plurality of succeeding shingles in linear alignment, each of said succeeding shingles having a single knifeedge cut substantially parallel to and spaced from the left-hand edge of the shingle and extending upwardly from the butt edge thereof coincident with the righthand edge of the step of maximum width, a portion of each succeeding shingle between said left-hand edge and the cut overlapping a corresponding right-hand portion of a preceding shingle in the same course, with the left-hand edge of the succeeding shingle defining the cut being disposed in abutment with the right-hand edge of a preceding shingle and in the same plane, the
overlapping portion being disposed in a superposed plane and providing an additional dimension, creating a shadow effect, said shingle cut being the only incision in the body of said shingle of substantially rectangular outline for permitting the displacement of the left-hand butt edge step of the shingle in a different plane, and the free edges of the three butt edge steps in each of the three sections being in substantial parallelism to the opposite rectilinear edge of the shingle.
2. The invention as defined in claim 1 in which each succeeding course of shingles overlaps the headlap area of a preceding course.
3. The invention as defined in claim 1 in which the first shingles in the courses are of different lengths and the succeeding shingles in each course are of the same length.
4. The invention as defined in claim 3 in which the overlapping portions in one course are offset from the overlapping portions of an adjacent course.
5. The invention as defined in claim 4 in which the overlapping portions define a repeat pattern over a roof