Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3919921 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 18, 1975
Filing dateApr 10, 1974
Priority dateMay 2, 1970
Publication numberUS 3919921 A, US 3919921A, US-A-3919921, US3919921 A, US3919921A
InventorsSchirneker Hans-Ludwig
Original AssigneeSchirnecker Hans Ludwig
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hand firearms and ammunition therefor
US 3919921 A
Hand firearms in which a guard is provided for the trigger, with the guard being cooperable with an adjustable stop which limits the displaceability of the guard as selected to optionally lock the trigger for individual, sporadic or continuous fire.
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Schirneker [4 1 Nov. 18, 1975 1 HAND FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION 1.399.119 12/1921 Hodges 89/33 MC THEREFOR 1.484.163 2/1924 Vincon 2 1 1 1 89/129 B 2.865.126 12/1958 Dardick 42/395 Inventor: Hans-Ludwig Schirneker, am g 2.986.073 5/1901 Godar 89/132 396, A 6833 Klaus, Austria 3.437.039 4/1969 Hawthorne v 1 42/395 Filed p 10 1974 3,667,147 6/1972 Goldin et a1 89/33 MC [21] Appl. No.: 459,625

Primary Examiner-Samuel Feinbcrg 7 Related Apphcatlon a Assistant Examiner-C. T. Jordan [62] D1v1s1on of Ser. No. 138.978, Apr11 30, 1971 Pat. Attorney, Agent J ff [30] Foreign Application Priority Data May 2. 1970 Germany 2021597 [57] ABSTRACT Jan. 7, 1971 Germany 2100434 [52] US. Cl. 1. 89/132 Hand firearms in which a guard is Provided for the 51 1111.01. F41D 11/02; F41D 11/10 trigger, with the guard being Cooperuhle with an [58] Field of Search 42/72, 39.5; 89/33 MC, jumble p which limits the displaceability 9f the 29 13 32 guard as selected to optionally lock the trigger for individual, sporadic or continuous fire. [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2 Claims, 31 Drawing Figures 1.174.282 3/1916 Richard 42/72 322 33s 33s x111 323 1 341 352 31.2 301.

XXI 1' 328 351. 330 303 US. Patent Nov. 18, 1975 Sheetlofll 3,919,921

Sheet 2 0f 11 US. Patent Nov. 18, 1975 US. Patent Nov. 18, 1975 Sheet 3 0f 11 3,919,921

US. Patent Nov. 18, 1975 Sheet4 0f11 3,919,921

U.S. Patent Nov. 18, 1975 Sheet 5 of :2

US. Patent Nov. 18,1975 Sheet 7 of 11 3,919,921

.. g .nufififl NH 1 an mm 1 mmm 8m 2m 8m 3 2 8m 5 3m 1% 1. 7 5M1. 2 m 3m .\PM\ A TH. 1 d f. r 4M mww mom wom wqm 3m 3m (8 in an TW wmm 8m an an o US. Patent Nov. 18, 1975 Sheet 8 of 11 3,919,921


w B F US. Patent Nov. 18, 1975 Sheet 9 of 11 3,919,921

U. Patent Nov. 18,1975 Sheet 10 0f11 3,919,921

U.S. Patant Nov. 18, 1975 Sheetllofll 3,919,921

. I I ll I l l .11 408 40g HAND FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION THEREFOR This is a division, of application Ser. No. 138,978, filed Apr. 30, 1971, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,817,148.

This invention relates to a hand firearm with an optical sighting mechanism for either direct or indirect sighting and, accordingly, for direct of indirect firing, and the ammunition specially developed for this firearm.

One of the principle objects in the development and improvement of firearms of all kinds has always been to increase the firing range and to improve the firing accu racy, especially in cases where the principle of continuous or automatic firing is adopted in hand firearms. The tactics of combat are largely governed by improvements in this respect.

Originally, attempts were made to increase the firing range along with the accuracy of fire. Recently, however, efforts have been directed to adjusting the firing accuracy of hand firearms, especially rifles and assault rifles, to a distance of approximately 300 meters as the optimum, so that it is possible without any need to alter the sighting mechanism to shoot accurately up to this distance under equal conditions. Accordingly, it is not absolutely necessary in the case of more recent hand firearms for the sighting mechanism to be adjusted for different ranges. This simplifies the use of hand firearms, especially rifles.

Unfortunately, the disadvantage common to all hand firearms used in practice is that the marksman always has to keep his head higher than the barrel in order to be able to aim. For this reason, the marksman is relatively easy to see in battle and is thus prone to injury,

especially because muzzle flash and pressure waves from his firearm betray his position to the enemy.

The object of the present invention is to provide a completely new hand firearm using specially developed ammunition with which it is possible to shoot accurately either only once, sporadically or continuously, even from a position of complete cover, without the po sition of the marksman being betrayed in any way by the shots.

Firing from a position of complete cover means that the body of the marksman from the waist upwards can- .not lie behind the barrel so that the kick-backs which occur during firing do not have to be absorbed by the shoulder of the marksman. It has been found that, in order to shoot from a position of complete cover, it is necessary to use ammunition that can be fired with hardly any kick-back because absorption of the kickback by moving different components of the hand firearms relative to one another is only incomplete and is only possible with considerable outlay in terms of design and, hence, expense.

ln order to solve the problem referred to above, it is 'proposed in connection with a hand firearm of the kind referred to earlier on that this firearm should comprise a shoulder support which can be set at the required angle, in a downward direction at least, and in the stock a sighting mechanism with an optical redirecting means so that the weapon can be switched from direct to indirect sighting, and that the ammunition for the weapon should have an extremely small calibre preferably less than 4.5 mm in diameter, so that there is hardly any trace of kick-back. It is possible in this way to obtain a hand firearm with which it is possible to aim and shoot even when the eye of the marksman is not above the barrel carrying the normal notch and bead sight, with- 2 out any danger of the firearm being displaced from the aiming direction adjusted by the kick-backs occurring during firing because the firearm can be fired both once and also continuously with hardly any kick-back.

It is known that the degree of kick-back is less violent, the lighter the weight of the bullets used. For this reason, the conventional steel-jacketed bullets have recently been made increasingly smaller. However, there are limits to the size of the bullets because although as light a weight as possible is required, a certain impact energy has to be applied tothe target which should be about 300 meters away from the point of fire. Added to this there is the fact that, in the event of any reduction in calibre, allowance has to be made for the fact, in the case of rotation-stabilised bullets, the diameter to length ratio should not be any greater than about 1:5 because otherwise there is no guarantee that the bullets will still follow the required ballistic trajectory. On the other hand, however, the bullets have to have a certain weight in order to generate a load per unit cross-section in the normally desired range of from l5 to 20 glcm According to the invention, therefore, the ammunition required is based on the conventional steel-jacketed bullet with its lead core, modified to the extent that the bullets are made for example from a metal of high specific gravity, preferably from tungsten, and are provided with what is at best a needle-sharp tip of soft metal, for example copper. By making the main body of the bullet from substantially pure tungsten, a load per unit cross-section of from 15 to 20 g/cm depending upon the length of the bullet, is obtained for a calibre of approximately 2.5 mm by virtue of the high specific gravity of I92. The relatively soft tip of copper or the like ensures that, on encountering a soft resistance, the tip is deflected spirally downwards, initiating the required tumble effect which is absolutely necessary to the effectiveness of small-calibre bullets. If, by contrast, a bullet of this kind comes into contact with a hard body, for example a steel body, the effect of the copper tip is that the bullet does not ricochet so easily and the hard tungsten core penetrates in to and right through the hard steel body.

However, the bullets can also be in the form of surface-stabilised arrow-like projectiles which optionally may also be additionally rotation-stabilised so that they can also be made from an inexpensive material such as steel. In this case, they do not necessarily have to be provided with a soft tip of another material, as in the case of tungsten bullets.

The cartridge cases which preferably consist of a plastics material have a uniform cross-section over the entire length of the cartridge so that they accommodate the bullet, the powder filling and the primer.

The weapon according to the invention is provided for example with a silencer whose inlet openings are situated laterally in front of the muzzle but which extends backwards parallel to the barrel so that the barrel only has to be negligibly lengthened by this silencer. Neither is the stability or handling of the proposed firearms adversely affected in any way by the silencer because the silencer does not displace the centre of gravity of the weapons frontwards to any appreciable extent.

In addition, according to the invention, the gas pressure generated during a firing of a catridge is used to repeat the firearm. To this end, some of the gas given off during firing is directed for example through a radial outlet opening situated in the barrel near its muzzle into a cylinder containing a piston displaceable against spring pressure whose piston rod is coupled at one end to a continuous-advance mechanism for a cartridge drum rotatable in stages and, at its other end, to a cocking mechanism for the firing pin in such away that, after one shot has been fired, the firing pin is re-cocked and the cartridge drum rotated one step further so that there is a fresh cartridge in front of the barrel, in precise co-ordination with one another.

Instead of repeating by gas pressure, the repeating operation can also be carried out manually, for which purpose a handle for example is provided which can also be used to hold the weapon. In other words, manual repeating can be carried out without any time lag which is of considerable importance in combat if, for one reason or another, the automatic repeating mechanism should have failed or if the weapon has to be loaded for the first time following insertion of a new cartridge belt.

In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the hand firearm has a repeating roller which can accommodate several, preferably three cartridges in to which the cartridges with a uniform cross-section over their entire length are pushed in one and the same direction and from which they are ejected again after firing. Accordingly, the cartridges are not secured to a belt but are pushed individually in to a roller with a corresponding number of openings and are then brought into the firing position by the repeating roller, being carried round and finally ejected from the repeating roller after firing. The cartridges are preferably pushed backwards into the repeating roller from the front, and, after firing, are ejected rearwards from the repeating roller through the insertion of a fresh cartridge. The lock can be designed in such a way that there is always one case that has already been fired in the ejection duct in order to prevent dirt or like from penetrating into the repeating roller through the ejection opening.

The automatic repeating mechanism consists of a repeating piston which is displaceable by the gases given off during firing and on which there is arranged a plunger or a rod which inserts the cartridges individually in to the repeating roller from a magazine and ejects the fired cartridges one at a time from the opposite end of the repeating roller. The repeating roller is provided on its outer surface or outside with helically extending grooves in which a carrier pin axially displaceable by the repeating piston engages in order to turn the repeating roller one step further after each firing and hence following each insertion of a fresh cartridge, in other words the repeating roller can be rotated in steps with each loading operation. However, the repeating roller does not begin to rotate until a fresh cartridge has been completely inserted into it and a fired cartridge ejected from it, in other words the carrier pin which rotates the repeating roller is arranged with a delayed action on the repeating piston so that it only becomes active after the cartridge has been inserted into the repeating roller.

The repeating piston itself is accommodated in a cylinder housing which is also the housing of the silencer. This silencer is designed in such away that the gases given off during firing are unable toovertake the bullet fired from the barrel, but instead escape largely to the rear which has the advantage that these gases do not reduce the velocity of the fired bullet (high V whilst on the other hand these gases can be used to actuate the repeating piston. The repeating piston is axially displaceable against the pressure of a compression spring,

4 its working surface being adjustable in accordance with the normally occurring pressures of the gases given off during firing, for example by means of openings arranged in its end face whose cross-section can in some cases also be varied by a rotatable cover plate.

However, the repeating piston not only reloads and, thereafter, further rotates the repeating roller, it also cocks the firing pin. To this end, the rotational movements of the repeating roller are coordinated with the cocking movements of the firing pin.

in addition, the invention affords a simple method of safe-guarding the weapon as and when required and of switching it to on-off fire, sporadic fire or continuous fire.

Where the ammunition according to the invention consists of cartridges whose shells are cylindrical with a circular cross-section over the entire length and which are made of a material of limited resilience such as a plastics material, they can be stored and magazined easily without any danger of twisting. In addition, cartridges of this kind can readily be inserted into the repeating roller acting as the cartridge chamber because the cartridges do not have to be set in any particular angular position relative to the repeating roller, which is the case with a non-circular cross-section. Since the cartridge cases consist of a resilient material such as plastics, they are in no danger of jamming or seizing in the cartridge chamber of the repeating roller because the deformations that occur during firing are not permanent, in other words the cartridge case returns almost to its original form after firing which is not the case of example with brass or steel shells. Accordingly, the cartridge cases proposed in accordance with the invention can be ejected just as easily from the repeating roller The cartridges according to the invention are further distinguished by a novel arrangement of the percussion cap and of the anvil in the shell and by a novel mounting of the bullet in a sealing piston. All these components are co-ordinated with one another in such a way that extreme reliability is guaranteed despite minimal production costs.

Finally, the invention also provides a special magazine for the cartridges consisting essentially of a metal box accommodating a plurality of cartridges which are secured to a tape of stable fabric or which are wrapped in a tape of this kind or several parallel tapes. This wrap if arranged for example in such a way that the leading cartridge is pressed against a stop which holds it in front of the loading opening of the repeating roller so that this cartridge can be inserted from the magazine into the repeating roller. The cartridges remaining in the magazine are then pulled forward until the next cartridge comes into contact with the stop which, according to the invention, is achieved by virtue of the fact that the tape holding the cartridges is wound into a roller under spring pressure. The package accommodating the cartridges can also be mounted on a roller which is pivotally mounted in the magazine and contains a spring which tightens as the package is unwound, thus constantly maintaining throughout the tape a degree 05 tension sufficient to prevent the loosely wrapped cartridges from sailing. In addition, the cartridges situated in the outermost layer of the package are safely held therein by virtue of the fact that the tape is guided once again around the outside of the package in the absence of further cartridges so that the tape is doubled on the outside of the package.

The tape by which the cartridges are held in the package can also be provided with numbers or other markings showing how many cartridges are left in the magazine. These markings can be made visible through an opening in the side wall of the magazine.

The magazine according to the invention can accommodate a large number of cartridges, for example 400 cartridges, which can be quickly and conveniently inserted in one go so that the rifle can be loaded very quickly.

As-already mentioned, the sighting mechanism can be switched in such a way that the target'can be sighted either directly or indirectly. A conventional bead and diopter can be used for the direct sighting of a target. This diopter is formed by the notch and an upper covering therefore. For indirect sighting, an optical mirror system is provided in the grip portion of the stock by means of which it is possible to keep the eye substantially level with the lowest point of the hand firearms according to the invention. To this end, the upper deflecting mirror is adjustable so that it can be swung as required into a rest position or into a operative position. In the rest position, the back of the mirror holder can form part of the diopter. In order, however, to be able to look into the lower mirror, the shoulder support has to swung downwards so that it is situated at an angle to the axis of the barrel. In this position, any kickbacks occurring during firing can no longer be absorbed by the shoulder of the marksman so that the hand firearms have to fire with hardly any kick-back, as

already explained above.

For orientation and in the interest of better combat strategy, the optical system can have incorporated in it a compass whose compass card or scale can be read either directly or through the optical deviating system so that, even in the case of indirect sighting, exact orientation by compass is possible. However, the compass needle must be situated in an area in which there are no parts of iron or other magnetizable materials. According to the invention, therefore, the stock and the cartridge chamber are made of a non-magnetizable material such as aluminum or plastics whilst the joints and connecting elements consist of brass for example. This has the further advantage that the hand firearms according to the invention are relatively light in weight.

A telescopic sight in the form of a scissor telescope can also be fitted into the grip portion of the stock instead of the mirror system.

Where the upper deflecting mirror measures 30 X 30 mm, visibility is in the range from 25.20 to 100 meters,

in other words is considerably greater than in the case of a telescopic sight with lower magnification.

In addition, a receiver for electromagnetic waves and, optionally, a transmitter as well can be built into the cock or into the shoulder support so that it is possible for information to be transmitted to a marksman on the wireless principle or even for wireless conversations to be held between a marksman and. his commander. This also considerably simplifies combat leadership.

Where the weapon according to the invention is used, a combat detail, especially one fighting on the defensive, is considerably superior to the enemy because it can fire from a position of complete cover without being visible and without being betrayed by muzzle blast, pressure waves and muzzle flash, even when it is under heavy enemy small arm fire, for example in the event of an attach by the enemy giving the advance details cover by direct machine gun fire.

Other features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description of the drawings and from the claims.

Embodiments of a rifle built in accordance with the invention and of the ammunition suitable for use therein are diagrammatically illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a side elevation of one embodiment of the rifle.

FIG. 2 is a plan view of the silencer fitted on to the barrel.

FIG. 3 is a cross-section on the line IIIIII of FIG. 1.

FIGS. 4a and 4b are a longitudinal section through the rifle shown in FIG. 1 on a larger scale.

FIGS. 5, 6 and 7 are longitudinal sections through a few embodiments of the cartridge of scale larger than its true size.

FIGS. 8, 9 and 10 are cross-sections on the lines VIII- VIII, IXIX and X-X, respectively, through the cartridges shown in FIGS. 5, 6 and 7, respectively.

FIG. 11 shows a modified arrow-like bullet.

FIG. 12 is a plan view of the lower deflecting mirror of the indirect sighting mechanism with the image visible thereon.

FIG. 13 is a detail of FIG. 3 on a larger scale.

FIG. 14 is a partly sectional side elevation of a modified embodiment of the rifle.

FIG. 15 is a cross-section through the barrel and the housing surrounding it on the line XV-XV of FIG. 14 on a larger scale.

FIG. 16 is a longitudinal section through the rear part of the rifle shown in FIG. 14 on the same scale as FIG. 15.

FIG. 17 is a cross-section on the line XVII-XVII of FIG. 16.

FIG. 18 is a plan view of a spring U-bolt fixed to the firing pin as shown in FIG. 16 in what is substantially its natural size.

FIG. 19 is a developed projection of the repeating roller according to the invention shown in FIG. 16 in what is substantially its natural size.

FIG. 20 is an end view of the repeating roller.

FIG. 21 is a cross-section through the magazine of the rifle according to the invention on the line XXI- XXI of FIG. 16.

FIG. 22 is a longitudinal section through another embodiment of a cartridge according to the invention on a scale considerably larger than its natural size.

FIG. 23 is a cross-section on the line XXIII-XXIII through the cartridge shown in FIG. 22.

FIG. 24 is a longitudinal section similar to that of FIG. 22 through another embodiment of the cartridge.

FIG. 25 is a cross-section of the line XXV-XXV of FIG. 24.

FIGS. 26 to 28 are longitudinal sections through another three embodiments of the cartridge.

FIG. 29 is a'vertical section through the ejection end of the rifle.

FIG. 30 is a side elevation of the mechanism shown in FIG. 29.

The rifle shown in its entirety in FIG. 1 comprises a housing-like stock 1 with a housing 2 for accommodating the lock with its repeating mechanism, a front handle 3 which can be pivoted forwards in the direction of an arrow 4 for loading purposes, and a fixed rear handle 3a. Linked to the rear end of the stock 1 there is an angular shoulder support 5 which can be locked in three positions so that, in the two lower positions 5a and it acts as a support for the shoulderof a marksman whilst in its upper position 50, it acts as a carrying handle. In addition, the rifle shown in FIG. 1 has the usual barrel 6 whose front end opens into a housing 7 from the side of which project two tubular, rearwardly extending silencers 8 and 9 which are open at their rear ends 8a and 9a, respectively. At the front end of the housing 7, in an extension of the barrel 6, there is an ejection nozzle 10 with grooves 11 machined crosswise in it so that it is impossible for any particles of dirt to settle in this ejection nozzle. ln addition, a bead 12 is arranged in a sight tube 13 on the housing 7, whilst an associated notch 14 is situated at the rear end of the stock 1.

The stock and the components associated with it is made of aluminum and partly of plastics as well so that the weapon according to the invention is relatively light, weighing only 2 to 3 kg for example.

Following the pivot 15 of the shoulder support 5 situated at the lower and rear end of the stock 1, there is arranged in the stock 1 a fixed optical deflecting mirror 16 to which corresponds an adjustable mirror 17 arranged at the upper rear end of the stock 1. When the two mirrors l6 and 17 are in the position shown in FIG. 1, the marksman is able to takeaim through this optical system using the notch and bead when his eye is substantially level with the mirror 16, i.e. considerably lower than the barrel 6, so that the marksman is able to shoot with the rifle without having to lift his head above the barrel 6, in other words his head can be completely covered in cases where it is desired to shoot accurately with the rifle according to the invention over a cover. If, by contrast, it is desired to take aim directly using the notch 14 and the bead 12, the adjustable mirror 17 is displaced into the vertical position shown in chain lines in front of and below the notch. In this position, an iron bolt arranged in front of and above the mirror 17 rests on the notch 14 so that the notch then acts as a diopter.

As shown particularly clearly in FIG. 3, the housing 2 projects laterally beyond the barrel and can accommodate a cartridge box 18 acting as magazine in which a cartridge belt described in detail further below is situated. One of the side walls 19 of the housing 2 is designed to be opened about a hinge 20 in order to change the cartridge box 18, an intermediate plate 21 on to which the cartridge box 18 is placed being provided in the housing 2. Beneath this intermediate plate 21, there is a recess 21a in the housing 2 which can be used for example to accommodate cleaning materials.

The housing 2 is not only used to accommodate the ammunition, but also has the advantage that the marksman, when taking aim directly with the notch and bead, only over sees the front end of the barrel or rifle with one eye, in other words the other eye does not have to be used for correct aiming, something which many people find difficult. When taking aim indirectly through the deflecting mirrors 16 and 17, the marksman can in any case only look into this optical deflectiing system with one eye so that in case too there is no need for the other eye to be used.

In addition, a compass 190 is fitted on to the rear end of the stock 1. Its upper end 200 which carried the scale or compass card is situated immediately beneath the inclined upper deflecting mirror 17 so that, in the case of indirect aiming through the deflecting mirrors l6 and 17, the compass position can be directly read off. However, even in the case of direct aiming or even 8 in cases where no aim at all is taken, the compass card or scale can be read off by directly looking downwards on to it. The compass needle itself is situated at the lower end 210 of this compass 190 in a small housing provided there which is remote from any magnetizable parts of the rifle according to the invention.

If desired, a minature wireless receiver and/or miniature wirelss transmittor can be accommodated in the pivotal shoulder support 5, so that it is possible for instructions or orders to be transmitted to the marksman, even over considerable distances, in such a way that he will hear them even in cases where battle noise makes it impossible for commands to be given orally over relatively long distances or in cases where, for other reasons, it is desirable for orders to be given in the absence of noise and movement out in the open.

Provision of the compass in conjunction with a wireless order transmission facility allows completely new tactics to be adopted because neither the giver nor the receiver of the commands has to leave their cover for the effective direction of combat. For example, the marksman can receive a radio message from his group commander that an enemy has been seen and is to be fought in the direction of, for example 212 at a distance of approximately 150 meters.

In order that the marksman does not betray his position especially when aiming and shooting from a position of complete cover, through a movement of surrounding grass or similar camouflage produced by a pressure wave eminating from the barrel 6, by muzzle flash and by noise, the barrel 6 terminates in the housing 7 which is adjoined laterally by the tubular silencers 8 and 9 which extend rearwards adjacent the barrel 6 and which are open at their rear ends and 9a but which, just before these ends. contain a wool-like or other packing 22 which guarantees the required degree of silencing in conjunction with the relatively long pressure-equalising chambers of the silencers 8 and 9. Since the gases issuing from the end of the barrel 6 can directly expand on both sides into the silencers 8 and 9, no muzzle flash, pressure waves or even muzzle noise emerges from the housing 7. The packings situated at the rear end of the tubular silencers 8 and 9 can consist of glass wool, wool, asbestos fibres or a similar material whose structure prevents the pressure waves generated during firing from directly issuing outwards undamped.

The cartridges 23 accommodated in the cartridge box 18 are secured at a certain distance from one another to a belt 24 consisting ofa woven fabric for example, the arrangement being such that one cartridge 18 can accommodate for example one belt with 400 cartridges as the packaging and supply container. It is preferably in the form of a one-way box which is only opened by the marksman just before use and is thrown away after the cartridge belt accommodated in it has been fired.

The cartridges 23 pass from the cartridge box 18 in to a cartridge roller 25 which can be advanced in steps and which is rotatably mounted in a fork 26 adjoining the barrel 6. Arranged on the inside of the hinged side wall 19 of the housing 2 there is a leaf spring 27 or the like which bears from one side against the cartridge roller 25 and, in doing so, forces the following cartridges one by one into the uppermost empty groove 28 of the cartridge roller. These grooves 28 have a cross-section identical with that of the cartridges 23.

The cartridge roller 25 brings the individual cartridges 23 from the cartridge box 18 into a position 9 from which they are situated in front of the rear end of the barrel 6, and holds them in the firing position, i.e. for firing purposes the cartridges do not have to be inserted into the barrel 6 or into an extension thereof, thus increasing the rapidity of firing and simplifying the lock mechansim.

On that side of the housing 2 opposite the side wall 19 to be opened, the cartridge roller is adjoined for example by an ejection duct 29 for fired cartridges.

The rifle according to the invention can be loaded by pivoting the handle 3 in the direction of the arrow 4, although it is preferably loaded with the assistance of the gases given off when a shot is fired. To this end, the barrel 6 is provided near its front end with a radial bore 30 which opens into a cylinder 31 arranged below the barrel 6. This cylinder 31 contains a piston 32 axially displaceable against spring pressure with two guide rings surfaces 33 and 34. The piston rod 35 is guided rearwards out of the cylinder 31 and is used to re-cock the lock of the weapon after a shot has been fired and to rotate the cartridge roller 25 one step further so that a new cartridge arrives in front of the barrel 6.

The piston rod 35 is partly hollow and provided with an elongated hole 36. A control rod 37 which, at its rear end, carries a slide displaceable in guide grooves 39 in the lock 38, projects into the piston rod 35. This slide 40 has an upper carrier pin 41 which is designed to entrain rearwards with clearance a piston 42 carrying at its front end the firing pin 43 which can break through a wall 44 situated at the rear end of the cartridge roller 25 or through a hole provided therein. The piston 42 of the firing pin is designed to be places under tension through two compression springs 46 and 47 arranged above and below it and permanently connected to it through a pin 45, so that when the piston 42 is released the firing pin 43 rushes forward with great energy without tilting and fires a fresh cartridge.

A latch 48 is so mounted in the piston 42 as to be pivotal against the action of a leaf spring 49. In the lowermost position of the piston 42 this latch 48 engages over the blade-like upper edge of a locking plate 50 which is situated at the rear end of the lock and which can be displaced upwards or downwards by a distance of 1 mm through an extension 51 acting as an adjusting cam. The hook 52 of the latch 48 has a height of more than 1 mm for reasons that will be explained further below.

Mounted behind the locking plate 50 in the lock 38 there is a plunger 54 which is vertically displaceable by the trigger 53 and which, at its upper end, carries a pin 55 which can be swung out rearwards against spring pressure and which is normally able to lift the latch 48 above the locking plate 50 when the trigger 53 is actuated for an individual shot. However, by pushing the trigger 53 away completely, continuous fire is obtained in which case the plunger 54 stays in its elevated position and engages beneath the hook 52 of the latch 48 and keeps it at such a level that, when the locking plate 50 is pulled downwards by the cam-like extension 51 of the slide 40, it can be moved away over the upper edge of the locking plate 50, in other words the slide 42 carrying the firing pin 43 is released in this position. Since, with each shot, the piston 32 is displaced rearwards by the gases given off in the barrel 6 taking the slide 40 with it the locking plate 50 is moved downwards with a certain time lag after each shot so that the next shot is automatically released after the lock 38 has been cocked. If, by contrast, the trigger 53 is only pulled so far as to release a single shot, the plunger 54 returns to its lowered starting position after each pull of the trigger with the result that, when it is vertically displaced again the pin 55 arranged on it has to lift the latch 48 beyond the locking plate 50. In this case, continuous fire is impossible because the plunger 54 itself is not pushed high enough automatically to release another shot.

After it has been released, the trigger 53 is swung back into its neutral starting position by spring-loaded push rods 64.

In addition, there is arranged on the slide 40 a downwardly projecting nose 56 which projects with axial clearance into a groove 57 in a sliding wedge 58 which is situated below the cartridge roller 25 in the fork 26 and which urges the cartridge roller 25 upwards into the requisite position in front of the barrel 6 before and during firing of a cartridge. In addition, the sliding wedge 58 is provided with a fitting key 59 which can engage in corresponding grooves 60 in the cartridge roller 25 so that the sliding wedge 58 not only urges the cartridge roller 25 upwards, but also prevents it from rotating during and before firing of a cartridge. The sliding wedge 58 rests on a wedge surface 61 which is situated in the fork 26 and which, to reduce friction, can carry a flat needle bearing 62 arranged between and the sliding wedge 58.

After a shot has been fired, the rod 37 is displaced rearwards by way of the piston rod 35 and a pin 63 engaging in the elongated hole 36, the piston rod 35 initially travelling a distance of approximately 20 mm before it picks up the rod 37 which travels a total distance of approximately 14 mm. After the rod 37 has travelled a distance of about 3 mm, the nose 41 of the slide 40 comes into contact with the piston 42 of the firing pin 43 and takes the firing pin 43 over a distance of l 1 mm into its cocked position. In addition, the tongue 56 displaces the sliding wedge 58 rearwards by a distance of approximately 6 mm after initially overcoming the axial clearance. When the sliding wedge 58 is in its rearmost position, the cartridge roller 25 can be rotated in a manner described further below.

Following return of the slide 40 under the effect of a compression spring arranged on the rod 37 after the gas pressure in the cylinder 31 has collapsed, the sliding wedge 58 is again pushed forwards so that the fitting key 59 engages in the next groove 60, moving the cartridge roller 25 into a position in which the next cartridge can be fired. The locking plate 50 is then displaced downwards by a distance of 1 mm so that, if the trigger 53 has been pulled through to the continuous fire position, the next shot is automatically released. Otherwise, the pin 55 of the plunger 54 would have to lift the latch 48 beyond the upper edge of the locking plate 50 in order to release the next individual shot through the trigger 53.

The cartridge roller 25 is moved another step forward through a ratchet coupling when the piston rod 35 is moved rearwards under gas pressure as a result of a shot being fired. However, the same movement is initiated when the handle 3 is pivoted upwards to the front in the direction of arrow 4 and back again, as a result of which the lock 38 is simultaneously cocked.

Arranged on the piston rod 35 in front of the roller 25 there is a sleeve 65 provided at its end with teeth 66 which correspond to teeth provided on the spindle 67 of the cartridge roller 25 provided with a central fulllength bore. The teeth 66 are in the form of ratchet 1 1 teeth. By virtue of the elongated hole 36 and the pin 63, the sleeve 65 can be displaced axially relative to the piston rod 35, but has to follow any rotational movements of the piston rod.

The piston 32 is guided by means of a pin 68 and an elongated slot 69 provided in the cylinder 31 in such a way that, during its return movement, it makes a partial revolution which it repeats in the opposite direction during its forward movement. The slot 69 is designed in such a way that the partial revolution only begins after the piston 32 has already completed some of its return movement or forward movement. As a result of the partial revolutions, the sleeve 65 is also rotated, jumping forward by a distance corresponding to one tooth relative to the spindle 67 of the cartridge roller 25. When the cartridge roller 25 is released on completion of the return movement of the piston 32 with the sliding wedge 58 pushed back, the sleeve 65 can rotate the cartridge roller 25 by a distance corresponding exactly to one tooth before the re-advancing piston 32 returns the sliding wedge 58 into its locking position. The sliding wedge 58 is only returned after the pin 68 has reached the last, straight part of the elongated slot 69.

The sliding wedge 58 has to have a certain wedge angle in order to be able to exert the required locking effect, and on the other hand, in order to be readily displaceable in the manner required. In the embodiment illustrated, this wedge angle is 4.5".

Return of the piston 32 and of the piston rod 35 takes place under the effect of the gas pressure prevailing in the cylinder 31 or by pivoting the handle 3 about a pin 70. In this case, a compression spring 71 arranged on the piston rod 35 is placed under tension, being released on completion of the return movement with the result that the piston rod 35 together with the piston 32 hurries back frontwards, thus initiating the corresponding return movements in the lock and further rotation of the cartridge roller 25.

For placing the compression spring 71 under tension, the handle 3 comprises a carrier fork 72 which, during pivoting of the handle about a pin 70, is connected to the compression spring 71 or to a slide arranged in front of it.

The lock 38 is made very short in order not to interfere with the sighting mechanism, especially the mirror section in the stock 1, and in order to be able to keep the hand firearms as short as possible. The distance travelled by the firing pin 43 is also intended to be as short as possible and it is for this reason that compression springs 46 and 47 which provide for the requisite impact energy over an extremely short distance are arranged on both sides of the firing pin.

The cartridge 23 shown in FIGS. and 8 intended for use in the abovedescribed embodiment of the rifle according to the invention is adapted in its cross-section to the shape ofthe grooves 28 in the cartridge roller 25. This cartridge 23 comprises an elongated shell 80 of glass-fibre-reinforced polyamide in whose rear end is fitted a detonator 81 containing a detonator composition 82 and an anvil 83 in the usual way. The anvil if prevented from being displaced axially frontwards by means of a bead 84 surrounding it.

The space 85 in front of the detonator is filled with powder. An insert 86 made of brass, steel or the like acting as holder for a bullet 87 is situated in the shell 80 near the front end thereof. This tubular insert 86 widens frontwards and has a frustoconical end face 88 which, when the cartridge is fired, is applied valve-seat- 12 fashion to the inlet end of the barrel 6 so that the gases given off during firing are unable to escape laterally between the cartridge and the inlet end of the barrel.

The bullet 87 consists of a core 89 of tungsten and of a copper tip 90 fused on to it in such a way that it also projects laterally beyond the front end of the tungsten core. This part of the copper tip 90 acts as a kind of guide ring in the barrel, in other words the rotationproducing grooves of the barrel merely dig into the relatively soft copper but not into the hard tungsten.

In order to prevent the disposition of copper in the barrel 6, the bullet 87 consisting of a combination of tungsten and copper can be provided with a nickel covering applied by electroplating.

The bullets 87 consisting of a combination of tungsten and fused-on copper are relatively easy to produce because pure tungsten can be machined in the requisite manner. Although the material costs are high, the bullets are so small by virtue of their low calibre that the material costs are justified because the production costs, compared with those of conventional steel-jacketed bullets, are very much lower so that, overall, the individual bullets are even cheaper than conventional steel-jacketed bullets of any calibre. In addition,the tungsten cores 89 can be reused by collecting them in the target area. thus further reducing the total material costs.

In the embodiment shown, the cartridge 23 is inserted into s steel rail 91 which forms the upper wall of the cartridge shell when the cartridge is inserted into a groove 28 of the cartridge shell 25. However, this steel rail 91 is not absolutely necessary. Instead, the cartridges 23 can also be directly attached to the belt 24. On one side, the steel rail 91 is provided with a shearing edge 92 whose effect is that, under the effect of the forces generated during firing the bolt 24 is separated between this shearing edge 92 and the inner wall of the fork 26 so that the fired cartridges can be individually objected.

The cartridge shell 80 preferably has the cross-sectional form shown in FIG. 8, in other words it is circular at its lower end, whilst its outer surface corresponds to the curvature of the cartridge roller 25 which is circular in cross-section. In the firing position, the cartridge roller 25 forms the firing chamber in conjunction with the fork 26, the arrangement being such that the cartridge 23 is held in such a way that the pressure generated by detonation of the powder can only ever escape frontwards so that the bullet 87 is propelled through the barrel 6 in the required manner.

However, the cartridges 23 can also have other crosssectional forms as shown in FIGS. 9 and 10, but they must adhere to the contour of the outside of the cartridge roller 25. If, by contrast, two co-rotating cartridge rollers are used with each cartridge held between them during firing, the cartridges can have a completely circular cross-section (FIG. 10), in which case the cartridges can be secured between two belts 24.

The cartridge shown in FIGS. 6 and 9 differs from the cartridge shown in FIGS. 5 and 8 in the shape of the cartridge shell 93. This cartridge shell is circular in cross-section and has an attachment 94 which enables it to be adapted in the manner required to the contour of the cartridge roller 25.

The detonator 81 with the plug 82 and the anvil 83 is separated from the powder-filled inner space by an intermediate wall 95 with a full-length bore 96 through it, The insert 86 for the bullet 87 bears against a bead 13 97 formed in the periphery of the cartridge shell 93.

rel, and that the required sealing effect which prevents thhe gases given off during firing from escaping before the barrel is obtained.

The cartridge shown in FIGS. 7 and 10 comprises a shell 98 circular in cross-section which is fired between two cartridge rollers each containing semi-circular cartridge grooves. This cartridge shell again has a bead 97 which acts as a holder for the insert 86 and which provides for the elongation required during firing. Another bead 99 is provided for axially retaining the detonator 81 and the anvil accommodated in it.

The bullet 100 shown in FIG. 11 is an arrow-like bullet with stabilising surfaces 101 which can also show some twist. This bullet is considerably longer than the bullets 87 shown in FIGS. 5 to 7 so that it does not have to be made of heavy metal such as tungsten, instead it can even be made of steel optionally provided with a nickel coating. This arrow-like bullet can also be fired from cartridges of the kind shown in FIGS. 5 to 10.

The belt 24 can be provided with a marking extending from the beginning to the end thereof, for example in the form of a coloured marking which is short at the beginning and which, at the end of the belt, extends for example over the entire width thereof so that it is possible with one look to see the extend to which the belt has already been fired. This is important because several hundred cartridges can be accommodated in the cartridge box so that the marksman is hardly able to notice when his supply of cartridges will be exhausted.

However, a quick look into the cartridge box or into the housing 2 or at the cartridge shells which have been ejected is sufficient to determine when the rifle will probably have to be reloaded.

By virtue of the extremely low calibre and the reduction in weight and space associated therewith, the marksman is able to carry much more ammunition than before, in addition to which the cartridges are much easier to feed into the gun.

The weapon according to the invention can also be simply designed in such a way that it can be used not only for single shots and for continuous fire, but also for sporadic bursts in which case only a certain small number of shots can be fired at once before the trigger mechanism has to be recocked. To this end, the cartridge roller can be provided with a locking mechanism intended for sporadic fire which holds the cartridge roller after it has completed one revolution, i.e. after 5 shots have been fired in the embodiment shown. The locking mechanism is only released again after the trigger has been re-actuated. Accurately regulatable and repeatable sporadic fire such as this is not readily possible in the case of conventional firearms.

FIG. 12 shows the image which the marksman sees on looking at the lower mirror 16 in the case of indirect aiming. 1n the upper mirror 17, he sees the notch 14 and the bead 12 including the tube protecting the notch referred to here as the sighting tube 13, and the terrain situated behind it. ln addition, part of the compass card or scale is visible below the notch 14 and can be correctly read off because the marksman looks at it from beneath through the mirror 16. The firing direction of the weapon can be immediately read off because the angle which has just been adjusted appears immediately below the notch 14.

P10. 13 shows a detail of FIG. 3 on a larger scale. FIG. 13 shows the shearing edge 92a arranged on the inside of the fork 26 which separates the cartridge situated in the uppermost groove of the cartridge roller 25 in front of the barrel 6 from the belt during firing because the belt is sheared along the edge 92a under the effect of the pressure which is developed in the cartridge during firing and which also acts outwards.

The rifle shown in FlGS. 14 to 21 consists essentially of a tube 301 which is offset by some 6 to 7 mm in its rear part 302 which makes up about one third of the overall length of the tube. This tube is fixed to a handle 303 which corresponds to the stock and butt of conventional rifles.

A repeating roller 304 and firing pin 305 are accommodated in the rear, offset part 302 of the tube 301. A firing lever 306 acting as trigger is so mounted on the firing pin that it can be pivoted against the pressure of a spring 307. The firing pin 305 can be cocked against the pressure of a compression spring 308 which is accommodated in a recess 309 in the firing pin 305.

The front part of the tube 301 consists of a cylindrical housing 310 which can be screwed on and which carries the bead 311 accommodated in a sighting tube 312. It addition, the front end 313 of the tubular housing 310 tapers conically and has an ejection opening 314 set back to the inside.

The cylindrical housing 310 surrounds the front part of the barrel 315 and forms the outer skin of a silencer which inside contains a rearwardly open silencer pot 316 with a support 317 cruciform in cross-section attached to it. This cruciform support consists of a sleeve 318 accommodating the barrel 315 which is supported through radially extending vanes 319 and widened feet 319a by the inside of the tubular housing 310 in such a way that heat bridges are present outside so that the barrel can be cooled through the dissipation of heat. The barrel 315 is further cooled by air drawn into the housing 310 after a shot has been fired, as will be explained in detail further below.

The vent opening 320 of the silencer pot 316 which is set back inwards is at a distance corresponding substantially to the length of a bullet from the muzzle 321 of the barrel 315, which prevents the gases issuing from the barrel from overtaking the bullet inside the silencer pot 316 and the housing 310 and hence from reducing the muzzle velocity of the bullet because substantially all the gases have to escape rearwards from the silencer pot 316 as long as the bullet has not yet left the silencer pot.

In addition, the housing 310 accommodates a repeating piston 322 which surrounds the centrally arranged barrel 315 and which can be displaced rearwards against the pressure ofa spring 323 either under the effect of the gases given off during firing or even by means of a hand lever. A rod 324 intended to be used as a plunger for loading is attached to the repeating piston 322. Its function will be explained in detail further below. In addition, a manually operated repeating lever 325 is pivotally mounted below the tubular housing 310 with which the repeating piston 322 can be displaced rearwards in cases where it is intended to load or even unload the weapon in the absence of previous firing.

The rear end of the tube 301 or of its rear offset part 302 is closed by means of an end plate 326 which can be fixed on bayonet-fashion and on which the rear part of the sighting mechanism, namely a diopter or the notch and a pivotal mirror 327, is arranged.

A magazine 328 for the ammunition is accommodated in an opening in the handle or stock 303. This magazine can be removed from the handle or stock 303 for replacement or refilling.

A telescopically extendable trigger guard 329 which can be swung out downwards about a pivot 330 is arranged on the underneath of the handle or stock 303. This trigger guard also carries the lower part of the sighting mechanism, namely a mirror 331 and a rod 333 which engages in a duct 332 in the handle 303 and which is pivotally arranged on the trigger guard 329, carrying a spring 334. This rod 333 cooperates with a spring-loaded push rod 335 which, when the rod 333 is displaced downwards, moves downwards and in doing so swings the mirror 327 upwards in to the position shown in chain lines. If, therefore, the trigger guard 329 is extended and at the same time swung downwards so that it can be used as a shoulder support by the marksman, the marksman is able to take aim through the mirrors 331 and 327 and hence indirectly to sight a target and also to shoot indirectly.

In addition, the repeating piston 322 has arranged on it a repeating rod 336 which is guided axially rearwards and which projects displaceably through the rear end plate 337 of the repeating piston 322, having a bushing 338 attached to it. In this way, it is possible for the repeating rod 336 to be entrained with a certain time lag by the repeating piston 322 during its forward and return movements. A foot 339 is arranged at the rear end of the repeating rod 336, situated above the rear part 302 of the tube 301. This foot 339 contains a downwardly projecting stud 340 which can be pressed by means of a spring 341 into grooves 342 formed on the outer periphery of the repeating roller 304. Beneath the foot 339 there is a forked, flat spring 343 which is fixedly connected to the firing pin 305 and whose shape can be seen from the plan view in FIG. 18.

For firing, a full magazine 328 is initially inserted into the opening in the handle 303 of the rifle. The repeating piston 322 is moved backwards with the repeating lever 325 so that the loading rod 324 fixed to the repeating piston pushes a cartridge from the magazine 328 backwards into the repeating roller 304. When the repeating lever 325 is released, the repeating piston 322 is again pushed back forwards by the compression spring 323. As a result of the movements of the repeating piston 322, the repeating rod 336 was also pushed backwards with some delay, so that the pin 340 is forced out of the straight groove 342a, for example, and, sliding backwards over the smooth outside of the repeating roller 304, is pushed into another groove 342 which comprises the straight end portion of such groove and which lies in the same path as the straight groove which forms the beginning of groove 342. During the forward return movement of the repeating piston 322, the repeating rod 336 is again entrained with some delay, except that on this occasion the pin 340 remains in the groove 342 and is guided helically over part of the outer periphery of the repeating roller 304 so that the repeating roller is rotated one step further during this movement. Since the repeating roller has three axial bores 344 for accommodating cartridges and hence three grooves 342, 342a and 342b as well distributed helically over its outer periphery, the repeating roller 304 is rotated through 120 during the return movement of the repeating rod 336.

The cartridge which is pushed into the repeating roller during this movement is now situated in the firing 16 behind the barrel 315. Since, in addition, the firing pin 305 is cocked by way of the repeating rod 336 during the return movement of the repeating piston 322, the cartridge which has been pushed in can now be fired.

If the trigger 345 situated below the firing pin is then pulled backwards, a spring pin 346 mounted in it which, in some cases, can also be laterally deflected, presses against the rear end of the firing lever 306 and pivots this end upwards so that the front end of the firing lever 306 is moved downwards and can be pushed into a groove 347 in the repeating roller 304. The repeating roller 304 is accurately aligned in this way so that the cartridge lying behind the barrel 315 ready to be fired in situated exactly in front of the bore of the barrel. The firing pin 305 which has now been released by the firing lever 306 is urged forwards by the spring 308 and with its tip 348 breaks through a plate 349 and strikes the percussion cap of a cartridge, releasing the shot.

After the bullet has left the barrel 315, the powder gases flow into the silencer pot 316 and, for the most part, are deflected rearwards. At the same time, they are relieved of some of their pressure, although the pressure of the powder gases is sufficient to move the repeating piston 322 rearwards against the pressure of the spring 323 so that the weapon is automatically reloaded in the manner described. If a total of three cartridges had been fired in succession, the fired cartridge shell lying in the corresponding bore 344 is ejected rearwards by the new cartridge, i.e. during insertion of the fourth cartridge into the repeating roller 304.

The function of the flat, forked spring 343 is to hold the firing pin 305 in its cocked position until the repeating roller 304 has been rotated the required step forward after loading. This is particularly important in the case of sporadic and continuous fire so that the firing pin 305 is only released when a new cartridge is situated exactly behind the barrel 315.

As already mentioned above, this rifle can be used selectively for individual fire, sporadic fire and continuous fire. Finally, the weapon can also be safeguarded in the usual way. To this end, a stop disc 350 is rotatably mounted in the handle 303 behind the trigger 345, being rotated through a lever 351 arranged on the outside of the handle 303. In the neutral position of the lever 351, the trigger 345 cannot be pulled back at all on account of a pin 345a arranged on it so that the gun cannot be fired. In the position intended for single-shot fire, the trigger 345 can be pulled back about 2 mm, in the sporadic-fire position, about 4 mm and in the continuous fire position about 6 mm.

In the single-shot position, the firing lever 306 is simply forced upwards and hence pivoted by the pin 346 of the trigger 345 so that the front end of the firing lever 306 snaps into the preceding groove 347 in the repeating roller 304. During the return movement made by the firing pin 305 after the shot has been fired, the pin 346 is forced to the side by the similarly returning firing lever 306 so that, to release the next shot, the trigger 345 has to be released beforehand with the result that the pin 346 again moves into a position below the firing lever 306.

In the sporadic-fire position, the trigger 345 is pulled further backwards so that the firing lever 306 is no longer forced upwards by the laterally deflectable pin 346, but by the upper side of the trigger 345 instead which keeps the firing lever 306 in its elevated position following the lateral deflection of the spring 346. Three

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1174282 *Jun 23, 1915Mar 7, 1916Leroy L RichardAltiscope-firearm.
US1399119 *Sep 25, 1919Dec 6, 1921Earl Hodges LloydMachine-gun
US1484163 *Apr 23, 1923Feb 19, 1924Gustavo VinconAutomatic firearm
US2865126 *Sep 3, 1954Dec 23, 1958Dardick CorpOpen chamber gun
US2986073 *Feb 24, 1959May 30, 1961Etude Et Realisation D Outil DAutomatic stop motion for automatic weapons
US3437039 *Mar 7, 1962Apr 8, 1969Us ArmyMulticharge cartridge for multibarrel automatic guns
US3667147 *Jan 22, 1970Jun 6, 1972Us ArmyRising block rifle and feed mechanism therefor
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5731537 *May 9, 1996Mar 24, 1998Sassaman; Glenn EldridgeSystem and method for reforming shotshells
U.S. Classification89/132
International ClassificationF41G1/30, F42B5/045, F42B5/00, F41G1/00, F41C7/00, F41A9/00, F42B12/06, F41A9/64, F41C23/00, F42B12/02, F41C23/04, F42B5/02, F42B5/36
Cooperative ClassificationF41C23/00, F41C23/04, F42B5/025, F41C7/00, F41G1/30, F42B5/36, F42B12/06, F41A9/64, F42B5/045
European ClassificationF42B5/045, F41C23/04, F42B5/36, F41C7/00, F42B12/06, F41C23/00, F42B5/02B, F41A9/64, F41G1/30