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Publication numberUS3921035 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 18, 1975
Filing dateJul 18, 1974
Priority dateJan 15, 1974
Publication numberUS 3921035 A, US 3921035A, US-A-3921035, US3921035 A, US3921035A
InventorsKenneth P Holmes
Original AssigneeEsquire Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Solid state switching circuit
US 3921035 A
Abstract
A switching circuit employed in one aspect of the invention a high intensity discharge lamp ballast, the switching circuit having high efficiency switching characteristics over a wide range of applied current conditions, temperatures and voltage variations and providing good regulation to the lamp. A Darlington pair operating in conjunction with a current source is used in a preferred embodiment for the switching device, the current supplied by such current source being dependent on the ratio of load resistors rather than on the product of the betas of the transistors. The switching device may also be employed in circuits other than lamp ballasts, such as in circuit breaker applications and in operating light emitting diodes. Furthermore, the heart of the switching device may be packaged in a convenient capsule for diverse applications as selected by the device user.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Holmes Nov. 18, 1975 SOLID STATE SWITCHING CIRCUIT Primary Examiner-James W. Lawrence 75 I t Kc th P. H l H t Assistant Examiner-E. R. LaRoche nven or nne o mes Ous on Tex Attorney, Age/1!, r Firm-Arnold, White 8/. Durkee [73] Assignee: Esquire, Inc., New York, NY. [22] Filed: July 18, 1974 1 1 ABSTRACT A switchin circuit em ed in one as ect of the in- 21 1. N .1 4 g P Y P 1 App 0 89 527 vent1on a high intensity discharge lamp ballast, the Related U.S. Application Data switching circuit having high efficiency switching [63] Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 433,834. Jan. 15, Characteristics Over a Wide range of pp Current 1974, abandoned. conditions, temperatures and voltage variations and providing good regulation to the lamp. A Darlington [52] U.S. Cl. 315/307; 315/205; 315/208; pair operating in conjunction with a current source is 315/287; 315/291; 3l5/D1G. 7; 323/4; used in a preferred embodiment for the switching de- 323/ 18 vice, the current supplied by such current source 51 lm. c1. HOSB 41/231; oosr l/O8 ng dependent on the ratio of load resistors rather [58] Field of Search 307/297, 315; 315/200 R, than on the product of the betas of the transistors. The 315/205, 208, 291, 307, 311, DIG. 5, Switching device may also be employed in circuits 315/DIG, 7, 194, 287; 323/1 4, other than lamp ballasts, such as in circuit breaker ap- 323/17, 18, DIG, 1 plications and in operating light emitting diodes. Furthermore, the heart of the switching device may be [56] References Ci d packaged in a convenient capsule for diverse applica- UNITED STATES PATENTS tions as selected by the device user.

3,626,277 12/1971 Munson 315/194 x 109 Claims, 51 Drawing Figures \M)w- 0 1 V0 7 2 Q 1 D l W l V 1 v'v y'v'v W 42 1 34 28 if 64 66 -l 1- I I; 11 l cl *-1MM/--wvw4 3Q .44 5 i l 671 1 AC 1 1 26 l 1 80 r 52 L 68 1 --1 46 1 1 195; 1 i' E 1 i as i 56 i74 T 76 578 l I 1 M11 s I -l 50 1 1 1 ;K} 1 1 U.S.- Patent Nov. 18, 1975 Sheet 1 of 10 w 1 3 K 9 mm A G9 8 D 6 3 8 mm 1 uq Q m MN 3. 3 i w" Q a 1 ii a Q mm N w J i ll m DI m QM Eq mo? :3 Q95 m wt w 6E N wI 2: x 2 1 1\ Q \m L 9% US; Patent Nov. 18, 1975 Sheet30f 10 3,921,035

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U.S. Patent Nov. 18, 1975 Sheet4of 10 3,921,035

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.96 FIG. 30 32 36 (R7) I? I9. 22 100 -Q Sheet 5 of 10 3,921,035

US. Patent Nov. 18,1975

N 8 B R a 3 Sheet 9 of 10 3,921,035

US. Patent. Nov. 18, 1975 TURN ON 7 (RESET) 0 U.S. Patent Nov. 18, 1975 Sheet 10 of 10 3,921,035

3 FIG. 47 272 T /275 M l i W W I I 274 202 230 350 7 svoc 274 I 200 1 278 225 \352 35% T f 276 j i W m 1 l i 1 276 t 1 230 $354 I 202 l l 22a 364 6VDC 274 E5665? 356 I 276 7 I 1 M 200 226 I I 350 ISOLA/ ING I MEANS 505 i I I 1-76.48

l SENSING INPUT SENSOR I I J FIG 49 FIG 50 X L.E.D. 200

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OFF INPUT INPU' 203 LEDS This application is a continuation-in-part of copending application Ser. No. 433,834, filed Jan. 15, 1974, now abandoned, of the same inventor.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to switching circuits, such as switching circuits used in ballast circuits for high intensity gaseous discharge lamps utilizing mostly solid state devices.

2. Description of the Prior Art Conventional ballasting of high intensity discharge lamps, such as metal-additive arc lamps, employ transformers, capacitors, or inductor coils in various combinations to provide proper voltage for starting and for limiting the current during operation. Such ballasts are large, relatively expensive, and not efficient at low cost. Furthermore, the simple inductor ballast provides poor regulation for line voltage variations.

Regulated solid state ballasts have been developed, but heretofore no commercial ballast has been developed which is suitable for coping with the starting and operating conditions of high pressure mercury, sodium and metal halide lamps to give proper control of lamp wattage for wide ranges of lamp voltages, line voltage fluctuations and temperatures.

High frequency switching regulators in combination with an inductor have been employed under ideal conditions, but without success on a commercial scale. Such prior art attempts have included a low rectification efficiency bridge and capacitor circuit for converting applied ac to nearly pure do for operation. In addition, such attempts have included complex sensing networks for sensing current and voltage at the load and providing feedback to control the duty cycle of the switching circuit. Moreover, such circuits have been three-terminal devices, rather than the preferred twoterminal devices. In addition to the expensive complexities and use of high precision components, high losses in the drive circuit has also resulted in low overall circuit efficiency.

Therefore, it is a feature of this invention to provide an improved ballasting circuit for a high intensity discharge lamp that includes a switching circuit which operates at high energy levels with low energy losses, and which provides satisfactory switching over a wide range of voltage fluctuations and temperature conditions, such operation achieving relatively low energy consumption.

It is another feature of this invention to provide an improved ballasting circuit for high intensity discharge lamps that is self-regulatin g to provide uniform average current to the lamp with fluctuations in applied line voltage.

It is yet another feature of the present invention to provide improved positive, high speed, on-off switching of a silicon controlled switching circuit.

It is still another feature of this invention to provide an improved positive, high-speed, on-off switching device for application in either an ac or a dc circuit breaker application.

It is yet another feature of this invention to provide a means for encapsulating the basic components of an improved positive, high-speed, on-off switching device.

It is still another feature of this invention to provide an improved bi-stable light emitting diode circuit employing a positive, high-speed circuit.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A preferred embodiment of the present invention includes a regulating ballast circuit for a high intensity discharge lamp, comprising a solid-state switching circuit, turn-on means, turn-off means, and a small inductor element in series with the lamp. The switching circuit utilize high-gain, high-beta means in the form of a Darlington pair. Also employed is a transistor connected as a current source for the Darlington pair. Hence, the turn-off gain of the switching circuit is not dependent on the product of the betas of the transistors, but is related to the resistance values in the load circuits for the current source transistor and the Darlington pair.

The time required to turn on the switch is determined by the line voltage charging an RC network and a diac. The time required to turn off the circuit is determined by a current sensing programmable unijunction circuit.

Switching rate of the switching circuit is determined by the level of the applied line voltage and of the lamp voltage. Variations effect the frequency of the switching and hence the current through the lamp is not maintained constant, but the cyclical switching does provide uniform average current values, thereby achieving regulation. Also, the rectification circuit to convert the applied ac to dc may be simple. There is no need for a large filter capacitor even though the applied line voltage may be high in ripple content. Such ripple does not degrade operation of the circuit.

Several alternate circuit variations for the switching circuit, the turn-on means and the turn-off means are also disclosed for achieving comparable switching performance.

In addition, the switching circuit is disclosed in applications other than in a regulating ballast circuit for a high intensity discharge lamp. for example, it is shown as a high speed fuse, as a driving circuit for light emitting diodes and in encapsulated form for general application.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS So that the manner in which the above-recited features, advantages and objects of the invention, as well as others which will become apparent, are attained and can be understood in detail, more particular description of the invention briefly summarized above may be had by reference to the embodiments thereof which are illustrated in the appended drawings, which drawings form a part of this specification. It is to be noted, however, that the appended drawings illustrate only typical embodiments of the invention and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope, for the invention may admit to other equally effective embodiments.

In the Drawings:

FIG. 1 is a simplified schematic diagram of a prior art switching circuit.

FIG. 2 is a simplified schematic of another prior art switching circuit.

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the basic switching circuit employed in the present invention.

FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a preferred embodiment of the switching circuit employed in the present invention.

FIG. 5 is a block diagram of a preferred embodiment of the present invention. v

FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of a preferred embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 7 is a waveform diagram of somerepresentative voltage and current values o f the circuit illustrated in FIG. 6.

FIG. 8 is a waveform diagram showing the current being regulated through the lamp by the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 6.

FIG. 9 is a simplified schematic diagram of the basic turn-on circuit employed in the present invention.

FIG. 10 is a simplified schematic diagram of the basic turn-off circuit employed in the present invention.

FIG. 11 is a simplified schematic diagram of another embodiment of a turn-off circuit employed in the present invention.

FIGS. 12-18 are simplified schematic diagrams of device variations employable in the basic turn-on and turn-off circuits employed in the present invention.

FIG. 19'is a simplified schematic diagram of yet another turn-off circuit employed in the present inventron.

FIG. 20- is a simplified schematic diagram of another turn-on circuit having a turn-off element employed in the present invention.

FIG. 21 is a simplified schematic diagram of yet another turn-on circuit employed in the present invention.

FIGS. 22-25 are simplified schematic diagrams of illustrative constant current sources that may be employed in the turn-on circuit employed in the present invention.

FIG. 26 is a simplified schematic diagram of still another turn-on circuit employed in the present invention. employing a turn-off aid. v

FIG. 27 is a simplified schematic diagram of yet another turn-on circuit that may be employed in the present invention, including a turn-off aid.

FIG. 28 is a schematic diagram of a turn-off circuit in accordance with the present invention including diodes connected for high speed operation.

FIG. 29 is a partial schematic diagram of a ballast circuit in accordance with the present invention including components for reducing frequency of operation during warm-up of the associated high intensity discharge lamp.

FIG. 30 is a schematic diagram of a gain reduction network which may be employed with a turn-off circuit in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 31 is a schematic diagram of an encapsulated prior art switching circuit.

FIG. 32 is a schematic diagram of an encapsulated switching circuit in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 33 is a schematic diagram of another encapsulated switching circuit in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 34 is a schematic diagram of a preferred encapsulated switching circuit in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 35 is a schematic diagram of an encapsulated turn-off circuit in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 36 is a partial schematic, partial block diagram of the switching circuit of the present invention employed to connect a dimmer circuit intoa gas discharge ballast circuit.

cation of an electronic switch to a ballast lamp through a phase reversing DPDT relay in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 40 is a simplified schematic diagram of an application of an electronic switch to a ballast lamp through an LC switching circuit, thereby providing ac current to the lamp.

FIG. 41 is a simplified schematic diagram of an application of an electronic switch in accordance with the present invention, the connection being made to a ballast lamp through an autotransformer.

FIG. 42 is a simplified schematic diagram of an application of an electronic switch in a starter circuit for a ballast lamp in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 43 is a schematic diagram of the electronic switch as a low power switching circuit to control a high powered transistor.

FIG. 44 is a schematic diagram of an alternate connection for a switching and a turn-off circuit in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 45 is a simplified schematic and block diagram of an electronic switch in accordance with the present invention in an application as an electronic fuse in a dc circuit.

FIG. 46 is a block diagram of the electronic fuse shown in FIG. 45 connected in an ac circuit.

FIG. 47 is a simplilied schematic diagram of an electronic fuse as shown in FIG. 45 including a preferred embodiment of a turn-off circuit in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 48 is a simplified schematic diagram of an electronic fuse as shown in FIG. 45 including an alternate embodiment of a turn-off circuit in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 49 is a simplified schematic diagram of a switching circuit in accordance with the present invention in an application with a bi-stable light emitting diode.

FIG. 50 is a simplified schematic diagram of a switching circuit in accordance with the present invention in another application with a bi-stable light emitting diode.

FIG. 51 is a simplified schematic diagram of a circuit useful as the interface between digital logic and a bistable light emitting diode for turning on and off the device shown in FIGS. 49 and 50.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Now referring to the drawings and first to FIG. 1, a prior art switching circuit is shown comprising two transistors and a resistor. The input to the circuit is applied to the base of npn transistor 14. A resistor 10 is connected to the collector of transistor 14 and to the applied dc supply voltage. A pnp transistor 12 is connected so that the base thereof is connected to the collector of transistor 14, the collector is connected to the base of transistor 14 and the emitter is connected to the applied dc voltage source.

In operation of the FIG. 1 circuit a trigger voltage (and current) pulse is applied to the base of transistor 14. The turn-on voltage is illustrated as a positive-going spike and the turn-off voltage is illustrated as a negative-going spike. Although illustrated as a spike, the triggering pulse may be any shape of low energy pulse that attains the required minimum amplitude. Other than this limitation, neither the amplitude nor the pulse width is critical. The'pulse input applied to the base of transistor 14 turns on the transistor and establishes a current flow through the base-emitter junction thereof and a following current flow through the collector and emitter. The currentflow through the collector results in current through resistor 10, and hence a voltage drop there across. This voltage drop causes an emitterbase forward biasing of transistor 12, which causes it to turn on. Transistor 12 is a low gain transistor and once turned on draws a small amount of the current through its emitter and collector passing from the power connection. The current flow is sufficient to cause the circuit to be regenerative until the negative input or triggering spike is applied. A total gain of one for transistors l2 and 14 is required for sustaining operation. This gain value is determined by the products of the betas of the two transistors.

Turn off is achieved by the application of a negative pulse. In this instance, the base current is removed from transistor 14 (actually the current from transistor 12 is drawn off at the input terminal) and the negative nature of the input reverse biases the base-emitter junction of transistor 14, further ensuring turn off. When transistor 14 turns off, transistor 12 turns off, thereby completing the switching action until receipt of another positive input pulse.

It is apparent that the gain of transistor 12 has to be within narrow and well-defined limits to achieve proper switching and the high turn-off gain that is desired. If the gain of transistor 12 is too low, then transistor 12 would not conduct enough in order to cause regenerative current flow with transistor 14 to cause the circuit to latch on. On the other'hand, if the gain oftransistor 12 is too high, then the turn off gain (i.e., /I of the circuit would be low, resulting in a low ratio of the load current to required input tum-off current.

Hence, it may be seen that the criticality of the selection of a transistor 12 having proper but low beta properties is important. Not only is such selection expensive from a commercial view point, high and low tempera- 'ture and load current conditions changing the beta operation points have extremely adverse effects on operation of a practical circuit.

An important variation of the switch circuit shown in FIG. 1 is illustrated in FIG. 2, wherein a resistor 11 is added connected to the emitter of transistor 12. This circuit is illustrated'as a-variable gain transistor (resistor 11 being a variable component) in General Electric Transistor Manual, 1964, at page 401. The circuit is identical in operation to the circuit of FIG. 1, except that the amount of regeneration can be varied by changing the value of resistor 11. Hence, this gives control over the beta of the circuit.

Now referring to FIG. 3, the basic switching mechanism of the present invention is illustrated. The only difference between this circuit and the one illustrated in FIG. 2 is the addition of diode 15, connected between the collector of transistor 14 (and the base of transistor 12) and resistor 10. As will be more completely explained in connection with the FIG. 4 circuit, diode provides a voltage drop which closely matches the voltage drop across,thebase-to-emitter junction of 6 transistor 12. This has the effect of making the effective turn-off gain of the circuit substantially independent of the betas of the transistors and, hence, determinable by the resistance ratio of resistors 10 and 11.

Now referring to FIG. 4, the switching mechanism of the preferred embodiment of the present invention is illustrated. In this embodiment, high beta transistor means in the form of transistors 16 and 18 connected as a Darlington pair is used as the high gain portion of the switching circuit. Typically, aDarlington pair exhibits high betas of -100 or more over a wide range of currents. Conventionally base-to-emitter resistors 20 and 22, respectively, form shunts for base to emitter. Pnp transistor 24 is connected to the Darlington pair so that the base thereof is connected to their collectors and the collector of transistor 24 is connected to the base of transistor 16. A resistor 26 shunts the base and the emitter of transistor 24. Diode 28 shunted by resistor 30 is connected to the collectors of the Darlington pair. Finally, resistors 32 and 34 are connected to the power connection and then, respectively, to the emitter of transistor 24 and to diode 28.

In operation, the circuit of FIG. 4 may be compared with the operation of the prior art circuits shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, with some important differences to be hereafter explained. For example, an input spike applied to the base of transistor 16 will cause the Darlington pair to turn on, resulting in a current flow in the collector circuit thereof, and, hence, through resistor 34 and diode 28. The voltage drop across the base-toemitter junction of transistor 24 turns this transistor on, thereby providing the base current to transistor 16 to sustain regenerate circuit operation.

It should be noted that a Darlington pair has an extremely high beta over a wide range of collector currents and over a wide range of temperatures. Therefore, the beta of transistor 24 can be either high or low and not effect the turn-on operation of the circuit. That is, the beta of transistor 24 is not critical to operation. It may be recalled that the betas of transistor 12 and 14 are critical in the prior art circuits shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. More importantly as will be explained below, the beta of transistor 24 is not critical in the operation of the circuit at turn off, either.

At turn off, the negative applied pulse again draws the current through transistor 24 away from the base of transistor 16 and also reverse biases this transistor, thereby turning it off. However, the operation of transistor 24 is like a current source, rather than the prior art voltagesource (e.g., transistor 12 of FIG. 1), and the application of a small negative pulse is sufficient to cause turn off without first increasing the amount of current drawn through transistor 24.

The components connected to transistor 24 ensure that for a wide range of operation (i.e., temperature, voltage, collector currents) only the ratio of resistors 32 and 34 are important, not the betas of the respective transistors. Diode 28 provides a forward voltage drop comparable to the base-to-emitter voltage drop of transistor 24. To ensure low charge storage time, resistor 30 is shunted across diode 28, although it may be omitted when a sufficiently fast-acting diode is employed. Resistance 26 increases the collector-to-emitter voltage capability of transistor 24 by reducing the leakage current therethrough.

If with the various operating currents, the voltage drop across diode 28 and across the base-to-emitter junction of transistor 24 are nearly equal to each other,

then the voltage drop across resistors 32 and 34 remains nearly equal. Hence, the ratio of these resistance values determines the ratio of currents through transistor 24 and transistor 18, not the betas of the transistors, and hence, current turn-off gain is constant.

At turn off, transistor 24 cannot furnish more current than the resistor ratio permits. Hence, the current through transistor 24 is kept low and the effective turnoff current gain is high. The expression turn-off current gain as used herein is defined as the ratio of the load current to the input or control current at turn off. In FIG. 4 ,'the load current is the current flowing out of terminal E and the control current is the current flowing to and from input terminal B. By making the switching circuit portion of the regulating ballast circuit independent of the betas of the transistors and the input pulses of low energy and duty cycle, it is possible to use such circuit ,in an overall improved ballast circuit for regulated, low-loss operation of a high intensity discharge lamp.

Althought pulsing on and off was discussed above with respect to pulses applied to the base of the npn transistor (or Darlington pair), if desired pulsing may be with respect to the base of pnp transistor 24.

Now referring to FIG. 5, a block diagram of a high intensity discharge lamp ballast employing solid state switching regulation in accordance with the present invention is shown. An ac input is applied to dc power converter 41, which, in turn, is connected to lamp 80 via connector 43 and to switching circuit 17 via connector 45. Switching circuit 17 may be the circuit illustrated in FIG. 4 or may be one of the alternatives hereinafter disclosed.

Switching circuit 17 is connected both to voltage sensing turn-on circuit 57 and to current sensing turnoff circuit 73, as hereinafter disclosed. The output of these circuits are connected to output circuit 61 and starting circuit 63, which deliver power to lamp 80. In

many embodiments hereinafter described, the output circuit is adequate to handle the power requirements encountered during starting conditions and therefore there is no separate starting circuit 63 in these embodiments.

Now referring to FIGS. and 6, a preferred embodiment of an overall ballast circuit is shown utilizing the switching circuit of FIG. 4. In this circuit, three pairs of rectifying diodes 40 and 42, 44 and 46, and 48 and 50 are shown connected to a three phase ac input. The rectification is sufficient for operation, since it will be observed that the quality of the dc is reasonably good, there being only about 4 percent ripple. However, no further filtering is required for satisfactory performance since the high frequency operation of the circuit provides adequate regulation in spite of ripples occurring at low line frequencies.

The dc applied to the circuit will be applied through resistor 34, diode 28, resistor 52 connected thereto and capacitor 54 connected between resistor 52 and the output from the switching regulator. Alternatively, the end of resistor 52 connected to the collector of transistor 18 may be connected to the circuit input, or in other words, to the junction connection of resistors 32 and 34. Connected also to capacitor 54 is the series connection of resistor 56 and diac 58, which, in turn, is connected to the base of transistor 16. Voltage builds up on capacitor 54 as shown at V,., on FIG. 7 until it reaches the threshold level necessary to fire diac 58. When this occurs, a current I discharges therethrough to be applied to the base of transistor 16. This causes turn on of the switching circuit, as explained above, and an output V,,. The illustration of I through capaci tor 54 is drawn negative-going for convenience, but to correspond to the waveform related to FIG. 7, may be thought of as a negative build up with a positive spike to initiate turn on.

After turn on, there is a current flow I through inductor 60 connected in series with lamp 80. The build up of I is exponential as shown in FIG. 8.

The turn-off circuit includes programmable unijunction transistor 62 connected to the output of the switching circuit through resistor 64. The output for the unijunction is connected to the base of npn transistor 74 and the gate of the unijunction is connected to a parallel combination of resistor 66 and capacitor 68. Capacitor 68 is a small capacitor and provides a small delay to prevent premature firing of the unijunction. A capacitor 70 connected at the output of the regulator is charged by the voltage resulting from the current flow through resistor 72, connected to supply current to inductor 60. Resistor 67 is connected in series with resistor 66 and, together with resistor 66, is connected in parallel with resistor 72. When the gate voltage threshold for unijunction 62 is reached, a discharge path is provided through resistor 64, unijunction 62 the emitter-base junction of transistor 74, and capacitor 70. Diode 76 prevents discharge of capacitor 70 through the resistor 72 charging path. Turn on of transistor 74 provides a path for the drawing of the current from the base of the Darlington pair or the current of transistor 24 and of reverse biasing the baseemitter junction of the Darlington, as explained above.

Diode 78 is connected across inductor 60 and lamp 80 and acts as a flyback or free-wheeling diode for providing a conducting path for the current in inductor 60.

FIG. 8 illustrates the good regulation properties of the circuit. For purposes hereof, effective current is defined as either being the average current or the rms current. The term does not mean either instantaneous current or peak current. A duty cycle regulation of substantially constant effective current is achieved by the circuits herein used in a lamp ballast application. The dotted line assumes the build up of 1,, through the lamp at nominal line voltage. The current build up and decay times are as previously explained. Charge up time of I, through the switch is determined by the value of wherein V is the output voltage from the switching regulator, V, is the voltage across lamp 80 and L is the value of the inductance of inductor 60. V is nearly equal to the input voltage (only less the small voltage drops across resistor 34, resistor 72, diode 28 and the collector-to-emitter junctions of the Darlington when fully saturated). A higher V causes a more rapid build up of I and a lower V causes a slower build up of I The decay is always the same slope, viz., the slope caused by the time constants of the inductance of inductor 60 and the resistances of lamp 62 and diode 78. (Lamp 80 is nearly pure resistance at high frequencies.) However, the minimum value-of I is not always the same. Therefore, the curve in solid line of FIG. 7 corresponding to a lower applied voltage, terminates at a lower value than for the dotted curve. (That is, the build-up of the turn-on charge on capacitor 54 is longer 9 than for the nominal input voltage and therefore 1,, has time to reach a lower value.) The area under the curves, however, are essentially equal and therefore the regulation is kept relatively constant.

In like manner, a higher-than-nominal line voltage would cause 1,, to build up faster and would also cause it to have a shorter down side. But, the area would remain relatively constant to provide good regulation.

Illustrated in FIGS. 9-18 are several alternate component variations that may be employed in the circuit of FIG. 6. For convenience of illustration, FIG. 9 is the basic turn-on circuit comprising resistors 52 and 56, capacitor 54 and diac 58, exactly as they are shown in FIG. 6. Further for convenience, the connection to resistor 52 is marked as reference point C, the point between resistor 56 and diac 58 is marked as reference point A, the connection to capacitor 54 is marked as reference point E, and the connection to diac 58 is marked as reference point B.

First, it is permissible that resistor 56 and diac 58 be reversed without effecting operation. This reversal of position is also permissible with all of the devices of FIGS. l2l8, as hereafter explained.

The devices illustrated in FIGS. l2l8 may be substituted between reference points A and B of FIG. 9 for diac 58. FIG. 12 illustrates a silicon bilateral switch (588 FIG. 13 illustrates a 4-layer diode; FIG. 14 illustrates a silicon unilateral switch (SUS); FIG. 15 illustrates a programmable unijunction transistor (PUT) with two resistors; and FIG. 16 illustrates a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) with two resistors.

FIG. 17 and FIG. 18 illustrate additional device arrangements that can be connected between points A and B, FIG. 17 is a PUT device with connecting terminals suitable for connection, to any of the devices illustrated in FIGS. 12-16. Also a Zener diode may be similarly connected. FIG. 18 is an SCR device with connecting terminals suitable for connection to any of the devices illustrated in FIGS. 12-16. Also, a Zener diode may be similarly connected.

FIG. 10 illustrates a circuit which is the basic turnoff circuit of FIG. 6, deleting only small capacitor 68. In addition, a zener diode may be substituted for resistor 67, if desired. FIG. 11 shows a suitable turn-off alternative device variation in which 885 82 is connected between resistor 64 and npn transistor 74. That is SBS 82 is the active element operating as a latching device in place of unijunction transistor 62. In addition, the resistors connected to the gate of the unijunction transistor are not present.

For convenience of reference, the connection to resistor 64 has been marked as reference point E, the point between resistor 64 and 58$ 82 has been marked as reference point D, the base of transistor 74 has been marked as reference point F, and the collector of transistor 74 has been marked as reference point B. Points B and E coincide with points similarly marked in FIG. 6.

Again, the devices illustrated in FIGS. l2l8 may be substituted between reference points D and F, as illustrated. Moreover. in the case of FIGS. 16 and 17, the open terminal connections are suitable for accepting any of the devices shown in FIGS. 12-16.

FIG. 19 illustrates yet another alternate variation of turning off the basic switching circuit. In this case, PUT device 84 is connected so that its cathode is connected to the base of transistor 86 and the collector of transistor 86 is connected to the emitter of transistor 12. As

10 illustrated the gate of PUT 84 is connected to resistor 11 or resistor 10. Further, the various devices illustrated in FIGS. l2l8 may be substituted for PUT device 84.

FIG. 20 illustrates a turnon circuit variation. Note that in this circuit the base of transistor 16-18 is connected to diode 88, which allows good npn turn-off and permits whatever device is connected across terminals XY to be turned off at the same time transistor 16-18 is turned off. Any of the varioils turn-on devices illustrated in FIGS. 9 and l2l8 may be connected to the terminals XY.

FIG. 21 illustrates yet another turn-on circuit variation. This circuit is identical with FIG. 20 except that it includes terminals M*N to which a constant current source may be placed at the same time a turn-on device is placed at terminals XY. Alternatively a constant current source may be placed at XY if the turn-on device is placed at terminals MN. FIGS. 22-25 illustrate various conventional constant current sources that may be used in conjunction with FIGS. 21, 26 and 27. FIGS. 22 and 23 illustrate junction field effect transistors and FIGS. 24 and 25 illustrate conventional transistors, each in combination with a Zener diode, for accomplishing constant current operation.

FIG. 26 illustrates the addition to the previous circuits of an inductor and series resistor 92 connected from the base to the emitter of transistor l618. Note also that no diode 88 is used in this circuit. Turn on operation is the same as before. Turn-off operation is aided by the presence of inductor 90 across the emitter-base junction of transistor l'618 independent of other turn-off circuits. That is, the LR connection shunting the base-emitter of transistor l618 reverse biases transistor 16-18 during turn off independent of the connection across terminals XY.

FIG. 27 illustrates the alternative of including an element for aiding turn-off in a turn-on device. In this embodiment, the components are the same as in FIG. 21 with the addition of resistor 94 from diode 88 to the emitter of transistor 16-18 and bypass diode 89 located across terminals M-N. When an inductor is placed across either the X-Y terminals or the M-N terminals, and a turn-on device is placed at the alternate set of terminals, a sinusoidal current pulse would flow into the base and out of the emitter. At the end of the sinusoidal pulse, the charge on capacitor 56 reverse biases the base-emitter junction, the reverse bias current flowing from capacitor 56, through resistor 94, through diode 88 and diode 89. This operation has a tendency to turnoff transistor 16-18 independent of other turn-off circuits.

In order to square up the leading edge of a sinusoidal pulse, a shunting resistor across any of the inductors previously mentioned may be used.

As an additional alternative, resistor 52 in any of the above circuits may be replaced with a constant current source.

Illustrated in FIG. 28 is a method for improving the speed of turn-off of the switching circuit by the addition of diodes. For instance, diode 96 placed in parallel with resistor 20 to enhance the base-emitter reverse biasing of transistor 18. Diodes 98 and 100 may be employed with or without diode 96 to form a Baker clamp (R. H. Baker, Maximum Efficiency Switching Circuits, MIT Lincoln Laboratory Report, TR-I I0, 1956), keeping the Darlington pair out of saturation and reducing the amount of base storage charge. It

1 1 should be noted that slightly higher losses result during the period that the switch is turned on, but the time and switching on-off losses are much reduced.

Although several alternative circuits have been described. additional method of sensing turn-on and turnoff conditions are available. For example, tunnel diodes may be used, Schmitt triggering may be used, a pulse transformer coupled to the base emitters of the transistors may be used and current transformer terminals may be used.

1 Now referring to FIG. 29, a method is shown of reducing switching frequency during lamp warm up. In this event, capacitor 54 is shorted until current 1,, through inductor 60 decreases below a set level during the off condition of transistor 16-18. This switch operation is performed by connecting an npn transistor 102 so that its base is connected to resistor 72 through resistor 104 and its emitter is connected to inductor 60 while its collector is connected to capacitor 54. An FET may be used in place of the npn transistor 102.

Turn-off gain can be reduced for very high 1 and the Darlington pair kept saturated by employing the circuit shown in FIG. 30. In this circuit. a series resistor 106 and diode 108 are shown connected in parallel around resistor 32. The Darlington pair is kept saturated by increasing the 1 /1 ratio with these two additional components. Whenever the voltage drop across resistor 32, and hence resistor 106 and diode 108, is equal to or less than 0.7 volts, the current gain is approximately equal to the ratio of the values of resistor 32 and 34. When the voltage across resistor 32 is much greater than 0.7 volts, the current gain approaches (with higher load currents) where the resistance values of resistors 34, 32 and 106 are respectively designated R1, R2 and R3.

Encapsulating components comprising the heart of basic circuits is common. Such encapsulation provides a package that may be presized, preassembled and pretested for inserting in a plurality of circuit applications. This is particularly advantageous for versatile circuits having a wide range of uses or for high volume circuit assembly. An appreciation of the advantages of such encapsulation may be further realized when it is considered that such circuits can be even manufactured to a great extent simultaneously using a common semi-conductor chip or slice as a substrate for some or all of the components in the assembly. Further, through photoengraving or similar techniques, the interconnecting wiring of the components may also be made as a manufacturing step in the making of the solid state assembly. For example, complementary transistors 112 and 114, identical to transistors 12 and 14 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, may be packaged in a common capsule as shown in FIG. 31. Four terminals to the capsule provide for external connections. The collector of pnp transistor 112 is connected to terminal 300 and to the base of transistor 114. The emitter-of npn transistor 114 is connected to terminal 303. The collector of transistor 114 is connected to terminal 302 and the base of transistor 112. The emitter of transistor 112 is connected to terminal 301'. As is apparent, the transistors may be connected with appropriate resistors into either the circuit shown in FIG. 1 or in the circuit shown in 12 FIG. 2, or with the addition of a diode, into the circuit shown in FIG. 3.

FIG. 32 shows an encapsulated, high speed, switching circuit in accordance with the present invention. Again, this embodiment has four terminals 300, 301, 302 and 303 for external connections. Terminal 300 is connected to the collector of pnp transistor 200 and to the base of npn transistor 204. Terminal 301 is connected to the emitter of pnp transistor 200. Terminal 302 is connected to the anode of diode 202 and the cathode of the diode is connected to the base of transistor 200 and to the collector of transistor 204. Terminal '303 is connected to the emitter of npn transistor 204.

Transistor 204 is chosen such that it will exhibit a high gain over a wide range of applied operating currents.

In operation for high speed switching in accordance with the present invention, terminal 301 and 302 may be connected through external resistors to an external positive power source. When a positive voltage with respect to terminal 303 appears on terminal 300, the base-emitter junction of transistor 204 is forward biased, and current flows from the power source through diode 202, into the collector of transistor 204, and out the emitter of transistor 204. At this time, voltage on the collector of transistor 204 decreases, causing the base-emitter junction of transistor 200 to be forward biased. Therefore current begins to flow into the emitter and out of the collector of transistor 200.

Since the voltage drop across diode 202 very nearly approximates the base-to-emitter voltage drop of transistor 200, the ratio of the currents flowing in the collector of transistor 204 and the collector of transistor 200 is very nearly approximated by the ratio of the external resistors to which terminals 301 and 302 are connected.

Essentially all the current flowing in the collector of transistor 200 flows into the base of transistor 204. Therefore the ratio of collector current in transistor 204' to the base current in transistor 204, i.e., the forced gain of transistor 204, is determined by the ratio of the external resistors connected to terminals 301 and 302, and the ratio is not dependent on the value of the beta of transistor 204, as was the case in the prior art.

When "a negative voltage appears on terminal 300 with respect to terminal 303, the base-emitter junction of transistor204 is reversed biased, and the transistor cuts the current off, i.e., collector and emitter currents cease to flow. The voltage on the collector of transistor 204 increases and the voltage across diode 202 and the external resistance connected to terminal 302 goes to zero. during which time transistor 200 is reverse biased by the external voltage across the external resistance connected to terminal 301. Therefore, transistor 200 also turns off and the switching circuit returns to what might be termed its off condition.

The encapsulated device of FIG. 33 is an improvemerit-in the high speed switching circuit of FIG. 32. This improvement is accomplished by the inclusion of resistors 206, 208 and 210. One end of resistor 208 is connected to the base of transistor 200 and the other end of resistor 208 is connected to the emitter of transistor 200. One end of resistor 210 is connected to the base of transistor 204 and the other end of resistor 210 is connected to the emitter of transistor 204. Both resis-' 13 of shunted transistor 200. Resistor 206 is connected in parallel with diode 204 to reduce the forward recovery time of diode 202 so that the base-emitter junction of pnp transistor 200 will not remain forward biased when turn off is desirable.

The switching circuit of FIG. 33 operatesin exactly the same manner as the circuit in FIG. 32, with the exception that the leakage currents are now better controlled, and that the forward recovery time of diode 202 is now reduced.

FIG. 34 shows high speed switching device 500, which has five terminals 300, 301, 302, 303 and 304. The device 500 is very similar to the device of FIG. 33 except that Darlington transistor 212 is substituted for transistor 204. Note that the collector of the Darlington, the base of the Darlington, and the emitter of the Darlington are substituted directly for the collector. base and emitter of transistor 204, respectively. Darlington transistor 212 is such that it is provided with in ternal shunt resistors across each base-emitter junction of the two transistors. This switching circuit operates in a manner identical to that described in FIG. 32. The utilization of Darlington transistor 212 is an improve ment over transistor 204 in that a Darlington configuration inherently exhibits a high gain over a wide range of operating currents, which is important in the application in FIG. 34. Note further that connection terminals 301 and 302 may be internally or externally connected together if the ratio of the emitter current to base-emitter voltage of transistor 200 is matched with the ratio of current through diode 202 to the voltage thereacross.

FIG. 35 shows an encapsulated turn-off circuit in accordance with the present invention and is identified as device 501, having terminals 320, 321, 322 and 323. Device 501 is connected thusly: terminal 320 is connected to a first end of resistor 230, to a first end of resistor 232, to a first end of capacitor 236, and to a first end of resistor 238; terminal 321 is connected to the second end of resistor 238 and to the cathode of diode 240; terminal 322 is connected to the collector of transistor 226; terminal 323 is connected to the anode of diode 240 to the second end of capacitor 236, toa first end of resistor 234, and to the emitter of transistor 226; the second end of resistor 234 is connected to the second end of resistor 232 and to the gate of programmable unijunction transistor (PUT) 228; the cathode of PUT 228 is connected to the base of npn transistor 226;

and the anode of PUT 228 is connected to the second end of resistor 230. Alternatively, resistor 234 may be replaced by a zener diode or anyof the devices shown in FIGS. 12-18 discussed above.

In operation, terminal 321 is preferably connected to ground, a negative voltage source may be applied to terminal 323, and a dc current flows into terminal 320, The dc current flowing into terminal 320 flows into the first end of resistor 238 to ground creating a voltage drop across resistor 238. This voltage drop plus the negative voltage of the source connected to terminal 323 equals the voltage across capacitor 236. When the voltage across capacitor 236 is such that the anode-togate voltage of PUT 228 exceeds 0.5 volts (determined by resistors 230, 232 and 234), current flows from the anode to the cathode of PUT 228. This provides a forward bias for the base-emitter junction of npn transistor 226. This forward bias turns on transistor 226, thereby allowing the current from capacitor 236 to flow through resistor 230 and through the emitter of transistor 226. At this time. current is also flowing in the collector of transistor 226 in a direction inward from terminal 322 into device 501. When the charge on the capacitor is reduced to such a level that the voltage between the anode of PUT 228 and the gate of PUT 228 is less than 0.5 volts, PUT 228 turns off. Therefore. the forward bias to the base of transistor 226 is removed, and transistor 226 turns off.

It is noted that the expression from the voltage across capacitor 236 is given by the formulas:

Vc negative source voltage l,,R when a negative voltage applied to terminal 323 is present, and

azm 0 23N V240 when no negative voltage is present.

If the negative source voltage is increased (i.e., made more negative), the amount of current I,, that flows before PUT 228 starts to conduct decreases.

It should be noted that any of the encapsulated switching circuits shown in FIGS. 32-34 may be encapsulated together with the tum-off circuit of FIG. 35 in the same capsule or package.

FIG. 36 illustrates a utilization of encapsulated devices 500 and 501 plus additional circuitry to achieve an effective ballast lamp dimmer circuit. FIG. 36 is connected as follows: a first end of inductor 244 is connected to the cathode of diode 242; the second end of inductor 244 is connected to a first terminal of ballast lamp 250; the second terminal of ballast lamp 250 is connected to the anode of diode 242, to a first end of resistor 216, and to a first end of resistor 214; the second end of resistor 214 is connected to terminal 302 of a device 500; the second end of resistor 216 is connected to terminal 301 of device 500; terminal 300 of device 500 is connected to terminal 322 of a device 501 and to a first end of diac 224; terminal 303 of device 5001s connected to terminal 320 of device 501 and to a first end of capacitor 220; the second end of capacitor 220 is connected to a first end of resistor 222; second end of resistor 222 is, in turn, connected to the second end of diac 224; terminal 321 of device 501 is connected to ground; terminal 323 is connected to a negative dimmer control voltage source 225; and the ends of resistor 252 are connected respectively to terminal 304 of device 500 and the junction of the second end of capacitor 220 and the first end of resistor 222.

When an external dc power is applied to the junction of the cathode of diode 242 and the first end of inductor 244, current flows through lamp 250, through resistor 214, and through resistor 252, thereby increasing the voltage on capacitor 220. When the voltage on capacitor 200 is such that the forward breakover voltage of diac 224 is exceeded, current flows through diac 228 into terminal 300 of device 500. This current flowing into terminal 300 forward biases the Darlington transistor 212 included in device 500 (i.e.. the switch of device 500 is turned on). Current from the lamp then flows through resistor 214, through the on switch of device 500, out terminal 300 of device 500, into terminal 320 of device 501, through resistor 238 included in device 501, and out terminal 321 of device 501 to ground.

Recalling the description of encapsulated device 501 from FIG. 35, when the voltage of capacitor 236 of device 501 is such that the anode to-gate voltage of PUT 228 exceeds 0.5 volts, the PUT is turned on, thereby providing a forward bias to the base-emitter junction of transistor 226. This forward bias causes current to flow in the collector of transistor 226 in a direction from terminal 300 to terminal 322. This current flow reverse biases the base-emitter junction of Darlington transistor 212 included in device 500, thereby attempting to turn off Darlington 212.

The circuit of FIG. 36 has some control disadvantages, however, when the external dimmer control voltage connected to terminal 323 of device 501 exceeds approximately 1.5 volts. It is conceivable that in that instance, once PUT 228 and transistor 226 are turned on, they will have sufficient voltage across them to maintain an on" condition. Therefore, a constant turn-off current is provided to Darlington transistor 212.

If a greater control range of dimmer voltage is desired, the circuit of FIG. 37 may be utilized. The circuit of FIG. 37 is connected as follows: a first end of inductor 244 is connected to the cathode of diode 242; the second end of inductor 244 is connected to the first terminal of ballast lamp 250; the second terminal of ballast lamp 250 is connected to the anode of diode 242 and to first ends of resistor 214 and 216; the second end of resistor 216 is connected to terminal 301 of device 500; the second end of resistor 214 is connected to terminal 302 of device 500:, terminal 300 of device 500 is connected to a first end of diac 224 and to the collector of transistor 226; terminal 303 of device 500 is connected to a first end of capacitor 220 and the emitter of pnp transistor 254, a first end of capacitor 276 and a first end of resistor 238; terminal 304 of device 500 is connected to a first end of resistor 252; the second end of resistor 252 is connected to the second end of capacitor 220 and the first end of resistor 222; the second end of resistor 222 is connected to the second end of diac 224; the base of transistor 226 is connected to the cathode of PUT 228; the collector of transistor 254 is connected to first ends of resistors 232 and 230; the second end of resistor 230 is connected to the anode of PUT 228; the second end of resistor 232 is connected to the first end of resistor 234 and to the gate of PUT 228; the emitter of transistor 226 is connected to the second end of resistor 234, the second end of capacitor 236, and the anodes of diodes 240 and 256; the cathode of diode 240 is connected to the first end of resistor 246 and the second end of resistor 238, the first end of capacitor 248 and to ground; the second end of resistor from anode to cathode. At this time, the base-to-emitter junction of transistor 226 is forward biased, thereby causing current to flow in the collector of transistor 226 in a direction outward from terminal 300 of device 500. The current flow in the collector of transistor 226 causes a reverse bias to be placed on the base-to-emitter junction of Darlington transistor 212 of device 500, thereby attempting to turn it off.

The flow of current through Darlington transistor 212 decreases as the transistor is turning off. Therefore, the current flowing through resistor 238 begins to decrease. An analysis of the voltage loop formed by capacitor 236, resistor 238 and diode 240 shows that diode 240 is reversed biased shortly after the turn-off 246 is connected to the base of transistor 254; and the cathode of diode 256 is connected to the second end of capacitor 248 into the external dimmer control voltage source 225.

Alternative to the above, a zener diode, such as zener diode 262 in FIG. 38, may be substituted for resistor 234.

The switch of device 500 is turned on in the same manner as for FIG. 36 by capacitor 220, resistor 222 and diac 224, as described above. The difference in the operation of the circuits of FIG. 36 and FIG. 37 is in the turn-off means employed. For purposes of description of FIG. 37, it is assumed that the switch of device 500 has been turned on, i.e., current is flowing from terminal 302 and 303 through the switch of device 500.

This current causes a voltage to appear at the first end of resistor 238, and the voltage on capacitor 236 increases. The base-emitter junction of transistor 254 is forward biased when the voltage on resistor 238 exceeds its base-to-emitter voltage, and capacitor 236 continues to charge until the anodeto-gate voltage of PUT 228 is greater than 0.5 volts. At this time, PUT 228 is turned on, and current flows into PUT 228 pulse current is applied to the Darlington. Therefore, the voltage stored in capacitor 236 must necessarily discharge through transistor 254, through resistor 230, through PUT 228 and through transistor 226. When the voltage across resistor 238 has decreased to such a voltage level that the base-to-emitter of transistor 254 is no longer forward biased, transistor 254 turns off, thereby preventing any further current flow through it. PUT 228 then turns off since the anode-cathode current goes to Zero. Lastly, transistor 226 turns off, causing the collector current of transistor 226 to cease to flow. Hence, the length of time that the turn-off current is applied to Darlington transistor 212 of device 500 by the collector of transistor 226 is determined by the length of time it takes I9 X R to decrease below approximately 0.7 volt, approximately a base-emitter voltage drop of transistor 254. If very high speed switching elements are utilized in device 500, the length of time that the turn-off pulse is applied might be sufficient to insure a complete turn off. However if lower speed switching devices are utilized (which naturally decreases the cost of the devices), it is desirable to have a turn-off current supplied to device 500 for a longer period of time. Hence, the RC time constant or delay circuit provides good noise immunity of the turnoff circuit by providing some delay, and hence helps prevent false triggering because of a spurious change of voltage with respect to time.

An increase in the length of time the current flows in the collector of transistor 226 can be achieved by utilizing the circuit of FIG. 38 in place of the circuit connected to terminal 300 and 303 of device 500. FIG. 38 is connected as follows: terminal 301 of device 500 is connected to the emitter of transistor 254, a first end of resistor 258, a first end of capacitor 267, a first end of capacitor 236 and a first end of resistor 238; terminal 300 of device 500 is connected to the collector of transistor 226; the collector of transistor 254 is connected to a first end of resistor 230; the second end of resisistor 230 is connected to a first end of capacitor 336; the second end of capacitor 336 is connected to the gate of PUT 228 and to the first end of resistor 260; the cathode of PUT 228 is connected to the base of transistor 226 and to the first end of resistor 280; the second end of resistor 260 -is connected to the cathode of Zener diode 262 and to the second end of resistor 260; the emitter of transistor 226 is connected to the anode of Zener diode 262, to the second end of resistor 280, to the second end of capacitor 236, to the anode of diode 240 and to the anode of diode 256; the cathode of diode 240 is connected to the second end of resistor 238, to the cathode of diode 264, to the first end of capacitor 248, and to ground; the anode of diode 264 is connected to the second end of capacitor 267 and to 17 the first end of resistor 266; the second end of resistor 266 is connected to the second end of resistor 268 and to the base of transistor 254; and the cathode of diode 256 is connected to the second end of capacitor 248 into the external dimmer control voltage source 225.

For purposes of discussion of this turn-off circuit, it will once again be assumed that the transistor switch of device 500 has been turned on by the combination of capacitor 220, resistor 222 and diac 224. Therefore, current is flowing through the switch and out of tenninal 301 of device 500 to the first end of resistor 238. A voltage appears at the first end of resistor 238, and the voltages on capacitor 236 and 267 begin to increase. When the voltage appearing across capacitor 267 exceeds the base-to-emitter junction voltage of transistor 254, transistor 254 turns on.

As in the description of FIG. 37, the voltage on capacitor 236 increases until the anode-to-gate PUT 226 exceeds 0.5 volts.

Zener diode 262 is used to maintain a very precise voltage on the gate of PUT 228. This voltage appears when the voltage on capacitor 236 is such that it exceeds the reverse breakdown voltage of Zener diode 262 by the voltage drop across resistor 258. Capacitor 336 begins to discharge when the voltage between the anode and the gate of PUT 228 exceeds 0.5 volts. PUT 228 turns on, thereby forward biasing the base-emitter junction of transistor 226. As before, a collector currentbegins to flow in the collector of transistor 226, thereby providing a reverse bias to Darlington transistor 212 included in devicee 500.

The circuit operation is identical to that of FIG. 37, except that by utilizing capacitor 267 and resistor 268 and diode 264, the length of time that a forward bias is applied to the base-emitter junction of transistor 254 is increased, thereby insuring that a turn-off pulse that is sufficiently long in time will be applied to turn-off Darlington transistor 212 of device 500.

Now referring to FIG. 39, another embodiment of the electronic switching circuit of the present invention is illustrated. Electronic switch 510 includes a switching circuit, voltage sensing turn-on circuit and a current sensing turn-off circuit, such as illustrated and described for FIG. and FIG. 6.

FIG. 39 shows electronic switch 510 being used to supply ballast control to lamp 250. A dc power source (not shown) is connected to the input. Inductor 244,

which may be identical to inductor 60 of FIG. 6, is in series with switch 510 and diode 242, which may be identical to diode 78, and is connected from the output of switch 510 to the return power connection.

In order to prolong the life of ballast lamp 250, double-pole, double-throw (DPDT) relay 298 interchanges the terminals of the lamp so that the same terminal does not have the same polarity of direct current applied to it at all times. The rate of interchange may be determined by either an ac driven relay device 370, a dc driven relay or DPDT relay 298 may be operated manually at periodic intervals.

FIG. 40 illustrates a switching arrangement for applying ac current to a lamp load. Ballast lamp 450 is connected to capacitor 442, which, in turn, is connected to coil 440. Electronic switches 446 and 448 are connected together, the junction therebetween being con- 18 switch 446 is open, switch 448 is closed. Hence, operation is synchronous and complementary. These switches are driven by an electronic ac drive 370, similar (but of higher frequency) to that used in the FIG. 39 configuration. Together these components comprise electronic drive 444.

In operation of the FIG. 40 circuit. the switching of switches 446 and 448 so as to alternately provide current paths I and I to lamp 450 applies ac current to the lamp via LC oscillation.

Conventional ballast lamps require a relatively high voltage, on the order of several hundred volts, to sustain their operation. Utilizing an electronic switch 510, a low dc voltage may be used to operate the ballast lamp when utilized in conjunction with an autotransformer 332, such as shown in FIG. 41.

The circuit is connected thusly: the input of electronic switch 510 is connected to the dc power input; the output of electronic switch 510 is connected to the common winding of autotransformer 332; the second terminal of the primary of autotransformer 332 is connected to the return of the dc input; the anode of diode 42 is connected to the first terminal of ballast lamp 250; the second terminal of the secondary of autotransformer 332 is connected to the cathode of diode 242 and the first end of inductor 244; and the second end of inductor 244 is connected to the second terminal of ballast lamp 250.

The autotransformer has a turn ratio of N to I, wherein N signifies the number of turns in the secondary of the autotransformer for each turn in the primary thereof. The autotransformer ischosen so that the turns ratio N to 1 increases the dc input voltage to such a level as to maintain proper operation of the ballast lamp.

FIG. 42 shows a utilization of the basic electronic switch to provide starting voltage to a ballast lamp 250. Ordinarily, a starting voltage is established with additional electronics which creates a starter pulse. Utilizing the switch as shown in FIG. 42, however, this starting and continuous operation following starting can be accomplished using the same components without additional electronics.

Electron switch 510 as shown comprises the basic switching circuit described in FIGS. 32, 33 or 34, plus turn-off means and turn-on means, such as previously described for FIGS. 5 and 6. The output of this switch is connected to the cathode of diode 242 and to one terminal of the primary of transformer 292; the other terminal of the primary of transformer 292 is connected to one terminal of the secondary of transformer 292, a first end of capacitor 294 and a first end of resistor 290; the second terminal of the secondary of transformer 292 is connected to one terminal of ballast lamp 250; the second terminal of ballast lamp 250 is connected to the second end-of capacitor 294, the second end of resistor 290 and the anode of diode 242. In norma] operation, a positive voltage is supplied to the input of electronic switch 510 and the return of this positive voltage is applied to the anode of diode 242.

Initially, there is no charge on capacitor 294. When the turn-on means of electronic switch 510 closes the switch, the entire voltage of the power supply appears across the primary of transformer 292. The reason for this is that there is no voltage on capacitor 294 initially.

The voltage then occurring on the secondary of transformer 292 is N times the supply voltage, wherein N is the turns ratio of transformer 292. This secondary volt-

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Classifications
U.S. Classification315/307, 315/DIG.700, 323/285, 315/291, 315/208, 315/205, 315/287
International ClassificationH05B41/392, H03K3/286, H03K17/60, H03K17/292, H02M3/156, H03K17/64, H03K17/615
Cooperative ClassificationH03K17/60, H03K17/615, Y10S315/07, H03K17/292, H03K3/286, H02M3/1563, H03K17/64, H05B41/392
European ClassificationH05B41/392, H03K3/286, H02M3/156B, H03K17/64, H03K17/615, H03K17/292, H03K17/60
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Sep 30, 1983ASAssignment
Owner name: WIDE-LITE INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, P.O. BOX 606,
Free format text: ASSIGNS THE ENTIRE INTEREST. SUBJECT TO AGREEMENT DATED JUNE 30,1983;ASSIGNOR:ESQUIRE, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004190/0815
Effective date: 19830916