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Publication numberUS3921355 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 25, 1975
Filing dateApr 9, 1974
Priority dateApr 12, 1973
Publication numberUS 3921355 A, US 3921355A, US-A-3921355, US3921355 A, US3921355A
InventorsPennecot Jean
Original AssigneePennecot Jean
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Building composed of prefabricated elements
US 3921355 A
Abstract
The building has walls and partitions which are constituted by an assembly of interconnected prefabricated elements. Each of the elements comprises a ladder-frame having uprights and cross-members of identical thickness in respect of all of the elements. The uprights and cross-members define wall parts in which are disposed filler means or chassis or frames for windows or doors connected to the uprights and cross-members. End uprights of each element define an end edge surface of the element. The connection at 90 DEG or 180 DEG of a plurality of adjacent ones of the elements being along the end surfaces thereof so that the end surfaces of adjacent pairs of the elements in the connection define two adjoining sides of a square-sectioned prismatic region.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1 1 Pennecot 1 1 Nov. 25, 1975 1 BUILDING COMPOSED OF PREFABRICATED ELEMENTS [76] inventor: Jean Pennecot, 7, Rue du Docteur [30] Foreign Application Priority Data Apr. 12, 1973 France 73.13231 [52] US. C1. 52/262; 52/274; 52/284 [51] Int. Cl. E048 1/348; E048 1/38 [581 Field of Search 52/211, 236,262,269. 52/259, 274. 241, 242, 281, 282, 284, 285, 615, 90

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,031,926 7/1912 Hansbrough 52/259 1,315,142 9/1919 Mason 52/281 1,878,367 9/1932 Bemis 1 i 1. 52/281 2,177,699 10/1939 Fisher 52/274 X 2,202,745 5/1940 Muse r i 1 52/259 X 2,204,319 6/1940 Parsons et a1 52/282 X 2 580,174 12/1951 Henderson 52/259 3,000,144 9/1961 Kitson 3,350,828 11/1967 Russell.

3,733,232 5/1973 Payne 3,771,277 11/1973 Ruusch et ul. 1. 52/90 X Primary Examiner-Price C. Fuw. Jr. Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Holman & Stern [57] ABSTRACT The building has walls and partitions which are consti tuted by an assembly of interconnected prefabricated elements, Each of the elements comprises a ladderframe having uprights and cross-members 01" identical thickness in respect of all of the elements. The uprights and cross-members define wall parts in which are disposed filler means or chassis or frames for windows or doors connected to the uprights and crossmembers. End uprights of each element define an end edge surface of the element. The connection at 90 or 180 of a plurality of adjacent ones of the elements being along the end surfaces thereof so that the end surfaces of adjacent pairs of the elements in the connection define two adjoining sides of a squaresectioned prismatic region.

22 Claims, 31 Drawing Figures US. Patent Nov. 25, 1975 Sheet20f 10 3,921,355

U.S. Patent Nov. 25, 1975 Sheet3of 10 3,921,355

5 i u u u u ml Q Q & 56 m6" Tlm l ll U I U U m a I'm 0 m Y N m N\ Sheet 5 of 10 3,921,355

US. Patent Nov. 25, 1975 U.S. Patent Nov. 25, 1975 Sheet 6 of 10 U.S. Patent Nov. 25, 1975 Sheet70f 10 3,921,355

U.S. Patent Nov. 25, 1975 Sheet80f 10 3,921,355

U.S. Patent Nov. 25, 1975 Sheet9of 10 3,921,355

US. Patent Nov. 25, 1975 Sheet 10 of 10 3,921,355

79 101 79 .01, 102/ m va 78/ 78 A J I a 71 BUILDING COMPOSED OF PREFABRICATED ELEMENTS The present invention provides a building composed of prefabricated elements wherein the walls and the partitions are constructed by the assembly of elements comprising a ladder-frame whose uprights and cross members which have an identical thickness in respect of all the elements are connected to filler wall parts or to chassis or frames for windows and doors, the assembly of two elements at 90or l80being achieved by a connection interconnecting the edge portions of the two elements, which edge portions are disposed in the manner of two faces of a square-section prism.

The invention thus employs an application and an adaptation to buildings of the technique of ladder-girders which has been well tried in many constructional works by the use of ladder-frames the spaces of which are closed by filler wall parts, chassis or frames. The elements obtained, which are preferably employed for the construction of structures having merely a ground floor or one storey, for individual houses or for schools, hospitals, motels, offices, etc, are self-sustaining and may be cheaply manufactured in the factory.

The transport of these elements to the assembly site may also benefit from a low cost if, in accordance with another feature of the invention, the filler wall parts are panels of the sandwich type constituted by a core of low-density injected plastics material such as polyurethane foam, and surface sheets, this plastics material being furthermore employed for the rigid and sealed connection of panels with the uprights and the corresponding cross-members which are for this purpose constructed in the form of box structures filled by the plastics material. The elements are thus both monolithic and light so that their assembly for the construction of the building can be carried out by hand, with no need to employ hoisting or lifting machines.

The manufacturing operation is carried out by means of a press with the use of positioning fixtures both for the section members constituting the uprights and cross-members and the wall parts, chassis and frames.

The use of a plastics material as the main material of the elements, in the form of a low-density foam, also affords an insulation of high quality. Any thermal bridge between the outer faces and inner faces of the elements may moreover be avoided by providing, in the construction of each box-like upright and box-like cross-member two metal section members whose sides perpendicular to the elements are out of contact with each other, their connection being achieved by the filling and connecting plastics material.

The surface sheet of the sandwich panels may be of any type for example of fibro-cement, aluminium. enamelled sheet metal.

The assembly of two adjacent elements, disposed in line or at a right angle, may be effected by means of tubular elements or collars the section of which defines a square whose side dimension equals the thickness of the uprights, these tubular elements or collars being bolted to the edges of the end uprights.

The framework carried by a suitable foundation and produced by assemblies of the elements constituting the walls and partitions is completed by a ceiling and possibly by a floor, both of which are constructed, for example, by means of panels secured to purlins bolted to the upper cross-members of the ladder-frames and by a covering formed preferably from horizontal members constituting roof trays in the bottom of which is poured a mass of plastics material, such as polyurethane foam, whose upper face has an inclination to allow waters to flow. The trays are assembled in a sealed manner by an interfitting of their end portions which are provided with a section suitable for this purpose.

The assembly, as already mentioned, may be carried out easily and may include the operations for connecting up the electric wires and piping which may be integrated in the elements constituting the walls and partitions in the course of their manufacture in the factory.

The elements constituting the walls and partitions are divided into two series, one series comprising primary elements which define between the successive uprights wall parts, that is to say, regions to be filled or, to be provided with windows or doors. all of which regions have an equal length, the other series comprising secondary elements which, in order to permit the division into fractions of elements of the main series. have each a length less than that of the element of the first rank of the primary series, the difference corresponding to the width of the joint or joints to be provided on a length of the partition or wall in which the considered secondary element is integrated, equal to the length of a primary element of higher rank, in order to ensure the assembly at with one or more other wall or partition elements.

Thus, a wall element 2 metres long of the primary series may be replaced by two elements 0.95 metre long of the secondary series with a joint whose width, 0.10 metre, is equal to the thickness of the walls and partitions.

Therefore, the invention departs from conventional modular systems in which the reference length is invariable which often renders architectural, manufacturing and assembly problems complex owing to the variable dimensions of the wall. partition and pillar thicknesses.

If it is assumed that in each series the width a of the end uprights and the width b of the intermediate upright or uprights are the same, the differences of length between the elements of the respective series appears in the difference between the width of the wall parts c of the primary elements and the width of the wall parts 0 of the secondary elements (c c This division into two series permits a multitude of architectural solutions with a lower total number of elements and thus satisfies the requirements of the construction of different types of buildings which are for individual use or of the collective type.

If the local conditions do not permit the use of light elements based on low-density plastics material, it is possible to make the uprights and the cross-members of a ladder-frame of reinforced concrete and to provide the filler wall parts also of concrete, the connection between these wall parts or chassis or frames and the uprights and cross-members being carried out by means ofa mortar joint preferably composed of expansible cement so as to ensure a faultness seal. This arrangement requires the use of transporting and assembly machines and also the use of connecting concrete between elements for constructing the building on the site. This connecting concrete is preferably in the form of small posts of reinforced concrete the metal reinforcement of which is ensured, on one hand, by metal straps left in readiness on the edges of the elements and, on the other hand. by vertical steel bars anchored in the foundation slab. These small posts of reinforced concrete may render superflous the joint covers normally provided in the arrangement employing light elements, preferably containing polyurethane foam.

Further features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the ensuing description with reference to the accompanying drawings.

In the drawings:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the walls and partitions of a building;

FIG. 2 is a corresponding plan view;

FIGS. 3 to 7 are diagrammatic elevational views of wall and partition elements of utility in the construction of a building. each element comprising a ladder-frame whose spaces are filled by filler wall parts;

FIG. 8 is a diagrammatic elevational view of an element in which a window chassis is incorporated;

FIG. 9 is a sectional view taken on line 9-9 of FIG.

FIGS. 10 and II are sectional views taken on lines 10l0 and 11-ll of FIG. 8;

FIG. 12 is a sectional view. to an enlarged scale. of an element having two filler wall parts;

FIG. 13 is a partial sectional view of an element in the region of a window chassis;

FIG. 14 is a sectional view of a modification of the structure shown in FIG. 13;

FIG. 15 is a sectional view of an element in the region of a wood frame;

FIGS. 16 and 17 are sectional views of the assembly of two elements respectively at I80 and 90;

FIGS. 18 and 19 are perspective views of the assembly at a right angle of respectively two elements and four elements which are superposed in pairs;

FIG. 20 is a perspective view of the fixing of the element to a foundation slab;

FIG. 21 is a plan view corresponding to FIG. 20;

FIG. 22 is a sectional view of the assembly ofa ceiling and a floor;

FIG. 23 is a partial perspective view. to an enlarged scale. of a purlin employed in the assembly shown in FIG. 22;

FIG. 24 is a perspective view of a roof element;

FIG. 25 is a sectional view taken on line 2525 of FIG. 24;

FIG. 26 is a sectional view taken on line 2626 of FIG. 24;

FIG. 27 is an elevational view. to an enlarged scale. of one side of a roof element;

FIG. 28 is a sectional view ofa gutter assembled with a roof element;

FIG. 29 is a diagrammatic horizontal sectional view of an assembly of concrete wall elements;

FIG. 30 is a diagrammatic vertical sectional view ofa connecting post anchored in the foundation. and

FIG. 31 is a diagrammatic vertical sectional view of concrete elements of a building having a ground floor and first floor.

The walls and partitions of a dwelling house having merely a ground floor shown in perspective in FIG. 1 and in plan in FIG. 2, are constituted by elements L and L each of which includes a ladder-frame having mainly two cross-members 1, 2 interconnected by end uprights 3, 4 and one or more intermediate uprights 6, and wall parts 7, 8 or 0 which may be filler wall parts or regions in which a chassis or a frame is mounted (FIGS. 4 to 8 and 13-15) which equip the empty spaces defined by the cross-members and uprights. It is also possible. as shown in FIG. 3, to employ a single frame L devoid of an intermediate upright.

The indices 1, 2, n attached to the reference letters L and L will designate the number of wall parts 7, 8 and 9 of the corresponding elements.

Each standard element is assembled at or with an adjacent element by means which will be described hereinafter without overlapping of the elements at their ends. the contact between the two elements being a merely linear contact between two edges pertaining to the respective edge faces of the elements. This defines square-section prismatic joint regions 11 which. depending on whether the assembly interconnects two. three or four elements. are closed on two. three or four sides. The open sides. namely the sides which are not closed by an element edge portion. are normally covered with a flat joint cover 12 or an L-section joint cover 13.

In order to permit a wide diversity of choice in the composition of a building and in architectural respects. the elements constituting the walls and partitions are divided into two series, namely a first series (L) and a secondary series (L'). In both series the widths a of the end uprights 3, 4 and the widths b of the intermediate uprights are the same, but the width c of the wall parts 7, 8 and 9, which are filled or receive a chassis or a frame. of the standard elements of the primary series exceeds the width 0' of the same region of the standard elements of the secondary series.

The length in plan I,, of a primary element having it wall parts is defined by the following equation: 1,, nc (n-l )b +20 and the length in plan I 'n of a secondary element having n wall parts is defined by the following equation: I',, m +(n1)b 20 in which 0' is less than 1*.

Thus. in the house shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the rectangular room located in the upper right corner is defined by two standard elements L which are opposite. a standard element L, and two standard elements L' which face standard element L, and are disposed in the extension of each other but separated by a joint region II which is due to the assembly at 90 of an element L defining a neighbouring room. In order that the overall length of the two elements L, plus the joint therebetween be equal to the length of the element L it is obviously necessary that the length of the elements L, of the secondary series be less than the length of the element L, of the primary series.

The element L, shown in FIG. 8 comprises in its centre part. between two intermediate uprights 6, a horizontal cross-member 16 located between the two end cross-members l, 2 and defining, below it, a filler wall part 9 whose height is less than the height of the wall parts adjacent the end uprights 3, 4, and a wall part 8 provided with a chassis for a window [7.

As can be seen in FIGS. 9 to 12, the cross-members l, 2, 16 and the uprights 3, 4, 6 constitute box-structures obtained by the assembly of two U-section or channel-section members 18, 19 of steel or aluminium sheet by means of an injected plastics material 21 which is preferably polyurethane foam and at the same time secures to the respective uprights and respective cross-members either filler wall parts 7 in the form of sandwich panels comprising a core 22 of insulating material and two surface sheets 23, 24 which are for exam ple of fibro-cement or enamelled sheet metal or. the window chassis 17. The core 22 of the sandwich panels is advantageously made from polyurethane foam.

The two section members 18, I9 are out of contact with each other in each upright or cross-member owing to the fact that their adjacent edge portions defining one of the plane surfaces of the box-structure are separated by a gap 26 (FIG. 12) with which the plastics material 21 is flush. Thus the uprights and cross-members have no thermal bridge.

FIG. 14 shows that the window chassis I7 is constituted by uprights and cross-members in the form of section members 27, 28 which are rendered integral with the uprights 6 and the adjacent cross-members 2, 16 by the plastics material 21 which is injected in the uprights and cross-members.

Whereas in FIG. I3 each upright and cross-member of the chassis I7 is constituted by a transversely contin uous section member which creates a thermal bridge, FIG. I4 shows an embodiment in which the uprights and cross-members of the chassis 17 are each constituted by three section members including two edge section members 29, 31 and a centre section member forming a joint cover 32 which is anchored in the plastics material 21 and remains out of contact with the edge section members 29, 31 so that there is no thermal bridge.

In FIG. 15, the region defined between the two intermediate uprights 6 is constituted by a wood frame 33 whose uprights and cross-members are embedded by their heel portion 34 in the plastics material 21 of the intermediate uprights or cross-members l, 2 of the ladder-frame.

As shown in FIG. 16, two wall or partition elements disposed in line are assembled by square-section collars 36 disposed in the joint 11 which separates them, two opposed sides thereof being fixed by means of bolts 37 to the edge portions of the end uprights 3, 4 of the two elements. The flat joint covers 12 are also secured by bolting to the opposite free sides of the collars 36.

The same collar 36 is employed in the structure shown in FIGS. I7 and 18 for the assembly of two elements disposed at a right angle with respect to each other, the sides of the collar 36 employed for this purpose being of course adjacent sides.

FIG. 19 shows the assembly of four elements in su perimposed relation in pairs in a building having a first floor above the ground floor so as to form two walls or partitions at a right angle by means of a collar 36b which has a height twice the height of the collars 36 shown in FIGS. 16 to 18 so as to be capable of being bolted to the adjacent four edge portions of the respective end uprights.

FIG. shows a foundation slab 38 on which bear two elements assembled at a right angle and secured to the foundation slab by brackets 39 having upstanding branches bolted to the edge portion of the end uprights 3, 4 and horizontal branches which overlap each other and are clamped by a nut 41 screwed on a vertical bolt 42 anchored in the masonry. In the joint 26, which cannot be seen in FIG. 20, formed on the edge portion of the lower cross-members l of the two elements which is applied against the top of the foundation slab, the injected plastics material 21 may form a projecting beading which, when crushed under the load, contributes to the sealing of the assembly.

FIG. 22 corresponds to the case where the building has a first floor or storey above the ground floor and represents the assembly of the ceiling of the ground floor and the floor of the first storey. In the region of the joint line of the two cross-members l, 2 of the two parallel walls there is secured a T-section member 43 whose web 44 which projects inwardly receives. in bearing relation thereon, a purlin 46 formed by two parallel girders 47, 48 (FIG. 23) which are preferably spaced apart and comprise each a U-section member 49 in which is fitted a wood member 51 which is uncovered on the outer surface of the girders. U-section members 52, cut from a section member identical to the section members 49 and evenly spaced apart. are welded by their respective flanges to the outer surface of the webs of the U-section members 49. The wood members 51 are retained by these spacer members 52 through nails 52 which are provided with a nose portion 53 constituting a hook and are produced by a press operation and extend through openings 64 formed in the members 49. The ceiling 56 is secured to the bottom of the lower girders 47 whereas the floor 57 bears on the top of the upper girders 48.

FIG. 24 shows a roof element 56 which is disposed horizontally and comprises a framework formed by section members 57 the web of which includes a vertical portion 58 terminating in an inwardly bent flange 59 and an upwardly and outwardly obliquely oriented portion 6] which is connected to an outwardly bent flange 62 whose trapezoidal section is adapted to be assembled, by overlapping and fitting, with the adjacent flange of the same side of another roof element. Formed in situ on the lower part 58, 59 of the frame is a sandwich panel 63 whose lower surface sheet 64 of fibrocement is horizontal and applied against the lower flange 59 of the longitudinal section members 57 and whose upper surface sheet 66, also of fibro cement. has an inclination so as to permit the waters to flow away and coincides with the folded portion of the same inclination formed by the line of separation 60 between the two parts 58, 61 of the web of the longitudinal section members 57. The core of the sandwich panel 63 is preferably of polyurethane foam.

FIG. 27 shows an L-section edge portion 67 which overlaps the sandwich panel 63 and is connected along the fold line 60 with the section member 57. Owing to the inclination of the surface sheet 66 and the part 6I of the section member 57, the width of the L-section portion 67 is variable.

In FIG. 28, a gutter 68 is assembled with a section member 69 which is secured to the end of the sandwich panel 63 and defines an L-shaped recess in which a flange of the gutter is fitted.

In FIGS. 29 and 30, the cross-members and the uprights of the ladder-frame of the elements are of reinforced concrete. The filler wall parts I07, also of concrete, are assembled with the uprights so that the uprights, such as the uprights 103, 106, by means of a mortar joint 7! which is formed between two recesses 72, 73 provided on the surfaces of the uprights, or cross-members, and the parts or panels I07. The mortar employed is preferably of the type based on expanding cement so as to ensure an improved seal. The concrete chassis 117, provided for mounting windows. are also assembled by means of a mortar joint 7!.

Whereas the elements constituting the walls or partitions are normally manufactured in the factory, they are of course interconnected on the building site by means of reinforced posts 75 poured in the prismatic regions defined by the joint regions 11. For this purpose, straps 74 anchored in the edge portions of the end uprights 103 and 104 of the elements constitute.

together with vertical reinforcement bars 76 anchored in the foundation 38, the reinforcement of the connection posts 75.

FIG. 31 shows elements assembled to constitute a building having a ground floor and a first floor. The upper cross-member 102 of the ground floor element is assembled with the lower cross-member 101 of the element of the first floor by mortar joints 71 which are identical to those shown in FIG. 29. Further. each upper cross-member includes a heel 78 which may be single or double and is adapted to receive and support the corresponding edge portion of a floor slab 79.

Having now described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

l. A building having walls and partitions which are constituted by an assembly comprising prefabricated elements and connecting means for interconnecting the prefabricated elements. each of said elements comprising a ladder-frame having uprights and crossmembers. which uprights and cross-members have an identical thickness in respect of all of said elements and define wall parts. structures disposed in said wall parts and connected to said uprights and cross-members, each of said structures comprising any of the following three items: filler means and chassis and frames for windows and doors; end uprights of the uprights of each element defining an end edge surface of the element. the con nection at 90 or l80 of a plurality of adjacent ones of said elements by said connecting means being along said end surfaces thereof in such manner that said end surfaces of adjacent pairs of said elements in said connection have edges adjoining each other and define two adjacent sides of a square-sectioned prismatic region. said connecting means interconnecting said elements in said region. the interconnected elements being sufficiently strong and rigid to constitute bearing walls and the connecting means being merely sufficient to perform their connecting function and insufficient to perform a load carrying function. the elements being divided in two series. a first series being formed by standard primary elements and a second series being formed by standard secondary elements. the secondary elements being shorter in plan than the primary elements by an amount equivalent to the dimension of one side of said square-sectioned region whereby to permit a combination of partitions and walls with the use of said standard primary and secondary elements.

2. A building as claimed in claim 1, wherein the uprights and the cross-members of an element comprise each a box-structure and an injected plastics material in the box-structure which plastics material ensures a connection with the said structures disposed in said wall parts.

3. A building as claimed in claim 2, wherein the interconnection of adjacent elements is ensured by means of fittings and means for fixing the fittings to end edge surfaces defined by end uprights of the adjacent elements.

4. A building as claimed in claim 2, wherein the uprights and the cross-members comprise each two section members which are interconnected and connected to said structure by said plastics material which is injected between the two section members.

5. A building as claimed in claim 4, wherein the section members are of metal.

6. A building as claimed in claim 5, wherein said metal is sheet metal.

7. A building as claimed in claim 1, wherein said filler means comprise sandwich-type panels.

8. A building as claimed in claim 3, wherein the sandwich-type panels comprise a core of polyurethane having outer surfaces to which outer surfaces there are connected sheets of material.

9. A building as claimed in claim 1. wherein at least some of said structures are filler means of concrete.

10. A building as claimed in claim 1. having roof elements comprising each a horizontal frame which is of shaped section and has a horizontal lower edge portion and a sandwich-type panel having a lower bearing on the lower edge portion and defining an upper surface which has a slope to allow rain water to flow away.

11. A building having walls and partitions which are constituted by an assembly of interconnected prefabricated elements. each of said elements comprising a ladder-frame having uprights and cross-members, which uprights and cross-members have an identical thickness in respect of all of said elements and define wall parts. structures disposed in said wall parts and connected to said uprights and cross-members, each of said struc tures comprising any of the following three items: filler means and chassis and frames for windows and doors; end uprights of the uprights of each element defining an end edge surface of the element, the connection at or of a plurality of adjacent ones of said elements being along said end surfaces thereof so that said end surfaces of adjacent pairs of said elements in said connection define two adjacent sides of a square-sectioned prismatic region, the uprights and the crossmembers of an element each comprising two metal section members forming a box-structure and an injected plastics material in the box-structure which plastics material ensures a connection with said structures disposed in said wall parts. the section members of each upright and cross'members being interconnected and connected to said structure by said plastics material, each end upright of the elements comprising on the corresponding end surface two portions of said respective section members which portions are spaced from each other in order to avoid a thermal bridge therebetween.

l2. A building having walls and partitions which are constituted by an assembly of interconnected prefabricated elements. each of said elements comprising a ladder-frame having uprights and cross-members, which uprights and cross-members have an identical thickness in respect of all of said elements and define wall parts, structures disposed in said wall parts and connected to said uprights and cross-members, each of said structures comprising any of the following three items: filler means and chassis and frames for windows and doors; end uprights of the uprights of each element defining an end edge surface of the element. the connection at 90 or [80 of a plurality of adjacent ones of said elements being along said end surfaces thereof so that said end surfaces of adjacent pairs of said elements in said connection define two adjacent sides of a square-sectioned prismatic region. the uprights and the crossmembers of an element each comprising a box-struc ture and an injected plastics material in the box-strum ture which plastics material ensures a connection with said structures disposed in said wall parts, said chassis and frames for windows and doors comprising section members anchored in said plastics material injected in adjacent uprights of the corresponding ladder-frame.

13. A building having walls and partitions which are constituted by an assembly of interconnected prefabricated elements. each of said elements comprising a ladder-frame having uprights and cross-members. which uprights and cross-members have an identical thickness in respect of all of said elements and define wall parts. structures disposed in said wall parts and connected to said uprights and cross-members, each of said structures comprising any of the following three items: filler means and chassis and frames for windows and doors; end uprights of the uprights of each element defining an end edge surface of the element, the connection at 90 or l80 of a plurality of adjacent ones of said elements being along said end surfaces thereof so that said end surfaces of adjacent pairs of said elements in said connection define two adjacent sides of a square-sec tioned prismatic region, the uprights and the crossmembers of an element each comprising a box-structure and an injected plastics material in the box-structure which plastics material ensures a connection with said structures disposed in said wall parts. said chassis and frames for windows and doors comprising wood members embedded and anchored in said plastics material which fills adjacent uprights of the corresponding ladder-frame.

14. A building having walls and partitions which are constituted by an assembly of interconnected prefabricated elements, each of said elements comprising a ladder-frame having uprights and cross-members, which uprights and cross-members have an identical thickness in respect of all of said elements and define wall parts, structures disposed in said wall parts and connected to said uprights and cross-members. each of said structures comprising any of the following three items: filler means and chassis and frames for windows and doors; end uprights of the uprights of each element defining an end edge surface of the element, the connection at 90 or l80 of a plurality of adjacent ones of said elements being along said end surfaces thereof so that said end surfaces of adjacent pairs of said elements in said connection define two adjacent sides of a square-sectioned prismatic region, the interconnection of adjacent elements being ensured by means of fittings and means for fixing the fittings to end edge surfaces defined by end uprights of the adjacent elements, the connection fittings being constituted by tubular elements having a square cross-sectional shape defining sides of the square shape which have a length equal to the thickness of the corresponding end uprights, two adjacent sides of said fittings being connected to end edge surfaces of a pair of said elements in the case of an assembly of said pair of elements at 90 to each other and two opposite sides of said fittings being connected to end edge surfaces of a pair of said elements in the case of an assembly of said pair of elements at 180 to each other.

15. A building as claimed in claim 14, wherein said fixing means comprise bolts.

16. A building having walls and partitions which are constituted by an assembly comprising prefabricated elements and connecting means for interconnecting the prefabricated elements, each of said elements comprising a ladder-frame having uprights and cross-members. which uprights and cross-members have an identical thickness in respect of all of said elements and define wall parts, structures disposed in said wall parts and connected to said uprights and cross-members, each of said structures comprising any of the following three items: filler means and chassis and frames for windows and doors; end uprights of the uprights of each element defining an end edge surface of the element, the connection at 90 or l ofa plurality of adjacent ones of said elements by said connecting means being along said end surfaces thereof in such manner that said end surfaces of adjacent pairs of said elements in said connection have edges adjoining each other and define two adjacent sides of a square-sectioned prismatic region. said connecting means interconnecting said elements in said region. the interconnected elements being sufficiently strong and rigid to constitute bearing walls and the connecting means being merely sufficient to perform their connecting function and insufficient to perform a load carrying function. the elements being divided in two series. a first series being formed by standard primary elements and a second series being formed by standard secondary elements. the secondary elements being shorter in plan than the primary elements by an amount equivalent to the dimension of one side of said square-sectioned region whereby to permit a combination of partitions and walls with the use of said standard primary and secondary elements. said connecting means between two adjacent elements comprising reinforced concrete posts which are in a poured condition in said square-section prismatic region.

17. A building as claimed in claim 16, wherein members are combined with end uprights ofthe adjacent el' ements interconnected by the posts which end uprights define said end edge surfaces. said members being embedded in said concrete posts.

18. A building having walls and partitions which are constituted by an assembly comprising prefabricated elements and connecting means for interconnecting the prefabricated elements. each of said elements comprising a ladder-frame having uprights and cross-members. which uprights and cross-members have an identical thickness in respect of all of said elements and define wall parts. structures disposed in said wall parts and connected to said uprights and cross-members. each of said structures comprising any of the following three items: filler means and chassis and frames for windows and doors; end uprights of the uprights of each element defining an end edge surface of the element, the connection at or of a plurality of adjacent ones of said elements by said connecting means being along said end surfaces thereof in such manner that said end surfaces of adjacent pairs of said elements in said connection have edges adjoining each other and define two adjacent sides of a square-sectioned prismatic region. said connecting means interconnecting said elements in said region. the interconnected elements being sufficiently strong and rigid to constitute bearing walls and the connecting means being merely sufficient to perform their connecting function and insufficient to perform a load carrying function. the elements being divided in two series, a first series being formed by standard primary elements and a second series being formed by standard secondary elements. the secondary elements being shorter in plan than the primary elements by an amount equivalent to the dimension of one side of said square-sectioned region whereby to permit a combination of partitions and walls with the use of said standard primary and secondary elements. said connecting means between two adjacent elements comprising reinforced concrete posts which are in a poured condition in said square-section prismatic region. the building further comprising a foundation slab on which slab the walls and the partitions bear. a bracket secured to the foundation by anchoring means being combined with a base part of at least some ofend uprights of the elements for securing the elements to the slab, and vertical metal reinforcement members anchored in the foundation slab and embedded in said posts.

19. A building having walls and partitions which are constituted by an assembly of interconnected prefabricated elements. each of said elements comprising a ladder-frame having uprights and cross-members. which uprights and cross-members have an identical thickness in respect of all of said elements and define wall parts. structures disposed in said wall parts and connected to said uprights and cross-members. each of said structures comprising any of the following three items: filler means and chassis and frames for windows and doors; end uprights of the uprights of each element defining an end edge surface of the element. the connection at 90 or l80 of a plurality of adjacent ones of said elements being along said end surfaces thereof so that said end surfaces of adjacent pairs of said elements in said connection define two adjacent sides of a square-sectioned prismatic region. the building having at least one storey in addition to a ground floor and comprising superposed elements of said elements constituting said walls and partitions, said superposed elements having their cross-members in adjacent relation to constitute a support, and a purlin supported by said support. said purlin comprising two parallel vertically-spaced girders comprising each a U-section member and a wood member fitted in the U-section member. vertical bracing members welded to the U-section members interconnecting the two girders and combined with nails which are driven into the wood members so as to retain the wood members.

20. A building having walls and partitions which are constituted by an assembly comprising prefabricated elements and connecting means for interconnecting the prefabricated elements. each of said elements comprising a ladder-frame having uprights and cross-members. which uprights and cross-members have an identical thickness in respect of all of said elements and define wall parts. structures disposed in said wall parts and connected to said uprights and cross-members. each of said structures comprising any of the following three items: filler means and chassis and frames for windows and doors; end uprights of the uprights of each element defining an end edge surface of the element. the connection at 90 or 180 of a plurality of adjacent ones of said elements by said connecting means being along said end surfaces thereof in such manner that said end surfaces of adjacent pairs of said elements in said connection have edges adjoining each other and define two adjacent sides of a square-sectioned prismatic region. said connecting means interconnecting said elements in said region, the interconnected elements being sufficiently strong and rigid to constitute bearing walls and the connecting means being merely sufficient to per form their connecting function and insufficient to perform a load carrying function. the elements being divided in two series, a first series being formed by standard primary elements and a second series being formed by standard secondary elements. the secondary elements being shorter in plan than the primary elements by an amount equivalent to the dimension of one side of said square-sectioned region whereby to permit a combination of partitions and walls with the use of said standard primary and secondary elements. said elements being divided into two series, a first series being formed by standard primary elements which define wall parts between successive uprights in which wall parts said structures are mounted, all of which parts of said first series having an equal first length in plan. the second series of elements comprising standard secondary elements which define wall parts between successive uprights in which wall parts said structures are mounted. all of which wall parts of said secondary elements having an equal second length in plan. each secondary element which defines a given number of wall parts having its length in plan which is less than the length in plan of a primary element which defines the same number of wall parts by an amount equivalent to the dimension of one side of said squaresectioned region. whereby to permit a combination of partitions and walls with the use of said standard primary and secondary elements.

21. A building as claimed in claim 20, wherein the length in plan I,, of a primary element having n wall parts is defined by the following equation: I nc (n-l b 20 in which 0 designates said first length, b designates the width of an intermediate upright in the direction of said length 1,, and a the width of an end upright in the direction of said length l,,.

22. A building as claimed in claim 20, wherein the length in plan I of a primary element having n wall parts is defined by the following equation: 1,, nc ("-1 b 20 and the length in plan 1,, ofa secondary element having n wall parts is defined by the following equation: I',, m (n-l )b 20. in which c designates said first length, 0' designates said second length and is less than c, b designates the width of an intermediate upright in the direction of the lengths l,, and l',, and a the width of an end upright in the direction of the lengths l,, and l',,, c is less than c.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/262, 52/274, 52/284
International ClassificationE04B2/58, E04D3/36, E04D3/365, E04D3/35, E04C2/38, E04C3/293, E04B2/62, E04B1/02, E04B1/20, E04B1/30, E04C3/292, E04B1/21, E04C3/29
Cooperative ClassificationE04B1/20, E04D3/352, E04C2/38, E04B1/215, E04C3/292, E04B2/62, E04B1/30, E04D3/358, E04D3/365, E04C3/293
European ClassificationE04C3/293, E04B2/62, E04B1/30, E04D3/35A1, E04C2/38, E04D3/365, E04B1/20, E04C3/292, E04D3/35F