|Publication number||US3921599 A|
|Publication date||Nov 25, 1975|
|Filing date||Apr 21, 1972|
|Priority date||Apr 21, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3921599 A, US 3921599A, US-A-3921599, US3921599 A, US3921599A|
|Inventors||Grow Harlow B|
|Original Assignee||Grow Craig H|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (10), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [1 1 [111 3,921,599 Grow 1 Nov. 25, 1975  FUEL PUMP INJECTION FOR Primary Examiner-Charles J. Myhre COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES Inventor: Harlow B. Grow, Pacific Palisades,
Assignee: Craig H. Grow, Pacific Palisades;
Bruce W. Grow, Manhattan Beach, both of Calif, part interest to each Filed: Apr. 21, 1972 Appl. No.: 246,318
US. Cl. 123/25 A; 123/25 E; 123/25 M Int. Cl. FOZd 19/00 Field of Search 123/139 R, 139 AK, 25 R,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 955,024 4/1910 Walker et al. 417/545 1,261,061 4/1918 Seymour 123/139 R 1,636,614 7/1972 Prellwitz.... 92/166 3,311,030 3/1967 Halstead 92/165 R 3,749,097 7/1973 Grow 123/25 E Assistant Examiner-R. H. Lazarus ABSTRACT A fuel injection system for compression ignition internal combustion engines wherein relatively small volumetric constant fuel injection is required'with potency varied dependent upon the required power application. A constant stroke and constant volume differential ram pump is operated in timed relation to the engine crankshaft rotation, with a fuel mixing and displacement unit for each engine cylinder involved, and in its preferred form the injector per se is incorporated in said ram pump. The structural functions are: low pressure metering and homogenous mixing together of discretely small amounts of at least two liquid fuels, one of maximum potency and one of lesser or minimum potency such as a dilutant and/or other additive as may be required; the averaging of power through multiple power strokes or revolutions, and the constant volume injection results in full stroke fuel injection reduced peak pressure and smoothness of an operation especially adapted to small light weight engines; all of which is due to the controllability of relatively small discrete amounts of liquid to be injected.
11 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures Sheet 1 of 2 3,921,599
U.S. Patent Nov. 25, 1975 f A 6% M Z/ "W M K a 1 F 2 ..W F F 4 2 wt r r .0 as n umwfiwwrr V0 LU ME US. Patent Nov.25, 1975 Sheet20f2 3,921,599
IIIII KNJ'E'CT ON FUEL PUMP INJECTION FOR COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES RELATED PATENT AND APPLICATION This invention relates to and involves improvements to my U.S. Pat. No. 2,319,958 entitled METHOD AND MEANS FOR CONTROLLING COMBUSTION EN- GINES dated May 25, 1943 and to my co-pending application Ser. No. 95,527 entitled INTERNAL COM- BUSTION ENGINE CONTROL and filed Dec. 14, 1970 and now issued as U.S. Pat. No. 3,749,097 dated July 31, 1973.
BACKGROUND It is the constant volume injection principle which is utilized and to the end that the pressure volume curve of the engine is improved and uncontrolled pressure changes therein eliminated, and as a consequence making it possible to deliver smoother power at higher rates in engines of lighter construction. However, the constant volume solid injection herein disclosed is to be distinguished from the constant volume cycle of the Otto cycle engines wherein a mixture of air and combustible fuel is drawn into a cylinder and compressed therein before ignition. I am particularly concerned herein with the compression ignition engine, improved so as to more closely approach theoretical perfection. The injection fuel is a homogenous mixture of at least two liquids, one such as oil or fossil fuel with its full compliment of constituents and properties which afford a maximum power potential commonly rated in British Thermal Units, and one such as water (preferably treated, for example modified or pure or distilled water) with its lesser potency or inert or partially inert properties insofar as combustibility is concerned. In addition to the use of fossil fuels mixed with water, I contemplate the mixture of alcohol and like fuels with water; wherein the water-alcohol will serve as the idling mixture and will have anti-freeze properties.
FIELD OF INVENTION In practicing this fuel injection concept, there are inherent structural problems with respect to the application thereof to relatively small engines. The injector pump as it is disclosed in corresponding application; Ser. No. 97,527 issued July 31, 1973 and cited herein as U.S. Pat. No. 3,749,097 is feasible but could be structurally incapable of transmitting the necessary forces in small volume injection environments. That is, because of the volume represented by the pumping ram, the mixing chamber will pump less than the transfer chamber and the difference will be the volume of fuel delivered to the engine cylinder; and this is a problem for smaller engines in that the diameter of the pump ram can be so small for the desired fuel volume that it would be structurally incapable of transmitting the forces necessary to do the pumping. Therefore, it is an object of this invention to construct the pump injector so that the structural incapability is not a problem, by providing a differential ram pump wherein there are no restrictions prohibiting adequate structure to withstand the high pressure pumping as circumstances require.
An object of this invention is to provide an injection system for Diesel cycle engines which can be placed thereon as may be required, directly associated as an injector at each cylinder or as a remote injector pump unit with hydraulic delivery lines extending to the cylinder injectors per se.
Another object of this invention is to provide a combined constant volume pump adapted to intermix two liquid fuels and discriminately inject the admixture thereof discretely therefrom and into the engine cylinders. With the present invention, the injector per se is incorporated in the pump ram characterized by its differential diameters which are advantageously employed to acquire structural strength required for the high pressure fuel injection.
Accordingly, the improvements herein disclosed are advantageously utilized for obtaining maximum or peak performance fuel admixed with a minimum or low performance fuel. The quality of the compression ignition engine is in no way adversely affected and equal volume of variable BTU (power) is provided for each power stroke of the engine. The injection is completely controllable and the admixture of various fuels and semi-fuels is practicible. The potency of each power injection is averaged whereby sudden changes are made impossible, while the fuel potency increase or decrease is affected without unreasonable delay, by design in proportioning the differential pump ram as related to the cylinder displacement into which the fuel is injected.
An adjunct of the foregoing objects is that sudden changes in fuel-dilutan't cannot occur with consequent smoothness of operation, the constant volume injection eliminates the usually accepted peak pressures resulting from the explosive characteristics of fuel injection accompanied by ignition lag, and all to the end that peak pressures are reduced so that lighter weight engine structures become permissible, while increasing the potential power output through all speed ranges due to the closer realization of a true constant pressure Diesel cycle.
DRAWINGS The various objects and features of this invention will be fully understood from the following detailed description of the typical preferred forms and applications thereof, throughout which description reference is made to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 are pressure-volume diagrams as shown by indicator cards, FIG. 1 being a composite diagram of the Carnot, Diesel and Otto cycles,
FIG. 2 being variations of the normally injected Diesel cycle and FIG. 3 being variations of the Diesel cycle affected by the constant volume injection of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a crosssectional elevation of the fundamentals involved in a compression ignition engine embodying the injector of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram illustrating the fundamental differential ram injector pump and preferred systems that are provided to service the same.
FIG. 6 illustrates the preferred and combined differential ram pump and injector, and
FIG. 7 illustrates a modified ram pump.
PREFERRED EMBODIMENT This disclosure requires an understanding of various internal combustion cycles and pre pressure-volume diagrams thereof as depicted graphically on the indicator cards developed for that purpose. Three such card diagrams are shown in FIG. I, 2 and 3 of the drawings; FIG. 1 illustrating the theoretical envelope curves embracing Carnot, Diesel and Otto cycles; FIG. 2 illustrating the variations that occur in the normally injected Diesel cycle; and FIG. 3 showing the improvements realized by the constant volume variable potency injected of the present invention.
Referring to FIG. 1, a two cycle envelope is shown and which is much the same for all internal combustion engines. The point of ignition a indicates the start of the combustion process that adds heat to the working fluid. If the theoretical Carnot cycle could be achieved by adding heat isothermically, the lowermost constant temperature line a-b would have bounded the top of the pressure volume curve. The other extreme is the Otto cycle which is quite successful but with recognized disadvantages which need not be discussed herein, and the uppermost constant volume line a-c bounding the top of the pressure volume curve. The Diesel cycle is shown as a compromising constant pressure line a-d which theoretically bounds the top of the pressure-volume curve but which in practically does not, for various'reasons that will now be pointed out.
The a-d constant pressure curve of FIG. 1 leads us to believe that the Diesel engine operates on constant pressure during fuel injection, but this ideal is not realized in practice since indicator cards show ignition lag followed by sharply rising peak pressures resulting from the explosive characteristics of the said ignition. Referring now to FIG. 2, a typical four cycle Diesel envelope is illustrated with its characteristic pressure peak following ignition as a result of ignition lag. The theoretical constant pressure curves a-d, is represented by several dimensional distances along said curve, namely in degrees of rotation l, 2 and 3 which represent the degrees of crank rotation during conventional fuel injection, for full load condition (1) and two partial load conditions (2 and 3). The dimension 1 represents the practical maximum degree of rotation for constant pressure (volume) fuel injection, while dimension 2 represents a lesser degree of rotation from point a where cut-off of the injection occurs; and while dimension 3 represents the minimum degree of rotation for 'idle speed. It will be apparent that speed and load control is provided for, but'at great costs and resulting in rough engine operation; due to loss of the constant pressure characteristics and all of which requires heavy engine structures in order to cope with peak loads as they are imposed by over injection at insufficient engine speeds.
Referring now to FIG. 3 and the present invention, a typical four cycle Diesel envelope is illustrated but with a reduced pressure peak following ignition and characterized by a continued elevation of the top curves of the envelope terminating at the one cut-off line d (a vertical line on the chart). The distance 1 remains the same for all power settings, while the pressure drops between points a and d, dependent upon the potency of the fuel-dilutant which is injected at a constant rate. For example, line 4 corresponds to previously described line 2, representing a diluted injection for a lesser load than the maximum load line extending between a and 11'; while line 5 represents a fully diluted idle speed injection corresponding to previously described line 3. Note that fluid injection at a constant rate or volume occurs between pointa and cut-off line 11.
In accordance with the present invention, I have provided an improved fuel pump injector for accomplishing the constant volume variable potency charging of engine cylinders'operating on the Diesel cycle wherein constant pressure operation is sought at a theoretica goal. Each pumping device involves a pump cylinder A,
a partition B separatingthe cylinder into dual chambers X and Y, a differential ram C entering the chambers X and Y respectively and positioning the partition B in the cylinder A, means D reciprocating the. same in timed relation to rotation of the engine, a metered fuel supply means E, a metered fuel-dilutant supply means F, and in the first form of FIG. 5 a remote valved injector means G opening into the engine cylinder, or in the.
second form of FIG. 6 a valved injector means G incorporated in the differential ram C and opening ,di-' rectly into the engine cylinder. FIG. 7 illustrates the synchronous operation of separate differentially sized rams entering the dual chambers X and Y. j
The idea of means embodied in the physical elements of the device involves the dual chambers X and Y, a I
transfer chamber Y in which the fuel and fuel-dilutant are mixed, and a storage chamber X in which fuel mixture not injected is remixed and stored. This remixing and storage concept provides for an averaging of fueldilutant potency over a number of engine cycles depen- The compression ignition engine can vary widely and i in each instance involves a frame 10 journaling a crank-. shaft 11 and carrying a cylinder 12 closed by a head 13 and in which a piston 14 reciprocates according to the angular displacements of the crank connected to the. piston by a rod 14. Whether two or four cycle, there is a maximum number of degrees following the ignition point (a) through which fuel injection can occur (a-d), and it is this number of degrees which isconstant employed by the means D hereinafter described.
The pump cylinder A has an inner diameter wall 15 accurately turned about a central axis, thecylinder opening having substantial length and closed at opposite ends by heads 16 and 17, at least one of which is removable for disassembly. Referring to the first form of i FIG. 5, the lower head 17 incorporates guide bore 17" therethrough and the various fluid passages therein that are involved with the means E, F, and G, while the upper head 16 incorporates a guide bore 16' there through. The said guide bores 16' and 17 reciprocally carry the opposite end portions of the differential ram C. Except for certain features of the aforementioned E, F and G the cylinder A is closed by entry of the ram C through the guide bores 16' and 17'.
Referring to the preferred form of FIG. 6, the partition B is preferably a piston that is operable in the cylinder A and has an outer diameter wall 19 accurately I turned about the central axis and of substantially lesser length than the distance between the heads of the cylinder. In practice, the partition-piston B is a discshaped element with flat spaced and parallel top and bottom faces 20 and 21 disposed in planes normal to said axis. As is preferred and conducive to fluid induction and mixing, the piston B is attached to the differential ram C, and is preferably integral therewith. The piston faces 20 and 21 remain spaced from the heads 16 and 17 re spectively thereby establishing the dual chambers in the cylinder A, the transfer chamber Y and the storage.
chamber X. It is the transfer chamber Y which receives metered amounts of fuel-dilutant for comingling, and it is the storage chamber X which averages the changes in meter. The capacity for averaging by the chamber 5 is dependent upon its remaining unswept volume and accordingly the said chamber is sizable. As shown, the ram C enters through the two chambers X and Y.
The differential ram C that enters the cylinder A is effective in its movement upon the fluids in both chambers X and Y. Although it is feasible to fix the partition B immovably in the cylinder A, it is preferred to attach the partition as a piston to the ram C. In accordance with the improvements of this invention the guide bores 16 and 17' are slideably sealed'with differentially sized ram pistons 23 and 24 respectively. As shown, the ram piston 23 which enters through the guide bore 16 and into the storage chamber X is of larger cross sectional configuration than the ram piston 24 which enters through the guide bore 17' and into the transfer chamber Y. The differential cross sectional configuration is minimized for a correspondingly maximized stroke required, while the volumetric displacement varies alternately between the two chambers X and Y, the total volume being alternately increased and decreased by reciprocal movement of the differential ram C. That is, upward withdrawal of the differential ram increases the total volumetric displacement while downward advancement decreases the total volumetric displacement. However, the fluid flow is unobvious and in accordance with the invention involves open fluid communication between the chambers X and Y. The open fluid communication can take various forms and is preferably a port 22 extending diagonally through the partition B between the faces 20 and 21 thereof as shown. It is the free passage of fluid between chambers X and which is provided, and the advantageous feature of the differential ram C is the substantial diameters of the slightly differentially sized ram pistons 23 and 24.
The means D reciprocating the ram C in timed relation to rotation of the engine can vary in form and construction and it is shown as a cam and tappet drive means. Thus, the ram has a tappet 25 that extends from the cylinder guide bore 18 to engage and follow a cam 27 that revolves with a shaft 26 driven at half engine speed (four cycle timing) through timing gears (not shown), the latter being driven by the crankshaft 11. It will be apparent how the lobe of the cam 26 shifts the tappet 25 so as to project the larger ram piston 23 of differential ram C into the chamber X and thereby move the partition B so as to augment the chamber X while the diminishing the chamber Y while the total displacement is diminished. A return spring 29 can be employed to return the tappet, the characteristic feature being the uniformity of stroke.
The metered fuel supply means E and metered fueldilutant supply means F operate cooperatively to supply or replenish a full injection charge to the chamber X following each constant volume injection therefrom. To this end, the means E involves a valve 30 adapted to intermittently admit fuel, and the means F involves a valve 31 adapted to intermittently admit fuel-dilutant. Essentially, the valves 30 and 31 are alike and are opened in inversely balanced degree or for variably balanced time intervals; all for the purpose of completely replenishing the augmenting chamber Y. Accordingly, the means E supplies fuel, for example oil, from a constant pressure supply 32; while the means F supplies dilutant for example inert liquid such as mineral oil or water, from a constant pressure supply 33. Depending upon the liquid viscosities involved, the said constant pressures are set at suitable levels and/or the liquids are supplied through orifices of suitable diameter. Therefore, the chamber Y augmentation draws the fuel-dilutant mixture into it, the two liquids being pressurized so as to flow thereinto.
Referring to the metering valves 30 and 31 and the constant pressure supplies 32 and 33, constant pressure is established by means of pumps 34 and 35 that deliver the liquids through pressure regulators 36 and 37 respectively. In practice, the discharge apertures remain constant as does the regulated pressure. The amount of delivered liquid in each instance can vary according to the time during which the valves 30 and 31 are fully opened, for example a sequential opening of one valve 30 at the beginning of the intake stroke followed by opening of the other valve 31 which closes at the end of the intake stroke. Or, the pressures to the valves 30 and 31 are inversely varied by the regulators 36 and 37, in which case the valves 30 and 31 are simultaneously and fully opened during the entire inlet stroke of the ram piston. I The preferred coordination between means E and F involves the variable orifice metering valves 30 and 31 as they are shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, in which case the electrical potential applied to retract the needle 40 from the valve seat and against a return spring 42 opens the valves inversely varied amounts. The said electrical potential is controllably determined by a rheostat 41 wherein the opposite terminals 43 and 44 of the resistance are connected to valve opening solenoids 45 and 46 respectively, and wherein the moving contact 47 thereof operates between the said terminals. A contactor 50 revolves with the shaft 27 and cam 26 and which conducts current during the intake stroke of the differential ram C and partition B.
The valved injector means G involves a nozzle 56 that opens into the engine cylinder 12 at the combustion chamber thereof, and has a check valve that prevents the return of fuel-dilutant mixture into chamber Y. Consequently, the delivery is forward at all times through a tube or the like which delivers a suitably potent charge into the engine cylinder for burning.
Referring now to the second form of FIG. 6, the projection of one of the ram pistons and preferably the ram piston 24 is employed as the injector means G, the entire means G being incorporated in the differential ram C. As is shown, the valved injector means G is carried reciprocable differential ram C so that its nozzle 56' is projected into the combustion chamber of the engine cylinder during the power stroke effected thereby. In accordance with this form of the invention, the ram piston 24' is elongated so as to project through the head 17, there being a delivery passage 58 extending through the ram piston and its nozzle extension to openly communicate with transfer chamber Y immediately below the partition-piston B. The lowermost of the end of the nozzle 56 is exposed into the engine cylinder where the passage 58 is closed by an orifice fitting 59 which captures the check valve element 55' that sets upwardly so as to prevent backflow of fluids.
Referring now to the third form of FIG. 7 the differential characteristics of the two chambers X and Y is established by separate ram pistons 23 and 24" projected independently into the two chambers respectively. The ram pistons 23" and 24" are moved together as a unit or synchronously in timed relation as circumstances require, and as indicated diagrammatically they are interconnected and reciprocate together. The partition B with its diagonal port 22" causes the intermixture of liquids and the delivery of the mixture is as above described when the total volume of the two chambers is diminished.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that fossil fuel (or alcohol) is admixed into a dilutant such as water or any suitably inert liquid. The differential ram C provides a greater displacement of fluid at chamber X than at chamber Y through movement of the ram piston 23 and 24, there being a lesser discharge from chamber X through port 22 and into chamber Y than intake into chamber Y when the latter chamber is augmenting.
The valves and 31 are also check-valves which i stop reverse flow of liquid, while the valve 55 (55) does the same. Consequently, isolation of the pump unit from the relatively high injection pressures and/or combustion chamber pressures is inherent, and with the result that the controlled admixing of the two or more fuels is at lower pressures. When the chamber Y is augmenting it is isolated from the engine cylinder 12 by the injection check-valve, during which time the valves 30 and 31 are opened so as to meter fuel-dilutant into chamber Y while previously averaged admixtures are transfered into chamber Y from the storage chamber X. During this augmentation of the transfer chamber Y the prevailing pressures are established solely by the fuel supply means E and F, at relatively low pressures as compared with injection pressures. Conversely, when the chamber Y is diminishing it is isolated from said supply means E and F by virtue of the check-valves 30 and 31, during which time the injection check-valve passes the prevailing averaged and admixed fuel-dilutant into the combustion chamber of the cylinder 12. This direct averaging injection into the engine Cylinder eliminates the high costs of the usual complex injector systems, and by employing the differential ram C hereinabove disclosed it is possible to use full stroke fuel injection for, accurate control of the fuel delivered during each power cycle. The charging of chamber X through port 22 equals the preceding discharge from chamber Y when the latter chamber is diminishing. Thus, the chamber X breathes from and into chamber Y receiving therefrom the prevailing admixture of fuel-dilutant. During augmentation of chamber Y the two diverse liquids are introduced by pressured means E and F as by forcefully bringing the two streams together into colliding engagement. The impingement and consequent cavitation results in a thorough mixing and/or homogenization at relatively low pressure within the augmenting chamber Y, followed by transfer and further comingling of the admixture with precedent mixed charges in the augmenting chamber X.
Having described only typical preferred forms and applications of my invention, 1 do not wish to be limited or restricted to the specific details herein set forth, but wish to reserve to myself any modifications or variations that may appears to those skilled in the art:
1. Full stroke fuel pump injection for a compression ignition engine having a combustion chamber, and including: a pump body having closed dual chambers therein, a transfer chamber and a storage chamber, there being restricted fluid communication between the transfer chamber and the storage chamber; differentially sized fluid displacement rams entering into the said transfer chamber and storage chamber to reversely change the volumetric displacements thereof respectively; means reversely reciprocating the said fluid displacement means into said transfer and storage chambers in timed relation to cycling of the engine; a metered fuel supply means and a metered fuel dilutant supply means both opening into the said transfer chamber and charging the same with fuel and fuel dilutant respectively in proportionate quantities and in timed relation to cycling of the engine; and nozzle means opening from the said transfer chamber and into the combustion chamber of the engine.
2. The fuel pump injection for engines as set forth in claim 1 and wherein the said differentially sized fluid displacement rams are moved simultaneously by said means reversely reciprocating the same.
3. The fuel pump injection for engines as set forth in claim 1 and wherein the said differentially sized fluid displacement rams are moved simultaneously at varied rates by said means reversely reciprocating the same.
4. The fuel pump injection for engines as set forth in claim 1 and wherein the said differentially sized fluid displacement rams are moved simultaneously at the same rate by said means reversely reciprocating the same.
5. The fuel pump injection for engines as set forth in claim 1 and wherein the said differentially sized fluid displacement rams are integrally formed a ram with dif ferentially sized ram pistons operable in said transfer chamber and storage chamber respectively.
6. The fuel pump injection for engines as set forth in claim 1 and wherein the said differentially sized fluid displacement rams are integrally formed and simultaneously operable through guide bores entering into said transfer chamber and storage chamber respectively.
7. The fuel pump injection for engines as set forth in claim 1 and wherein the said differentially sized fluid displacement rams are integrally formed with the larger ram operable through a guide bore into the said storage chamber and with the smaller ram operable through a guide bore into the said transfer chamber.
8. The fuel pump injection for engines as set forth in claim 1 and wherein the said differentially sized fluid displacement rams are integrally connected and extended through a partition dividing the two said chambers with the larger ram operable through a guide bore into the storage chamber and with the smaller ram operable through a guide bore into the said transfer chamber.
9. The fuel pump injection for engines as set forth in claim 1 and wherein the said differentially sized fluid displacement rams are integrally connected by a piston moveable therewith and dividing the two said chambers with the larger ram operable through a guide bore into the storage chamber and with the smaller ram operable through a guide bore into the said transfer chamber.
10. The fuel pump injection for engines as set forth in claim 1 and wherein the said nozzle means opens through the differentially smaller sized fluid displacement rams and into the combustion chamber of the engme.
11. The fuel pump injection for engines as set forth in claim 1 and wherein the said nozzle means opens from the said transfer chamber through the differentially smaller sized fluid displacement ram, and into the combustion chamber of the engine, there being a check valve in said nozzle restricting back flow of fluids from the combustion chamber and into said transfer cham-
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|U.S. Classification||123/25.00A, 123/25.00E, 123/25.00M|
|International Classification||F02B1/00, F02B1/04, F02B75/02, F02M43/00|
|Cooperative Classification||F02B1/04, F02M43/00, F02B2075/025|