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Publication numberUS3923018 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 2, 1975
Filing dateDec 28, 1973
Priority dateDec 28, 1973
Publication numberUS 3923018 A, US 3923018A, US-A-3923018, US3923018 A, US3923018A
InventorsMarkowitz Isral J
Original AssigneeStem Ind Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Compact rotating internal combustion engine
US 3923018 A
Abstract
This invention provides a compact rotating crankless internal combustion engine having a first and a second cylinder block, each having a plurality of cylinder openings therethrough and pistons axially and rotatably slidably disposed within the cylinder openings. Angled connector rods connect one piston axially with each of the cylinder blocks. There are means provided for feeding a combustible charge into the cylinder openings at predetermined intervals for igniting the combustible charge within each cylinder opening at predetermined intervals and for discharging combusted charge at predetermined intervals. In a two-stroke cycle engine, the combustible charge within cylinder openings containing attached pistons in the first and second cylinder block, respectively, are ignited simultaneously. In operation, both of the cylinder blocks rotate in opposing directions while the pistons and the associated angled connector rods reciprocate and rotate therewith. Driving means can be connected to one or both of the cylinder blocks.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [191 Markowitz [45} Dec. 2, 1975 1 COMPACT ROTATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE [75] Inventor: Isral ,l. Markowitz, Closter, NJ.

[73] Assignee: Stem Industries, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.

[22} Filed: Dec. 28, 1973 21 Appl. No.: 429,043

Primary Examiner-Clarence R Gordon Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Lilling & Siegel [57] ABSTRACT This invention provides a compact rotating crankless internal combustion engine having a first and a second cylinder block, each having a plurality of cylinder openings therethrough and pistons axially and rotatably slidably disposed within the cylinder openings. Angled connector rods connect one piston axially with each of the cylinder blocks. There are means provided for feeding a combustible charge into the cylinder openings at predetermined intervals for igniting the combustible charge within each cylinder opening at predetermined intervals and for discharging combusted charge at predetermined intervals. In a twostroke cycle engine, the combustible charge within cylinder openings containing attached pistons in the first and second cylinder block, respectively, are ignited simultaneously. In operation, both of the cylinder blocks rotate in opposing directions while the pistons and the associated angled connector rods reciprocate and rotate therewith. Driving means can be connected to one or both of the cylinder blocks.

There is also provided a compound bearing for supporting each of the cylinder blocks within a stationary frame. The compound bearing comprises an interior bearing race and an exterior bearing race. The exterior bearing race rotates with respect to the interior bearing race and the races are operatively connected by roller means. The interior bearing race is connected to the cylinder block by an eccentric shaft and the exterior race is in rolling contact with a portion of the frame.

20 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures 63 &6

I 'lll Sheet 1 of5 U.S. atent Dec. 2, 1975 US. Patent Dec. 2, 1975 Sheet 2 of5 3,923,018

US. Patent Dec. 2, 1975 Sheet 3 of5 3,923,018

US. Patent Dec. 2,-1975 Sheet40f5 3,923,018

US. atent Dec. 2, 1975 Sheet 5 of 5 3,923,018

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COMPACT ROTATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Internal combustion engines are undoubtedly the primary portable energy source available in our society today. The use of internal combustion engines ranges from the tiny single-cylinder device, for example, used for propelling small model devices, such as model airplanes or model automobiles, and the slightly larger engines for propelling small hand-tools and pumps, for example, chain saws and water pumps, to the larger multicylinder unit, which drives automobiles, buses, trucks and giant earth-moving equipment. Internal combustion engines include the spark ignition, Otto cycle engine as well as the diesel cycle engine, four-stroke cycle and two-stroke cycle engines. The most common internal combustion engine being used today is a reciprocating engine, wherein pistons are driven reciprocatingly within a cylinder, and the reciprocating motion is converted to rotary motion by an eccentric crankshaft driven by the piston. The inefficiency and energy loss in converting from reciprocating motion to rotating motion is one major reason why the internal combustion engine is falling into disrepute in this age of antipathy to pollution and movement towards greater efficiency. Although a rotary internal combustion engine has been suggested, wherein the combustion chamber is formed by a rotating eccentric member within a generally cylindrical chamber, this also suffers from defects in design, requiring extremely sophisticated sealing devices between the rotating member and the chamber walls. Accordingly, a device which combines the relative simplicity of the reciprocating piston type of internal combustion engine with the efficient transmission of the energy of the rotary engine would be of great utility to the present technological system.

Coupling means for the transverse transmission of rotary motion, from a driving shaft to a drive shaft, comprising an angular coupling consisting of four angled crankpins sliding and revolving in holes, bored into the ends of the driving and driven shafts, has long been a basic mechanical component available to the engineer. This basic concept (shown, for example, in US. Pat. Nos. 321,579, 3,448,592, 3,103,799 and 3,271,978) has further been developed into a rotary motor driven by pressurized fluid intermittently fed to the ends of the crank pins as they reciprocate within cylinders bored in two barrels whose axes are transverse to each other. Such rotary motors have been used, for example, in driving pumps and small hand tools, such as rotary drills (see, for example, US. Pat. Nos. 1,943,664, 2,175,444, 1,315,680, and 2,543,134). All of these devices, however, require an external power source for providing the necessary compressed fluid, such as a compressed gas, steam or pressurized liquid, to drive the rotary motors.

In accordance with the present invention, a compact rotating engine is provided, which does not require an external power source for its operation, and which is directly powered by internal combustion. The rotating internal combustion engine of this invention comprises reciprocating piston means, driven by detonation of a fuel, wherein the reciprocating pistons cause the cylinder block to rotate and thus directly provide rotary motion.

In accordance with this invention, a rotating internal combustion engine which does not require an eccentric crankshaft is provided, the engine comprising a first cylinder block support; a first cylinder block rotatably connected to the first support and having cylinder openings extending inwardly from one end thereof; first pistons within said cylinder openings, the pistons being slidably and rotatably fitted within the first block; angled crankpins, each secured at one end to one of the first pistons; second pistons, each second piston being secured to the second end of one of the angled crankpins; a second cylinder block having cylinder openings extending from one end thereof, the second pistons being slidably and rotatably fitted within the second blocks cylinder openings, the axis of the second block being transverse to the axis of the first block; a second cylinder block support to which the second block is rotatably connected, and which is rigidly connected to the first block support; a drive-shaft attached to the second end of the first block; means for feeding a charge of fuel and oxygen into each cylinder opening at predetermined intervals; the two cylinder openings, one in each of the first block and the second block, containing pistons secured to the same angled crank pin, preferably being fed substantially simultaneously; and means for igniting the charges within the cylinder openings at predetermined intervals, any openings which are charged substantially simultaneously being ignited substantially simultaneously. The ignition of the charge causes the pistons in each cylinder opening to move axially, thus causing the rotation of the transversely aligned cylinder blocks. The pistons at the two ends of each of the angled crank pins reciprocate within their respective cylinder openings substantially simultaneously, as the pistons rotate within the cylinder openings and the cylinder blocks rotate relative to the cylinder block supports.

The advantages and objects of the present invention are apparent from the specific examples of the rotating engine, shown in the enclosed drawings described below. The construction, arrangement and combination of the various components of the rotating engine assembly, as shown in the accompanying drawings, are merely exemplary of the scope of the present invention and are not intended to be exclusive thereof. The scope of the invention is fully defined by the claims appended hereto below.

In the drawings:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view, partially broken away, of a two-stroke cycle internal combustion engine, in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a front view of one cylinder block viewed from lines 2-2 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is an enlarged, partially cut-away, side-view of a portion thereof, taken along lines 33 of FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is a sectional view along lines 44 of FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 is a partial side view of the cylinder block support from lines 55 of FIG. 4, showing one embodiment of an exhaust valve;

FIG. 6 is a rear view along lines 6-6 of FIG. 3, showing an alternate exhaust valve;

FIG. 7 is a top, partial view showing the ignition system for this engine;

FIG. 8 is a view along lines 88 of FIG. 7;

FIG. 9 is a schematic drawing of the electrical ignition system of this engine.

The engine contemplated by this invention can be operated under any of the known internal combustion cycles, including the Otto, four-stroke, spark-ignited cycle; the Otto two-stroke spark-ignited cycle. the twostroke diesel cycle; or four-stroke diesel cycle. The embodiment, shown in the drawings attached hereto, is especially adapted as a two-stroke Otto cycle internal combustion engine. Referring to the drawings, the rotating engine of the present invention comprises two transversely aligned cylinder blocks, generally designated as and 12. Each cylinder block is rotatably journaled into a support member 20 by bearing means described in greater detail below.

The engine shown in the accompanying drawings comprises non-integral cylinder blocks formed of a rear cylinder plate 14, a front cylinder plate and a front bearing member, generally designated as 16. The front bearing member 16 in turn comprises an outer bearing plate 17 and an inner bearing plate 18. Extending from the inner surface 21 of rear cylinder plate 14 through generally circular openings through bearing member 16 are four cylinders 22a, b, c, and d, defining the cylinder openings. The rear end of each of the cylinder openings is closed off by the rear cylinder plate 14 and the front end by front cylinder plate 15. The circumferential cylinder walls 22 are sealingly abutted into grooves 14a and 150 formed in the rear plate 14 and front plate 15, respectively.

The ends of cylinders 22 are sealably held tightly against the front cylinder plate 15 and rear cylinder plate 14, respectively, by the pressure exerted between compression nut 40, threadably attached to the front end of shaft 36, and lug 42, extending radially from shaft'36 and axially contacting rear cylinder plate 14. The shaft 36 is keyed by projections 214 to the front cylinder plate 15 and rear cylinder plate 14, respectively.

The shaft 36 extends through an opening in each of the centers of front plate 15 and rear plate 14, passing centrally of all of the cylinders 22, therebetween. The shaft 36 extends rearwardly beyond rear plate 14 and is rotatably supported by a rear support member 100.

The front bearing member 16 abuts against lugs 26 extending radially outwardly from the outer surface of each of the cylinders 22 and is firmly held in place relative to the cylinder block 10 by compression bolts 30 extending from the front face of outer bearing plate 17 through the rear face of rear cylinder plate 14, threadedly connected to compression nuts 32.

Within each of the cylinders 22, there is slidably and rotatably held a piston 122, each rigidly connected to an angled crank pin 124. Both ends of the angled crank pins 124 are connected to pistons located respectively in the transversely aligned cylinder blocksThe angle formed between the two ends of each crank pin 124 is equal to the angle formed by the axes of the cylinder blocks 10 and 12.

The annular grooves 15a formed in front cylinder plate 15 are equally spaced around the circumference of the plate. Within each annular groove is formed an orifice A, extending through the plate 15. The orifice A is located intermediate the annular crank pin opening and the groove 15a and connects the interior of the cylinder opening with the plenum space. The plenum space is enclosed by transversely connected cylinders 60, which are sealably connected to both bearing support members by flanges 61 and bolts 63, and to the intake manifold 64. A carburetor 65 is in fluid flow connection via the intake manifold 64 with the plenum space.

Flap valves 68 are provided attached to the front plate 15 so as to close off the orifices A by sealing 4 against valve seat 69 on the interior surface of the plate 15.

The angled crank pins 124 are journaled through the front plate 15 so as to form a slidable seal therewith.

Transfer ports 70 and 72 connect the rear and the forward portions of the cylinder chamber. Ports 70 and 72 are opened and closed by the reciprocating motion of piston 122.

An exhaust port 74 is provided through the wall of each cylinder 22. A circumferential outlet journal 80, rigidly attached to the support member 20 and rotatably and sealably journaled around each of the cylinder blocks 10, 12 is provided. The exhaust port 74 in each cylinder is so juxtaposed on the cylinder wall 22, that the port 74 is sealed by the journal 80, an elongated exhaust slot 81 is formed through the outlet journal 80, so placed thereon, that when an exhaust port 74 is in the proper angular juxtaposition to the slot 81, the cylinder opening is exposed to the atmosphere through the port 74 and slot 81.

The slot 81 extends perpendicularly to the axis of the cylinder block. The slot 81 should have a sufficient circumferential length as to permit the exhaust port 74 to exhaust to the atmosphere for a sufficient period to suitably exhaust the opening in each cylinder 22. This length can be varied as required for the desired operation of any engine. If desired, two or more cylinders can be exhausting simultaneously through slot 81, where slot 81 extends, for example, more than one-fourth the circumference of the journal 80.

A sparking plug 800 is connected, through threaded openings 82, in the rear plate 14, extending into each of the cylinders 22.. A firing contact 83, connects the sparking plugs 800 to an electrical ignition system, most clearly shown in FIGS. 7, 8 and 9.

As shown in these drawings, a breaker cam, in the shape of a rectangular plate 90, having four rounded corners 91, or camming surfaces, is rigidly secured to the shaft 36. A breaker point assembly, generally designated as 95, is attached to the rear support member 100. The breaker point assembly 95 comprises a spring-biased contact breaker arm 96 and contact point 97. The cam plate and contact arm 96 are so juxtaposed that as the plaate 90 rotates, the cam surfaces 91 strike the contact arm 96, moving the arm 96 out of contact with the point 97.

The breaker assembly 95 and firing contact 83 are electrically connected as shown in FIG. 9 to a standard automotive battery 1000 and to two standard ignition coils 310 and 312. One coil is connected to each of the firing contacts 83. There is one firing contact 83 operatively connected to each of the cylinder blocks 10 and 12.

The block support members 20, in this embodiment, each have circular opening 233 formed therethrough to permit passage of end plate 14 and of bearing plate 16. A bearing race 234 is snap fitted, or otherwise held in place, into the internal face of the opening 233 in each of the support members 20. Each bearing race 234 has an annular groove formed therealong, having a rectangular cross-section, as shown in FIG. 3.

Cylinder blocks 10 and 12 are journaled into block support members 20 by compound bearings, generally indicated by 110, a unique type of combined roller bearing. Generally, however, any type of bearing, such as ball, roller or pin bearing, which can withstand the stresses which are inherent in the rotating engine of the present invention, can be utilized. Because of the relatively large size of the cylinder blocks mounted in the support members 20, the problems of machining a raceway and bearings for the usual type of roller, or ball bearing, become extremely difficult. Accordingly, the applicant has provided a unique type of compound bearing which can be considered a combined roller and ball bearing, for supporting the large' cylinder blocks and 12 in the bearing support 20, with at least one other support member supporting each transversely aligned cylinder block at another point in the preferred embodiment.

In this embodiment, the second support is maintained on the driving shaft 36, extending rearwardly from each of the cylinder blocks 10 and 12. Because of the relatively small diameter of each of the shafts 36, the bearing support at this point can be more conventional and can include any of the usual ball-bearings, roller-bearings or pin-bearings, especially the type designed to take thrust loads alone or in combination with radial loads.

The compound bearings 1 10 comprise a generally cylindrical inner race 1 l 1, supported on an eccentric bolt 112, and outer race 114. The outer surface of the outer race 114 has the general curvature of a barrel or cylinder. The ball-bearings 116 or other rollers, such as tapered or cylindrical rollers, are supported between the inner and outer races, as shown in FIG. 3. The ball bearings can beseparated by conventional caging means, or, alternatively, a filled-type ball-bearing, wherein each of the balls are in direct contact with the adjacent balls, can be utilized if desired.

The compound bearings 110 utilized for the rotary engine of the present invention are especially useful for the large-size members because they are, in effect, selfaligning. The compound bearing is mounted between the forward and rear plates 17 and 18 of the front support 16, being held in place by eccentric bolts 1 12. The bolts 112, after the cylinder block is assembled, are rotated such that the outer races 114 lie wholly within the circumference of the plates 16 and 17. The cylinder block is then inserted into the opening in block support 20, substantially aligned such that the space between plates 17 and 18 is centered on the race 234. The eccentric bolts 1 12 are then rotated to move the bearings such that the outer race 114 extends beyond the circumference of plates 17 and 18, contacting race 234 in the block support 20. The bearings should be equally extended in order that the cylinder block rotates evenly within the support. FIG. 2 shows four such bearings, the eccentricity of each compound bearing providing a limited, range for adjustment of the effectiveoperating circumference of the block 10 within the support member 20.

The above description is of one of the 'cylinder blocks. However, the two halves of the engine are substantially symmetrical, differing only in that there can be a power take-off from only one drive shaft 36 and that the breaker cam 90 and breaker point assembly 95 are only connected to one of the cylinder block supports 20.

In the operation of the engine of the above-described embodiment, each of the cylinder blocks 10 and 12 rotate relative to the bearing support members 20, in the directions shown by the arrows in FIG. 1, as pistons 122 and the attached crank pins 124 reciprocate and rotate within the cylinders 22. The right or obtuse angle between the pairs of pistons in each of the cylinder blocks 10 and 12 causes the rotational movement of the two cylinder blocks as the pistons 122 reciprocate. The power supplied by the operating engine can be tapped either or both of the shafts 36. In the example shown in FIG. 1, a belt and pulley power tap arrangement is shown from only one of the shafts 36, connected to block 10.

The operation of the engine is as follows:

The operation of the rotating engine of this invention, as far as the internal combustion cycle within the cylinders is concerned, is conventional for two-cycle internal combustion; that is, air-fuel mixture is brought into the cylinder 22 through flap, or reed, valve 68, as the piston 122 moves toward rear plate 14. This movement towards rear plate 14 creates a suction, or lowered pressure, in the front portion of the cylinder between the piston 122 and the front plate 15; this decrease in pressure in turn' causes the flap valve 68 to open, communicating the decreased pressure, or suction, to the plenum space 60. This in turn draws in the fuel-air mixture from inlet 64 andcarburetor 65.

As the piston 122 moves toward rear plate 14, the fuel-air mixture previously brought into the space is compressed until the piston is at the approximate location shown by the solid lines in FIG. 3, at which point the spark plug 800 is discharged and an electrical spark ignites the compressed fuel-air mixture causing sudden combustion and thus expansion. This expansion causes the reversal of the piston action and the movement of the piston 122 back towards front plate 15. It should be emphasized that the spark plugs 800 in the two cylinders connected via the same angled crank pin 124, i.e., piston 122a in cylinder 22a in block 10 and cylinder 22a in block 12, are detonated simultaneously, thus causing the simultaneous reversal of motion of the pistons 1220 in both blocks 10, 12.

As the piston 122a moves towards front plate 15, the fuel-air charge in that space between piston 122a and plate 15 is compressed, causing the sealing of valve 68 against seat 69. When the rear surface 322 of piston 122a passes the exhaust port 74, the combusted fluid in the rear portion of the cylinder is exhausted. An instant later, the transfer port 70 is exposed as the surface 322 passes forwardly of that port, thus permitting the compressed, fresh fuel-air charge in the forward portion of the cylinder 22, i.e., adjacent front plate 15', to pass to transfer port 72 and transferport 70 into the rearward, or combustion portion of the cylinder. When the piston 122 reaches the position shown in phantom lines in FIG. 3, the piston again reverses direction, passing rearwardly towards plate 14; once again, repeating the cycle of compressing the fluid in the rear portion between the piston and rear plate 14 and drawing in fresh fuel-air charge through valve 68.

The rear surface 322 of piston 122a is conformed, as shown in the drawings, so as to direct the incoming fuel-air charge from port 70 to aid in flushing out the combusted charge from the chamber, and to prevent loss of the fresh charge, through exhaust port 74. In conventional two-cycle engines, the exhaust port is closed only when the surface 322 passes over that port. This means that the exhaust port is closed only after the inlet port is closed, unless a moving, e.g., poppet, valve is provided.

It should be noted that as the pistons are reciprocating, the entire engine blocks 10 and 12 are rotating relative to the stationary journal 80. The slot 81 formed in journal 80, is so positioned that at the point where surface 322 passes forwardly of exhaust port 74, exhaust port 74 is in juxtaposition with slot 81. Further, to close the exhaust port 74 prior to the closing of intake transfer port 70, the slot 81 is made of a length such that port 74 is closed by journal 80 prior to the time the surface 322 reaches intake transfer port 70 on its return rearward stroke. Thus the optimum operation for a two-stroke cycle engine, i.e., the opening of the exhaust port prior to opening the inlet port, and the closing of the exhaust port prior to closing the inlet port, is obtained without the use of a poppet valve or other moving means.

The design of the piston rear surface and the placement of the exhaust ports, transfer ports, and inlet ports are conventional in the art and form no part of the present invention. In various alternative means, the transfer port and the exhaust port can be at substantially identical level, and a level piston surface can be utilized. Any other conventional design which is.suitable for twostroke cycle engine can be utilized in the engine in accordance with the present invention.

In the two-stroke cycle embodiment of the engine of this invention, as shown in the drawings, the power stroke occurs once every complete revolution. That is, every time the piston 122 approached the rear plate 14, at the desired moment, spark plug 800 is discharged, igniting the fuel-air mixture. The discharge of one spark plug in each of engine blocks 10 and 12, in accordance with FIGS. 7, 8, and 9, occurs when the charges in each of the coils310 and 312 are simultaneously discharged by opening of the breaker switch 96 by action of cam 91. At that instant, an electric charge flows through the electrical system to electrode 83, which then causes a spark to flow between the electrodes of the spark plug 800, adjacent electrode 83.

Contact electrodes 83 are so juxtaposed with respect to cylinder blocks 10 and 12 that a spark plug 800 in each block makes electrical contact therewith when the respective pistons, e.g., 122a, in each block, are at a desired position within the cylinders 22a. The cam 91 is so adjusted to open breaker switch 96 at that same instant. Contact electrode 83 need not be in direct contact with the nearest spark plug 800. It is sufficient that the conducting end of the electrode of the spark plug 800 be sufficiently close to the contact 83 that current can flow, by way of a spark, from electrode 83 to plug 800, which then passes through the plug and causes a spark between the electrodes. The spark plug 800 is of a type conventionally used in the engine arts, as is the method of generating the sudden flow of electricity by discharging a high tension ignition coil 310 and 312.

One advantage of the present invention over a conventional stationary cylinder block engine is the lack of a requirement for a separate cam and rotor distributor system as is required in a conventional system.

Lubrication of the crank pins and pistons in the twostroke cycle embodiment of the invention set forth in the drawings, is obtained by the use of a gasoline-oil mixture as it is common in conventional two-stroke cycle engines. The use of this mixture avoids the need for a separate lubricating system.

The rotating engine, in accordance with the present invention, can be formed, as shown in the drawings, as asingle pair of transversely located cylinder blocks. If desired, however, a series of these transverse pairs can be set up, so as to increase the total combined power output. For example, the drive shaft 36 from one of the cylinder blocks 10, 12 can be extended so as to be the 8 drive shaft from another pair of transverse cylinder blocks, which would thus be combined to form what is in effect the three sides, and four corners, of a rectangle (where the cylinder blocks are axially aligned at 90 of each other).

Although the engine shown herein has a total of eight cylinders, four cylinders in each cylinder block, each block can be formed into as many cylinders as desired, limited only by the total circumference of each cylinder block and the minimum efficient size for a cylinder and piston combination. Generally it is preferred that there not be fewer than four cylinders per cylinder block, in order to assure a stable and even rotation of the cylinder block. It has been found, that where there are three or fewer cylinders per block, the outer circumference of each cylinder block should be formed as a beveled gear in interengagement with the complementary beveled gear at the junction of the cylinder blocks; such a geared arrangement serves to maintain the equilibrium of the cylinder blocks during rotation.

As a further means for maintaining the structural integrity of a transverse engine block, a stationary central angled rod can be connected to the front end of each block 10, 12, at an angle equal to that of the crank pins. Each block 10, 12 is journaled to this stationary rod at the center of front plate 15.

The fuel and air can be fed to the engine by any conventional method, for example, utilizing a fuel injector of a conventional type to feed fuel to the individual cylinder openings and to feed air separately, for example, through the flap valve 68 shown in the drawing.

The gases exhausting from the cylinders through ports 74 and journal slot 81 can be exhausted directly to the atmosphere, or alternatively, an exhaust manifold can be formed around the journal 80, acting as a muffler for the exhaust gases.

It should be noted that when a sealing journal 80 is not provided (FIG. 3), piston 122 must be sufficiently long to seal port 75 when the piston is in its rearward position. Thus the use of journal permits the use of a lighter, smaller piston.

An alternative form of exhaust outlet is shown in FIG. 6, utilizing an end bearing 380, journaled in a closely fitting recess in rear end plate 14; a slot 381 is formed concentric with the cylinder block 10 and exhaust ports 374 are formed in and through end plate 14, so juxtaposed radially from the center of end plate 14 as to pass in alignment with slot 381 during a certain portion of the revolution of the block, and to be otherwise sealed by bearing 380. The end bearing 380 is held stationary relative to the block support member 20.

This engine design is equally applicable to fourstroke cycle and diesel cycles by suitable modification of the mechanical structure conventionally required for such engine types. For' example, a four-stroke Otto cycle engine requires opening of the exhaust slot, or valve, only every fourth stroke of the piston, therefore one external, e.g., poppet valve, could be used, closing off slot 81 for each block 10, 12, during alternate revolutions, when the exhaust valve should not be open. Similarly, the fuel-air inlet valve can be operated by a poppet valve under the same arrangement. In an alternative embodiment, the fuel can be fed by fuel injection means, and a poppet valve will only regulate the intake of the air.

The engine, in accordance with the present invention, has many applications, and because of its twosided power take-off, i.e., driving shaft 36 from either block 10 or 12 can be utilized, depending upon the design of the engine, for providing power to the same or different mechanism. For example, in an automobile, one of the drive shafts can provide power for the main transmission system to the wheels and the second drive shaft can, for example, provide auxiliary power to the generator, to the air-conditioner, etc.

Compared to conventional, stationary block internal combustion engines, the engine of the present invention provides a greater horsepower-per-engine weight ratio. The engine of the present invention does not require a flywheel, or at least can use a far smaller one, because the engine itself acts as a flywheel. If desired, engine weight, and thus flywheel effect, can be increased by strengthening the engine by using heavier and stronger parts. As shown above, smaller pistons can be utilized for two-stroke cycle engines, if desired, and many moving parts, such as the cams, operating a multiplicity of poppet valves and the distributor rotors, are eliminated.

As yet another alternative, the journals 80 can be reciprocally, axially movable relative to the cylinder blocks l0, 12, for example, along a track rigidly connected to the block supports 20. Axial movement of the journal 80 can be such as to juxtapose the slot 81 with the exhaust orifice 74 only every other revolution of the block. The reciprocal axial movement of each of the journals 80 can be activated by a conventional camming arrangement driven by one of the drive shafts 36. In such a four-stroke cycle engine the engine blocks can be out of phase, such that one of the two pistons attached to each crank pin can be on its firing stroke and the second piston on its exhaust stroke; the journal slots 81 will be out of and in axial juxtaposition, respectively, with the exhaust orifices 74 on any given revolution. Alternatively, the two joined pistons can be fired simultaneously; alternate cylinders in each block are to be fired on each revolution of the block. Preferably, for a four-stroke cycle engine, the exhaust orifice 74 is at or adjacent to the rearward end (plate 14) of each cylinder 22.

The inlet valve for a four-stroke cycle engine can also be operated via a journal which is axially reciprocal. Alternatively, an end bearing, such as bearing 380 in FIG. 6, can be utilized, the slot 381 being in fluid connection with an intake manifold; the entire end bearing 380, can be radially, reciprocally movable, i.e., out of concentricity with the cylinder block such that block 381 is out of juxtaposition with the orifice through the rear plate 14. The bearing 380 could be in the form, for example, of a hollow disc. The interior of the disc is in fluid connection with a fuel-air charging means, e.g. a carburetor, via a flexible conduit, and the slot 381 places the interior of the disc in fluid flow connection with the rear portion of the cylinder opening when the orifice 374 is in juxtaposition with the slot 381. The radial movement of the bearing 380 can be activated by conventional camming means, driven by the drive shaft 36.

The angles between the axes of rotation of each of the cylinder blocks, and thus the anglesformed by the angled crank pins, can theoretically be a right angle or an obtuse angle, i.e., in the range of from at least 90 to less than 180, in order to provide the necessary rotary action. Preferably, however, the angle thus formed be tween the axes of rotation of the two cylinder blocks is in the range of from about 90 to about 150, and most preferably 90 to about 120. For a satisfactory operation, the cylinders are preferably arranged symmetrically about the center of each block and the central axis of each cylinder opening is preferably parallel to the central axis of the block and to each other opening.

I claim: 1. A rotating internal combustion engine operating as a two-stroke cycle engine comprising:

first and second cylinder block supports and blocks, the latter being rotatably connected to the first and second supports, respectively, each cylinder block having cylinder openings, sealably covered by sea]- ing means, extending into the block from the end nearest the other block, the axes of rotation of the two cylinder blocks being transversely aligned at an angle of at least about first and second pistons withing the cylinder openings of the first and second cylinder blocks, respectively, and dividing each cylinder opening into forward and rearward chambers; the pistons being slidably and rotatably engaged'with their respective cylinder blocks and the central axis of each piston and of each cylinder opening being substantially parallel to each other and to the axis of rotation of its respective cylinder block; angled crank pins slidably and sealably journaled to the sealing means, each angled crank pin having two ends, one end of each crank pin being secured to one piston in the first cylinder block, and the second end of each crank pin being secured to one piston in the second cylinder block, the angles formed by each of the crank pins being equal to the angle between the axes of rotation of the cylinder blocks; a driving shaft attached to the far end of the first cylinder block and substantially concentric therewith; means for feeding a combustible charge into each cylinder opening at predetermined intervals comprising a carburetor; a plenum chamber defined by walls sealably connected to the cylinder block support means surrounding the angled crank pins, and the one-way valve means; and fluid'flow conduit means between the carburetor and plenum chamber; means for igniting the combustible charge within the cylinder openings at predeterminedintervals, openings which are fed substantially simultaneously being ignited substantially simultaneously, whereby the ignition of a charge causes reciprocating movement of the piston within each cylinder opening, and the reciprocating movement of each piston is converted into rotating motion of the cylinder block by the action of the angled crank pins interconnecting the two cylinder blocks; means for discharging combusted combustible charge from each cylinder at pre-determined intervals; the sealing means comprises a one-way valve for permittin g the passage of fluid into the forward chamber, but preventing passage of fluid outwardly from said chamber; the cylinder openings in each of the first and second cylinder blocks containing pistons connected to the same angled crank pin being fed substantially simultaneously; the forward chamber being in fluid flow connection with the combustible charge feeding means via the one-way valve; and the engine comprising in addition transfer port means connecting the rearward chamber with the forward chamber when the piston is in a predetermined position; and an exhaust orifice through the exterior of the cylinder, the exhaust orifice being open to the rearward portion of the cylinder opening when the piston is in a predetermined position; and the ignition means being so juxtaposed within the cylinder opening as to ignite the combustible charge within the rearward chamber.

2. A rotating internal combustion engine comprising: first and second block supports and blocks, the latter being rotatably connected to the first and second supports, respectively, each cylinder block having cylinder openings extending into the block from the end nearest the other block, the axes of rotation of the two cylinder blocks being transversely aligned at an angle of at least about 90;

each cylinder block being rotatably journaled into the respective cylinder support, utilizing a plurality of compound bearings, each compound bearing being rotatably, eccentrically connected to the cylinder block, such that at one position the bearing is wholly within the cylinder block, and at another position the bearing extends radially beyond the cylinder block; the compound bearing comprising an inner race eccentrically and rotatably connected to the cylinder block, an outer race and bearing rollers, rotatably held between the inner v race and the outer race so as to permit the outer race to rotate concentrically about the inner race in contact with the bearing rollers; first and second pistons within the cylinder openings of the first and second cylinder blocks, respectively, the pistons being slidably and rotatably engaged with their respective cylinder blocks and the central axis of each piston and of each cylinder opening being substantially parallel to each other and to the axis of rotation of its respective cylinder block; I

angled crank pins, each having two ends, one end of each crank pin being secured to one piston in the first cylinder block, and the second end of each crank pin being secured to one piston in the second cylinder block, the angles formed by each of the crank pins being equal to the angle between the axes of rotation of the cylinder blocks; 7

a driving shaft attached to the far end of the first cylinder block and substantially concentric therewith;

means for feeding a combustible charge into each cylinder opening at predetermined intervals;

means for igniting the combustible charge-within the cylinder openings at predetermined intervals, openings which are fed substantially simultaneously being ignited substantially simultaneously, whereby the ignition of a charge causes reciprocating movement of the piston within each cylinder opening, and the reciprocating movement of each piston is converted into rotating motion of the cylinder block by the action of the angled crank pins interconnecting the two cylinder blocks; and

means for discharging combusted combustible charge from each cylinder at predetermined intervals.

3. The rotating engine of claim 2, wherein the cylinder openings into the cylinder blocks are sealably covered by sealing means, the angled crank pins being slidably and sealably journaled to the sealing means, the piston means thus dividing each cylinder opening into two sealed chambers, a forward sealed chamber 12 through which passes the crank pin, and a rearward sealed chamber.

4. The engine in accordance with claim 3, operating as a two-stroke cycle engine, wherein the sealing means comprises'a one-way valve for permitting passage of fluid into the forward sealed chamber, but preventing passage of fluid outwardly from the sealed chamber; the cylinder openings in each of the first and second cylinder blocks containing pistons connected to the same angled crank pin being fed substantially simultaneously; the forward sealed chamber being in fluid flow connection with the combustible charge feeding means via the one-way valve; and the engine comprising in addition transfer port means connecting the rearward sealed chamber with the forward sealed chamber when the piston is in a predetermined position; and an exhaust orifice through the exterior of the cylinder, the exhaust orifice being open to the rearward portion of the cylinder opening when the piston is in a predetermined position; the ignition means being so juxtaposed within the cylinder opening as to ignite the combustible charge within the rearward sealed chamber.

5. The engine of claim 3, wherein the ignition means comprises an electrical sparking means for generating a spark within the rearward chamber.

6. The engine of claim 2, comprising exhaust sealing means stationary with respect to the cylinder block supports for closing the exhaust orifice independent of the position of the piston.

7. The engine of claim 2, wherein the bearing rollers are substantially spherical balls.

8. The engine of claim 1, wherein the angle between the axes of rotation and the angle formed by the crank pins are in the range of from about to about 9. The engine of claim 7, wherein the angles are about 90.

10. The engine of claim 1, wherein each cylinder block comprises at least three cylinder openings.

11. The engine of claim 1, wherein each cylinder block comprises at least four cylinder openings.

12. The engine of claim 3, comprising a spark plug extending into the rearward chamber and operatively connected to the electrical system.

13. A rotating internal combustion engine operating as a two-stroke cycle engine comprising:

first and second cylinder block supports and blocks,

the latter being rotatably connected to the first and second supports, respectively, each cylinder block having cylinder openings, sealably covered by sealing means, extending into the block from the end nearest the other block, the axes of rotation of the two cylinder blocks being transversely aligned at an angle of at least about 90;

first and second pistons within the cylinder openings of the first and second cylinder blocks, respectively, and dividing each cylinder opening into forward and rearward chambers; the pistons being slidably and rotatably engaged with their respective cylinder blocks and the central axis of each piston and of each cylinder opening being substantially parallel to each other and to the axis of rotation of its respective cylinder block;

angled crank pins slidably and sealably journaled to the sealing means, each angled crank pin having two ends, one end of each crank pin being secured to one piston in the first cylinder block, and the second end of each crank pin being secured to one piston in the second cylinder block, the angles means a driving shaft attached to the far end of the first cylinder block and substanially concentric therewith;

means for feeding a combustible charge into each cylinder opening at predetermined intervals;

means for igniting the combustible charge within the cylinder openings at predetermined intervals comprising an electrical sparking means for generating a spark within the rearward chamber, openings which are fed substantially simultaneously being ignited substantially simultaneously, whereby the ignition of a charge causes reciprocating movement of the piston within each cylinder opening, and the reciprocating movement of each piston is converted into rotating motion of the cylinder block by the action of the angled crank pins interconnecting the two cylinder blocks;

for discharging combusted combustible charge from each cylinder at predetermined intervals;

the sealing means comprises a one-way valve for permitting passage of fluid into the forward chamber, but preventing passage of fluid outwardly from said chamber; the cylinder openings in each of the first and second cylinder blocks containing pistons connected to the same angled crank pin being fed substantially simultaneously; the forward chamber being in fluid flow connection with the combustible charge feeding means via the one-way valve; and the engine comprising in addition transfer port means connecting the rearward chamber with the forward chamber when the piston is in a predetermined position; and an exhaust orifice through the exterior of the cylinder, the exhaust orifice being open to the rearward portion of the cylinder opening when the piston is in a predetermined position; and the ignition means being so juxtaposed within the cylinder opening as to ignite the combustible charge within the rearward chamber; and

exhaust sealing means stationary with respect to the comprising journal means connected to each cylinder block support means and in sealing engagement with the portion of each cylinder containing the exhaust orifice, each journal means defining slots extending along the circumference of the journal means, and said slots being so positioned as to expose the exhaust orifices during a pre-determined portion of one revolution of the cylinders.

14. The engine of claim 13, wherein the electrical system comprises means generating electrical energy; first and second voltage-raising coil means, each means comprising a primary and a secondary coil; first and second electrode contact means, electrically connected, respectively, to the first and second coil means; and circuit-breaking means for suddenly discharging electrical energy stored in the two coil means through the first and second electrode contact means; the first and second electrode contact means being so positioned relative to the first and second cylinder blocks, respectively, that the electrical discharge is conducted from the contact means to one of the electrical spark plugs in a cylinder opening.

15. The engine of claim 1, comprising, in addition, a second driving shaft attached to the far end of the second cylinder block and substantially concentric therewith.

16. The engine of claim 1, comprising, in addition, shaft support means for the driving shaft, the driving shaft being rotatably connected to the shaft support means.

17. The engine of claim 15, comprising, in addition, second shaft support means for the second driving shaft, the second driving shaft being rotatably connected to the shaft support means.

18. The engine of claim 4, wherein the one-way valve is a flap valve.

19. The engine of claim 1, wherein the ignition means comprises an electrical sparking means for generating a spark within the rearward chamber.

20. The engine of claim 19, comprising exhaust sealing means stationary with respect to the cylinder block supports for closing the exhaust orifice independent of the position of the piston.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2444764 *Dec 30, 1944Jul 6, 1948Baker Erwin GHeat engine
US2512265 *Jun 20, 1947Jun 20, 1950Marcel BrigaudetInternal-combustion engine
US3830208 *May 8, 1972Aug 20, 1974Boaz FVee engine
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5456220 *Jul 22, 1994Oct 10, 1995Candler; Charles D.Cross-over rod internal combustion engine
Classifications
U.S. Classification123/43.00A
International ClassificationF02B1/00, F01B3/00, F02B1/04
Cooperative ClassificationF02B1/04, F01B3/0038
European ClassificationF01B3/00B2B