US 3924624 A
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United States Patent [191 Schachet Dec. 9, 1975 MODULAR THORACIC DRAINAGE DEVICE Eli Schachet, St. Louis, Mo.
 Assignee: Sherwood Medical Industries Inc.,
St. Louis, Mo.
 Filed: Oct. 10, 1974  Appl. No.: 513,618
Related US. Application Data  Division of Ser. No. 386,130, Aug. 6, 1973, Pat. No.
 US. Cl 128/276; 128/D1G. 24  Int. (11. A61M 1/00  Field Of Search 128/2 F, 276, 277, 278,
128/275, 294, 295, DIG. 24, 2.5
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,936,757 5/1960 Trace 128/276 3,381,687 5/1968 Andersen et a1 128/276 3,661,143 5/1972 Henkin 128/2 F 3,750,692 8/1973 Tibbs 128/276 Primary ExaminerKyle L. Howell Assistant Examiner--Henry S. Layton Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Stanley N. Garber; William R. OMeara  ABSTRACT A modular thoracic drainage device having one or more preformed plastic bottles or chamber members which can be selectively connected together to provide one-bottle, two-bottle, three-bottle and four-bottle systems. The members can be connected together in a four-bottle system which includes a preformed drainage collector chamber, a liquid seal chamber, a pressure regulating manometer chamber, and a second liquid seal and direct reading manometer chamberv Each member has an integral connector for use in effecting fluid communication with another chamber and the chambers are provided with complementary coupling portions for receiving locking pins to secure adjacent members in fixed relationship.
2 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures US. Patent Dec. 9, 1975 MODULAR THORACIC DRAINAGE DEVICE This is a division, of application Ser. No. 386,130, filed Aug. 6, 1973 now US. Pat. No. 3,847,152.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to thoracic drainage devices and more particularly to thoracic drainage devices of the disposable plastic type.
Thoracic drainage devices of the one, two, three and four-bottle types are described in copending application Ser. No. 183,332, filed Sept. 24, 1971, now US. Pat. No. 3,757,783, which is assigned to the same assignee as the present application. Also, copending application Ser. No. 212,075, filed Dec. 27, 1971, now US. Pat. No. 3,783,870 describes a plastic disposable drainage device of the four-bottle type. Reference to these applications may be had for a basic explanation of drainage devices.
In the past, glass bottles or jars have been provided with suitable stoppers and tube connectors adapted to be arranged to perform fluid drainage from the pleural cavity. Preformed plastic disposable drainage devices have also been used in order to overcome some of the disadvantages of the glass bottle type. For example, plastic thoracic devices do not break, and since they are formed as an integral or single unit, are readily connected with a patient. They are also light weight, and cannot separate during use. However, such plastic drainage devices have certain disadvantages, for example, they cannot be economically used to selectively provide various systems such as the one, two, three and four-bottle systems mentioned above without employing the entire device for each of the various systems.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide a drainage device wherein the above-mentioned disadvantages are substantially obviated.
More specifically, it is an object of the present invention to provide thoracic drainage apparatus having a plurality of preformed hollow plastic members which are quickly and easily interconnected together by simple and reliable means to provide an efficient and economical drainage system and wherein they can be selectively connected to form one, two, three or four-bottle chamber type thoracic drainage systems while using only the desired number of chamber members.
In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, drainage apparatus is provided which includes a plurality of preformed plastic chamber members having means for interconnecting the chambers thereof in fluid communication and in substantially fixed relation with each other, and which are adapted to be connected with a cavity of a patient for draining fluids from the cavity. In accordance with another aspect, a single chamber member having channels therein may be used with a tube in a one-bottle system.
These, as well as other features and advantages of the present invention, will become apparent from the following detailed description and accompanying drawmg.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a side elevation of a drainage apparatus in accordance with the present invention shown connected as a four-bottle thoracic device;
FIG. 2 is a vertical section of the device of FIG. 1 on an enlarged scale;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged cross-sectional device taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is an elevational view of a one-bottle thoracic device utilizing one of the chamber members of FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is an elevational view of a two-bottle thoracic device utilizing two of the chamber members of the device shown in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 6 is an elevational view of a three-bottle thoracic device utilizing three of the chamber members of the device of FIG. 1.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to the drawing, and particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is shown drainage apparatus, indicated generally at 7, which includes four separate bottles or chamber members 8, 9, 10 and 11 having internal chambers 12, 14, 16 and 18, respectively, that are interconnected to form a four-bottle or four-chamber thoracic drainage device. Chamber 12 is a drainage collector chamber for receiving and collecting drainage from a patient; chamber 14 is an underwater seal or series liquid seal which passes gas from the patient; chamber 16 is a liquid pressure control or regulating manometer; and chamber 18 is a liquid direct reading manometer and secondary seal.
Drainage collector chamber 12 is preformed with a drainage inlet port 19 connected to an integral inlet tube coupling member 19a which receives tubing 20 connected with a catheter 21, the distal end of which is adapted for insertion within the pleural cavity of a patient for draining fluids and gases. Chamber 12 is partitioned by integral walls 21a and 21b into three channels or columns 12a, 12b, and 12c which fill successively with drainage liquids from a patient. Inlet port 19 is located directly above channel 12a so that this channel is first to fill with drainage fluid. Adjacent the upper end of chamber 12 is a gas outlet 22 connected to an integral outlet tube coupling member 22a coupled by a short length of tubing 24, for example, plastic tubing, to an inlet port 26 of chamber 14 by means of an integral inlet coupling member 26a of chamber 14.
The liquid seal chamber 14 is preformed with an integral partition wall 25 dividing the chamber into a relatively narrow vertically extending column or channel 27 of relatively small volume, and a relatively wide column or channel 28 of relatively large volume. The upper end of channel 27 is connected in fluid communication with the inlet 26 at its upper end by means of an enlarged circuitous path or liquid trap 27a, and at its lower end to the chamber 28. A predetermined amount of liquid, such as water 29, is disposed in the chamber 28 so that the lower end of the partition 25 extends into the water, the lower ends of the columns 27 and 28 defining a liquid reservoir for the water. Channel 28 is provided with an outlet port 30 connected with an integral outlet connector or coupling member 300 which is adapted to be connected in fluid communication with a negative pressure pump or vacuum source 32 by means of "a tube, such as plastic tubing 33 connected to member 30a.
The liquid seal chamber 14 is also provided with a fluid pressure relief gas or air inlet port 34 connected with an integral connector 34a at the top of the column 14 adjacent the outlet 30. The pressure relief port 34 is connected to an air inlet port 36 of the chamber 16 by an integral connector 36a adjacent the top of the control manometer chamber 16. The connector 340 is shown connected to connector 36a of the regulating manometer chamber 14 by means of a plastic connecting tube 37.
The regulating manometer chamber 16 is provided with an integral partition 38 which divides it into a relatively narrow vertically extending column or channel 40 of relatively small volume and a relatively wide column or channel 42 of relatively large volume. The channel 42 is connected in fluid communication with the connector 36a and therefore with the negative pressure outlet 30 at the upper end of the liquid seal chamber 14 and the pump 32 (FIG. 1 The relatively narrow channel 40 is connected in fluid communication at the upper end thereof to a vent or air inlet port 43 open to atmosphere. Channel 40 is connected with the relatively large chamber 42 adjacent its lower end. The lower ends of columns 40 and 42 define a liquid reservoir for water 44. The height of water in the liquid control manometer determines the maximum pressure available at the outlet 19 regardless of pump pressures above a predetermined amount, as is well known by those skilled in the art.
The direct reading manometer and secondary seal chamber 18 is identical to the control manometer chamber 16. Chamber 18 is provided with an upper integral inlet connector 48 which is connected by means of plastic tubing 49 to another integral connector 50 in the upper portion of the drainage collector chamber 12. The chamber 18 is divided by an integral partition wall 18a into a relatively narrow vertical column or channel 52 and a relatively large column or channel 54. Channel 52 is connected in fluid communication with the inlet connector 48 at the top and with the channel 54 at the bottom. The lower ends of channels 52 and 54 serve as a liquid reservoir for liquid such as water 58. Channel 54 is open to atmosphere by means of an integral connector 56 at its upper end. The chamber 18 serves as a direct reading liquid manometer which is connected directly in fluid communication with the collector chamber 12, and hence the pleural cavity of the patient, and to atmosphere so as to provide a continuous precise reading of the pressure in the cavity of the patient. Chamber 18 also serves as a secondary liquid seal which is connected to atmosphere in by-pass relation with the liquid seal chamber 14, whereby a patient may, under surge conditions, expel air from the pleural cavity, for example, without the necessity of requiring substantial pressures necessary to move air through the series liquid seal chamber 14 and the liquid regulating manometer 16 should the pump fail and close the outlet 30. The function and advantages of the liquid seal feature of chamber 18 are described in greater detail in applicants previously mentioned application Ser. No. l83,332, and the function of the chamber 18 as a direct reading liquid manometer is given in greater detail in applicants previously mentioned application Ser. No. 212,075.
As described above, the chambers 12, 14, 16 and 18 are interconnected in fluid communication by means of integral connectors and relatively short pieces of tubing in the illustrated embodiment. However, these connections may be formed by integral connectors fitting one within the other, for example, by making each such piece of tubing an integral portion of one of the chamber members. For example, tubing 24 may be formed integrally with the connector 22a as a relatively flexible part of chamber 12, and the connector 26a, integral with liquid seal chamber 14 may be inserted directly into the integral flexible part. The integral connectors and tubing elements provide a simple and effective means for manually releasably connecting the chambers in fluid communication with each other.
While these integral connectors and tubing connections tend to hold the chamber members 8, 9, 10 and 11 together, the present device provides additional means by which the members are securely held together to avoid any possible inadvertent opening in any of the fluid paths. This is accomplished in the illustrated embodiment by providing a plurality of locking or clamping elements shown as connecting pins 60 extending between adjacent portions of the chambers.
The chamber members 8, 9, 10 and 11 are shown provided with integral tabs or extensions indicated respectively at 61a, 61b, 61c and 61d, and each tab is provided with a hole 62. When an adjacent pair of chamber members are in proper orientation and in fluid communication with each other, each of the tabs 61 on one of the members extends over a portion or tab 61 of the adjacent chamber member with the holes 62 in aligned relation to receive a connector pin 60, for example, as shown in FIG. 3. In FIG. 3, a pin 60 is shown extending through a tab 610 of the regulating manometer chamber member 10 and a tab 611) of the liquid seal chamber member 9. Each pin 60 is enlarged intermediate its ends so that when pushed through the aligned holes 62 in the adjacent chambers, the enlarged portion forms a tight frictional engagement with hole 62 tending a hold the adjacent overlapping portions or tabs in tight frictional engagement. However, it is preferable to also position a pin locking member 70, such as a star locking washer which may be formed of a resilient metal, over the end of each pin opposite the head with the locking member digging into the pin to further insure that the pin cannot fall out.
In illustrated embodiment, the liquid seal chamber member 9 is connected in fixed relation with the collector chamber member 8 by means of a pin 60 at the upper end thereof adjacent the inlet 26 and also by a pin 60 at the bottom ends of the two chambers. The liquid manometer chamber member 10 is similarly connected by pins 60 with the liquid seal chamber member 9. Likewise, the direct reading manometer and secondary liquid seal chamber member 11 is connected by a pair of pins 60 adjacent opposite ends thereof to the member 8. By connecting the chambers by means of integral fluid flow connectors and tubing, and pins 60 extending through adjacent overlapping portions or tabs on adjacent chamber members, the chambers are maintained secured in fixed relationship with each other and in fluid communication for proper operation. The chamber members 8-11 may be disassembled, of course, by removing the pins and the fluid coupling tubing elements between members.
In the four-bottle thoracic drainage system shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the liquid regulating manometer 10 provides a desired negative fluid pressure at the outlet connector 30 so that drainage from the pleural cavity of the patient flows into the collector chamber 12 and air or gas from the cavity flows through the liquid 29 in seal 14 to the outlet 30 and pump 32. The liquid manometers 16 and 18 are provided with indicia or calibration marks and 85, respectively so that the liquid in the columns may be read. The pressure of the regulating manometer will be somewhat different from that of the direct reading liquid manometer 18 because of the pressure drop across the liquid seal.
In FIG. 4, chamber member 8 is used alone, the collector chamber 12 being provided with a predeter mined amount of water such as to a level indicated by a level mark 89. A connecting tube 87 is shown in fluid communication with tube and connector 19a and has its lower end disposed below the surface of the liquid. The upper connector 22a is open to atmosphere to allow air or gas to escape through the liquid to atmosphere. The connector 50 may be closed by a closure cap 88. With this arrangement liquid in the chamber 12 provides a seal and drainage flows into chamber 12 due to gravity. In the one-bottle system of FIG. 4, the lower end of tube 87 is positioned a predetermined distance below the water fill level 89 so that drainage liquid first fills channel 12a and then flows over partition 12a to fill the next successive channel 12b. In this way, the lower end of tube 87 is disposed a constant distance below the liquid level in channel 12a after it is filled to provide a substantially constant reaction force to the flow of fluid from the patient. In the prior art one-bottle systems, the force opposing the flow of fluid from the cavity increased as the liquid in the collector chamber filled. Thus, this one-bottle system provides a substantially constant, relatively small reaction force to the flow of fluid from the patient.
In FIG. 5, a two-bottle system is illustrated. In this embodiment, the collector chamber 12 and the liquid seal chamber 14 are connected together in fluid communication with each other by means of connectors 22a, 26a and tube 24, as in the device of FIG. 1. The outlet 30a is open to atmosphere in this case, and the connectors 50 and 34a are closed by cap 88 and another cap 89, respectively. Chamber 12 is not filled with water in this case since liquid seal chamber 14 is connected to it. Fluids drain by gravity into collector chamber 12 of member 8 and gas or air passes through liquid seal chamber 14 to atmosphere.
In the three-bottle system of FIG. 6, the chambers 12, 14 and 16 are interconnected and the outlet 50 is sealed off by cap 88 since the direct reading manometer is not used. In this case, the outlet 30a is connected to the negative source of pressure 32 by tube 33, and the pressure regulating manometer is connected to the liquid seal to limit the pressure applied to the collector chamber. The operation of this system is similar to that previously mentioned herein in connection with the device shown in FIG. 1 except for the function of member 11.
In each of the various systems it will be apparent that each chamber is easily connected to each other in fixed relationship and in the desired fluid communication connection, and that the various one-bottle, two-bottle, three-bottle, and four-bottle thoracic drainage devices can be selectively assembled while using only the necessary chamber member or members. Since the members l0 and 11 are identical, a four-bottle arrangement such as shown in FIG. 1 can be assembled from only three different kinds of chamber members which reduces cost. The members 10 and 11 can be made, for example, from the same mold and subsequently provided with different calibration marks (80,85).
To further stiffen the assembled chambers, a pair of tabs 90 integral with member 8 are shown extending over opposite surfaces of an extension on chamber 6 member 9 to clamp the extension to further stabilize the device and make it even more rigid.
Each of the chamber members 8, 9, l0 and 11 is formed of a plastic material, such as polypropylene, and each is formed individually as a separate unitary member. Each member is preferably transparent or translucent so that the liquid in them can be seen. Each may be formed by a blow molding process or, alternatively, may be formed from a pair of mirror image plastic elements molded separately and then sealed together, such as by heat sealing or other suitable means.
While a preferred form of the invention has been described herein, it will be apparent that various changes and modifications thereto may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention or scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A drainage apparatus comprising a hollow relatively rigid plastic drainage collector chamber member having a chamber with at least one partition wall integral therewith dividing the chamber into a pair of relatively rigid vertical channels connected in fluid communication with each other above the upper end of said partition wall, one of said channels having an initial predetermined amount of liquid to a predetermined level, an indicia mark on said chamber providing a visual indication of said level, passage means for connection in fluid communication at the upper end thereof with a body cavity to be drained, said passage means extending through an upper portion of said chamber member and into said one channel to a point below said indicia mark, vent means above the upper end of said partition wall connecting said chamber to atmosphere whereby fluid draining from the cavity flows through the passage means and enters the liquid in said one channel to fill said one channel and overflow into said second channel with gas from the cavity passing through the liquid and out through said vent means, and tube connection me ans above the upper end of said partition wall and the level of liquid in said collector chamber during use of the apparatus for connecting another chamber member in fluid communication with said collector chamber.
2. A drainage apparatus comprising a relatively rigid plastic collector chamber having first and second relatively rigid liquid holding chamber portions partitioned from each other by a partition wall with the upper ends of said chambers in fluid communication with each other above the upper end of said partition wall so that liquid overflowing said first chamber portion flows into said second chamber portion, said first chamber portion having an initial amount of liquid to a predetermined level, an indicia means providing a visual indication of said level, passage means having one end exteriorly of the collector chamber for connection with a body cavity to be drained, said passage means extending into the collector chamber and into said first chamber portion with the opposite end of said passage means below the upper end of said first chamber portion, said indicia means, and the level of said initial amount of liquid so that drainage liquid and gas may flow into the liquid in said first chamber portion during use of the apparatus, gas outlet means above the upper end of said partition wall and the level of liquid in said first chamber portion during use of the apparatus for passing gas out of the collector chamber, and tube connection means above the upper end of said partition wall and the level of liquid in said collector chamber during use of the apparatus for connecting another chamber membet in fluid communication with said collector chamher.