US 3924984 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sttes ate t [191 Giacobazzi Dec. 9, 1975 MACHINE FOR COUOUSLY SPINNING AND TREATING RAYON-VISCOSE FILAMENTS AND YARNS  Inventor: Valeriano Giacobazzi, Milan, Italy 73 Assignee: Snia Viscosa societaNazionale Industria Applicazioni viscosa S.p.a., Italy 22 Filed: Mar. 22, 1974 21 Appl. No.: 453,721
 Foreign Application Priority Data Apr. 6, 1973 Italy 22669/73  US. Cl. 425/68; 425/73; 425/455 F  Int. Cl. D01D 9/08  Field of Search 425/67, 68, 69, 70, 73,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,871,100 8/1932 Walton et a1. 425/68 X 2,516,157 7/1950 Stanley 425/73 X 3,522,342 7/1970 Nungesser et a1. 425/I74.4 X
FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 38,175 4/1931 France 425/68 546,979 8/1942 United Kingdom 425/68 707,141 4/1954 United Kingdom 425/70 525,965 6/1956 Canada 425/68 92,560 l/l962 Denmark 425/70 Primary ExaminerRobert D. Baldwin Attorney, Agent, or FirmMcGlew and Tuttle  ABSTRACT A machine for the continuous spinning and treatment of viscose rayon filaments and yarns, comprises means for extruding the filaments, a coagulating bath, filament stretching means and filament progressing means for continuously treating, washing and drying the filaments to obtain a completely treated yarn, as well as means for physically separating the treatment space from the exterior environment.
3 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures US. Patent Dec. 9, 1975 Sheet 1 of 2 3,924,984
Sheet 2 of 2 US. Patent Dec. 9, 1975 MACHINE FOR CONTINUOUSLY SPINNING AND TREATING YON-VISCOSE FILAMENTS AND YARNS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to an improved machine for continuously carry-out, under conditions of high productivity and yield, and of regularity of operation and production, the entire processing cycle leading to the formation of viscose rayon filaments and yarns, starting from the spinning of spinnable viscose dope into a coagulating bath, and yielding a product which is spun and, if desired, twisted, wound-up and packaged so that it may be sent as such to the production of textile goods.
It is known that the manufacture of viscose rayon fibres and yarns comprises a sequence of operations and treatments. The spinnable viscose dope, when it is suitably extruded through spinning nozzles into a coagulating bath, is transformed into filaments which, after having been stretched, require a sequence of other physical-chemical treatments which typically include desulphurizing, bleaching and other processes, in suitable liquid processing baths, separated by washing treatments, and at the end undergo a final drying treatment whereafter they are wound-up, optionally as a twisted yarn resulting from the coupling of a plurality of filaments, and preferably after the application of sizing and/or lubricating agents. This technology of spinning and treating viscose rayon fibres is well known and does not require further comments.
It is also known that this process is conventionally carried-out by gathering the Coagulated and stretched filaments by centrifugation within baskets or like rotating containers in the form of cakes. The successive physical-chemical treatments of desulphurizing, bleaching, finishing and others, are carried-out on the yarn packaged as cakes, by causing liquid agents to pass through the cakes, on a separate apparatus, and in suitable environments from which the gaseous products and the solutions which evolve in the course of the aforesaid treatments are removed.
Various apparatuses have been proposed for carrying-out such treatments continously. The Patents and technical literature-in this art have disclosed, among others, apparatuses wherein the filaments, as they emerge from the coagulating bath, are led; round a treatment roller which is divided into a plurality of coaxial zones set side by side, in correspondence to which the coils of the yarn are exposed to various aclrq on the part of liquid agents suitably fed onto the coils, a d are thereafter gathered in underlying separed tanks};
pans. By associating to the treatment roller a plurafitx of auxiliary rollers, which are essentially parallel to th dieting system which comprises a spinneret 10 embodyfirst and suitably positioned, it has been possible to achieve the twin purposes of better exposing the filaments to the treatment and washing liquids by repeatingly detaching them from the treatment roller and advancing them in a spiral configuration along a path which embraces the treatment roller and one auxiliary roller, and of permitting the concurrent treatment, about the treatment roller, of a corresponding plurality of filaments individually travelling in coils which em brace, besides the treatment roller, one auxiliary roller for each filament. In this way the individual filaments, jointly advanced in close juxtaposition, are continuously separated the ones from the others while they travel along their spiral paths, since they travel in spirals which have separated arcs or segments.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The improved machine according to the invention generally embodies such advantageous technical solutions, but they are integrated and completed so as to ensure a higher production together with a more favorable and selective treatment, all this in such a way as to achieve an increased yield of the machine or installation, both from the quantitative and from the qualitative viewpoints.
The technical solutions which have been found and applied for achieving the aforesaid as well as other purposes and objects of the invention, will appear as evidentin the course of the following detailed description, with reference to the attached drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 represents, essentially in elevation view and partially in cross-section in a vertical plane parallel to the axis of the main roller, a complete improved machine according to the invention, wherein there have been omitted and simplified numerous purely structural and constructive details of components which individually are not characteristic of the said invention.
FIG. 2 represents, schematically and in cross-section and perspective view, approximately on the plane and in the direction indicated by IIII in Fig. 1, the characteristic arrangement of the main and auxiliary rollers.
FIG. 3 represents, partially in elevation view and partially in cross-section and likewise with constructive simplifications, the part of the improved machine which is circumscribed by the contour indicated by III in FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 fragmentarily represents the structural coupling of two machines of the type represented in FIG. 1 and which comprise systems for carry-out the final yarn drying phase, after the spiral-like paths of the yarns about the rollers.
FIG. 5 represents, also schematically, the application of complementary means which cooperate to the removal from the individual yarns of the liquid agents fed thereto in the course of any one of the treatments, in order to improve the predisposition thereof to the successive treatment and concurrently to improve certain working and operating conditions of the machine.
FIG. 6 represents in cross-section and in detail a possible embodiment of the complementary means.
PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Initially referring to FIGS. 1 to 3, a machine for the continuous production treatment of rayon viscose filament and yarns comprises a viscose spinning and coaging a number of orifices equal to that of the filaments which can be processed concurrently in the machine, immersed in a coagulating bath 12, and operating at the inlet of a known coagulating and stretching tube 14. The spinner-ct 10, which may be fed for example through a piping 16, is obviously associated to known volumetric pump devices, and likewise the coagulating bath 12 is associated to means which ensure that the same is maintained at the desired levels, in its various parts, that the bath liquid is circulated and regenerated, and so on.
The several treatments to which the filaments must be submitted in order to be transformed into usable yarns, are carried-out at least prevalently about a main treatment roller 18, divided by suitable flange projections into a plurality of zones 18a, the number of zones depending on the number of treatments plus the number of the washing phases to be intercalated between the successive treatments.
The treatment and washing liquors are fed onto the corresponding zones 18a by spraying or by pouring them, preferably by means of jets which impinge on the filaments, in such a way that the liquor will come into contact with the entire surface of the individual filaments. Under the main roller or drum 18 there is positioned a tank 22, which in turn is divided by suitable partitions 24 into as many zones 22a wherein the treatment liquors operating in the overlying zones 18a are selectively gathered, the liquors thus gathered being evacuated through suitable conduits 26 in order to be removed and if desired recovered and regenerated.
The separation between the individual filaments which are led around the main roller is effected by a corresponding number of auxiliary rollers 28 essentially parallel to the treatment roller 18 and spaced from one another, about which the individual filaments are led, with the cooperation of suitable combs for separating the various groups of filaments which travel in a spiral path. In FIG. 2 there is schematically shown the trajectory along one spiral coil of as many filaments 30a-30d the individual coils whereof all circumscribe the main roller and selectively circumscribe each one of the auxiliary rollers 28a-28d, in this order.
Obviously the several filaments travel each along numerous spiral coils before they are transferred, preferably through the intervention of thread guides or thread shifting pulleys, into the successively adjacent zone. For the sake of simplicity, the zones are represented in FIGS. 1 and 3 as if they had equal axial dimensions. It is obvious that they could have different dimensions, in agreement with the different times required to ensure the completion of individual treatments, and that is of the number of spiral coils along which the filaments must travel in the corresponding zones. Also for the sake of simplicity there have been omitted numerous constructive details of the means which ensure the more complete hydraulic and mechanical separation between the various zones 18a of the main roller and the various zones 22a of the collecting tank, for example by means of double or multiple partitions 24, double or multiple flanges 20, so as to create suitable separating path holes, and others.
At the end of the treatments the yarns thus obtained are ready to be led to their packaging, for example in bobbins or cops 32, wound about known ring spindles or in bobbins actuated by winding machines with controlled speed and tension.
In the improved machine according to the invention the whole of the essential components is combined and supported in a structurally unitary assembly, having a rigid structure fragmentarily indicated by 34 and mounted on suitable foundations 36 which comprise shoulders 38 and 40 for supporting the rollers and the relative actuating means (not shown), and so forth. The entire assemblage is enclosed in a work chamber which is easily accessible for example by opening broad lateral ports 42 and 44 which are slidable and amply provided with transparent panels permitting the observation and the control of the machine in operation. The closed chamber 46 wherein the machine operates is provided with suitable suction means 48 associated with hoods 50 or other means for evacuating the vapors and the matters which evolve in the course of the various treatments. It is known that the production and the treatment of viscose rayon filaments, treatments which include the use of several chemical agents, lead to the establishment of environmental conditions which are detrimental and dangerous for the personnel operating the machines and installations. The grouping, exemplified in FIG. 1, of all the means required for transforming the starting spinnable viscose dope into the commercial yarn, and particularly a yarn already packaged in the desired form, in an assembly which is unitary both structurally and as relates to its installation, and which continuously operates in a completely closed chamber, which may need to be entered only from time to time for purposes of maintenance and repair, and only in the course of transitory phases and operations of starting and threading-up the machine, constitutes an extremely important advantage which impinges on all the various aspects of the application and industrial operation of the machine.
These advantages may be advantageously integrated by the use of suitable means (known per se) for authomatically changing the cops or bobbins of wound-up yarn with tubes or shells adapted to receive the winding, each time that the packaging of the yarns has been completed. Consequently the machine becomes completely automatic and can operate for an indefinite period of time and it is only required to check that it operates regularly, which check can be effected visually from the outside and can be integrated if required by signals supplied by suitable sensing devices, such as devices for signaling the breakages of the filaments, the deficiencies or irregularities in the various feeds, and so on. Similarly, checks as to the conditions of the bath liquors and others can be effected from the outside, for instance by drawing-off small amounts of the same, through suitable pipings, and so on.
Operational assemblies such as that hereinbefore described with reference to FIG. 1 may be in turn grouped into various units for the production of as many yarns of the same or different nature and count. FIG. 4 shows by way of example a possible way of grouping several machines, for instance by coupling two machines M1 and M2 set side by side, which machines individually produce yams that are suitably wound for example about ring spindles or others as exemplified at 32' and 32". Grouping several machines permits for example to unitize or combine various servicing means, such as those of the preparation and feed of the spinnable dopes, the regenerating circuits of the treatment and washing baths and so on.
FIG. 4 exemplifies further a preferred technical solution for the completion of the treatments. These treatments (desulphurizing, bleaching and so forth) must necessarily end with a phase of complete drying of the treated yarn. This drying may be effected for instance by repeatedly passing the yarn, under the conditions described with reference to FIG. 2, about a terminal zone of the main treatment roller, a zone which is suitably heated.
It is also known that in the course of such heating the yarn may undergo and generally does undergo spontaneous length variations which may be of a suubstantial amount, generally a significant contraction. Therefore, the drying treatment, if carried-out while the yarn travels in a spiral path round a main and auxiliary rollers, the geometrical parameters of which are obviously con stant, may cause harmful phenomena, and particularly may cause stresses in the direction of the length of the yarn (and which may even produce a flattening of the same) because the actual presence of the rollers prevents the yarns from freely or even controllably (such as under a predetermined countertension) changing their length.
In the embodiment represented in FIG. 4, yarns and 30 are removed from the treatment and auxiliary rollers at least before their drying has been completed and are passed under conditions of free or controlled tension through elongated drying chambers 52 and 52", wherein suitable heating means are disposed, which means may be for instance generators of infrared radiations, generators of high frequency fields, or simple radiators consisting for instance of electric resistors, and associated with suitable reflecting means for concentrating the radiating energy onto the advancing filaments. Within the drying chambers there may also flow, preferably countercurrent with respect to the direction of travel of the yarns, suitably dried gaseous streams, so as to associate the drying to a removal of the liquid evolving from the filaments. At the outlet from the drying chambers the yarns are led to the winding, if desired after passing in contact with rollers or other means 54to and 54 for applying lubricating agents, sizers and the like, all as it is well known in the art.
It is obvious that one essential condition for an high productivity of a machine of the type indicated consists in the speed of travel of the filaments, which speed depends on the spinning, coagulating and stretching conditions and is defined by the peripheral speeds of the treatment and auxiliary rollers. It is obvious that such speed should be as high as possible, compatible with the spinning and collection of the yarns. In turn the various treatments and intermediate washing phases strictly demand that the yarns remain in contact with the treatment agents and washing liquors for predetermined lengths of time. This requirement becomes translated into a number and length of spiral coils, that is into the length of the path along which the yarns travel within each zone of the treatment drum. In other words, the high production speed causes a corresponding increase of the axial and diametral dimensions of the treatment roller.
According to an important feature of this invention, these dimensions may be advantageously contained within desirably low limits (consequently reducing the overall outer dimensions, the weight and the cost of the complete machine) by shortening to the highest degree the times required for the total elimination of the liquids fed onto the yarns in the course of each treatment phase, before they are transferred to another zone of the treatment drum to undergo a treatment with different chemical agents.
As a rule this elimination is effected in the course of the washing phases by means of liquids wherein the concentration of the chemical agents that are washedoff necessarily increases with time. Therefore, accord ing to this further feature of the invention, the yarns undergo a first energetic action of mechanical removal of the liquids which are present thereon at the exit from each treatment or washing zone, so that the washing liquids transported by the yarns do not cause a progressive dilution of the treatment liquids.
Such action may be effected as shown by way of ex ample in FIG. 5, by projecting energetic gaseous jets,
6 by means of suitably positioned nozzles 56, onto the yarns, so as to remove therefrom the liquid films which covertheir surface and consequently to reduce to a minimum the amount of treatment or washing agents to be eliminated before the yarns are transferred to the successive zone.
FIG. 6 shows by way of example a device by means of which at least partial elimination of the liquid substances carried along by the yarns may be effected in a particularly energetic manner. This device comprises an elongated body 60, axially perforated so as to be longitudinally traversed by the yarn, comprising an inlet chamber 62, a series of stepwise divergent passages 64 and an outlet chamber 66, the inlet and outlet chambers being respectively connected to conduits 68 and 70 through which gaseous streams previously dried and preferably heated are fed and respectively drawnoff, the streams flowing at high speed, possibly at supersonic speed, through the intermediate passages 64, thereby energetically acting phisically to withdraw the liquids carried along by the yarns, which liquids are at least in part evacuated through conduit 70.
Obviously, numerous other auxiliary means, devices or mechanisms may be associated to the improved machine, further to increase its qualitative and quantitative efficiency and generally to increase its productivity and the safety of servicing and maintaining it.
1. In a machine for the continuous spinning and treatment of viscose rayon filaments and yarns of the type including, in a structurally and operatively unitary assembly, a unitary supporting structure, coagulating bath means, spinning means for extruding filaments into the coagulating bath means, stretching means operable to stretch the coagulated filaments, and progressing means for progressively advancing the stretched filaments along the spiral-like path through a sequence of zones individually designed for sequential treating and washing of the filaments, with the progressing means including a rotary drum and the zones being axially juxtaposed along the rotary drum, and drying means operable to dry the filaments and produce a completely treated yarn; the improvement comprising, in combination, a ventilated casing enclosing said structurally and operatively unitary assembly to physically separate the treatment space therein, wherein gases, vapors and harmful substances are evolved, from the exterior environment in which operating personnel may be stationed during regular operation of said machine; yarn-collecting and winding means operable to collect and wind the treated and dried yarns produced by said machine, said yarn-collecting and winding means being also located within the ventilating casing and thus physically separated from the exterior environment; and respective liquid removing means located along said spiral-like path between adjacent zones and operable to exert, on the yarn leaving the immediately preceding zone, a mechanical action for at least partially removing the liquids fed to the yarn in such immediately-preceeding zone before the yarn enters the immediately-following zone.
2. In a machine for the continous spinning and treatment of viscose rayon filaments and yarns, the improvement claimed in claim I, in which said liquid removing means comprises nozzles connected to a source of gas under pressure and positioned and oriented to project jets of gas onto the yarn leaving an immediately-preceding zone before the yarn enters the immedi- 7 ately-following zone.
3. In a machine for the continous spinning and treatment of viscose rayon filaments and yarns, the improvement claimed in claim 1, in which said liquid removing means comprises respective tubular bodies tra- 8 versed by the yarn between adjacent zones; and means applying said respective tubular bodies with gas under pressure to subject the yarn traversing the tubular bodies to high speed gaseous streams.