US 3926107 A
A refuse odor control system is described herein together with a novel process for rendering the contents of compactor-type solid waste disposal and storage units substantially stable, non-odorous, and insect free. The system comprises a source of liquid chemical bactericidal and insecticidal deodorizer, valve means and compressed gas apparatus for dispensing the chemical, and a dual timer mechanism for automatically activating the valve means at a pre-determined frequency and for a pre-determined duration.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1 Dec. 16, 1975 3,754,498 8/1973 Gil 100/97 X FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,162,790 8/1969 Lnited Kingdom.. .,.l.,........,. 239/70 OTHER PUBLICATIONS I.D.C. Pamphlet, (6 pp.).
Primary Examiner Billy .l. Wilhite Attorney, Agent, or FirmThompson, Birch, Gauthier & Samuels ABSTRACT A refuse odor control system is described herein to- B30B 15/16 gether with a novel process for rendering the contents 239/70. 100/45 70 71 of compactor-type solid waste disposal and storage units substantially stable, non-odorous, and insect 220/87 free. The system comprises a source of liquid chemical bactericidal and insecticidal deodorizer, valve means and compressed gas apparatus for dispensing the chemical, and a dual timer mechanism for automatically activating the valve means at a pre-determined /2 frequency and for a pre-determined duration. Cleary et a1. 100/45 5 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures DEODORIZING CHEMICALS TO COMPACTED REFUSE  Inventors: Peter Dunlap, Box 117, Amherst,
NH. 03031; Daniel W. Sullivan, 29 Mechanic St., Fitchburg, Mass. 01420 Aug. 7, 1973 Appl. No.: 386,397
100/45; 21/55; 21/77; 100/73; 100/215; 100/240; 220/87; 239/70 Int.  Field of Search............
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 5/1967 6/1971 Rollow et a1. 10/1972 ilited tates Dunlap et al.
1 APPARATUS FOR APPLYING  Filed:
 U.S. Cl.
US. Patent Dec. 16, 1975 '23/@ fl24 Fig. 1. m
The utilization of modern refuse reduction (compaction, shredding, baling) systems by municipal, institutional, public or commercial facilities generating or processing waste which is comprised solely or partly of food processing and/or kitchen residue has been objectionable or unacceptable due to the adverse environmental effects caused by the retention or storage of this class of rapidly decomposing material. Examples of facilities so affected would be municipal transfer stations, restaurants, hospitals, food processing plants, apartment complexes and any number of public, commercial or private facilities such as office buildings, industrial plants, motels, clubs or hotels which incorporate a kitchen, restaurant, or cafeteria facility as an integral part of their overall operation.
The advent of centralized regional or municipal transfer stations for the shredding, baling, compaction or similar combinations of municipal refuse, prior to truck or rail shipment to remotely located landfill resource recovery, and/or incinerator facilities, has extended the time period to ultimate disposal over the previous practice of local collection with disposal at sites located in each community. This extended time factor, allowing extensive anaerobic ep-oxidation, causes an objectional and unsanitary environmental impact at the transfer facility, during transport and at the ultimate disposal site.
Prior to our invention the only satisfactory method available for the proper and satisfactory handling of proteinaceous refuse was to have the waste disposed of on a daily basis using antiquated material handling methods resulting in an excessive cost of operation. The availability or geographic location of landfill sites or incinerators which meet federal, state and municipal regulations are limited and, due to population density and/or soilconditions, are being located at distant, remote points from the majority of refuse generating facilities. Compaction would offer substantial economies in the handling and transportion of this class of waste to municipal or private landfill or incinerator facilities.
It will be appreciated that odor generated by the decay and putrefaction of organic matter, or typically the anaerobic ep-oxidation or splitting of proteins by bacteria and fungi, will vary dependent on a number of factors such as time, types of waste, temperature, availability of bacteria and the type of bacteria present. Unless such waste matter is kept under refrigeration, rapid breakdown will occur causing an objectionable and an unsanitary environment. Refrigeration of compaction equipment and/or waste is impractical and costly. The introduction or utilization of bactericides or of an oxidation media (i.e., oxygen ozone or chlorine) presents a fire hazard, severe corrosion, potentially high levels of toxicity or a combination of these effects. In any event the above chemicals and formulas are not effective when dispensed manually or automatically in a fluid spray form for the following reasons:
1. Solution is sprayed into compaction chamber and not into compaction chamber and container.
2. Sprayed solution effective only on immediate contact surface and does not come in contact with all available contaminated surfaces.
3. Manual system subject to human error and does not provide for non-active or reduced activity periods.
4. Current automatic systems introduce spray only when compaction ram cycle is activated manually or automatically, via an electric eye or trip lever mechanism, as refuse enters the compaction cham* ber. During non-active and reduced activity periods this system is inadequate for effective control.
5. Current systems using a spray and by spraying only in the compaction chamber do not provide a process by which newly exposed contaminated surfaces in the container can be continuously contacted by odor or bacteria-controlling chemicals.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is, therefore, the object of our invention to create a dispensing system which:
1. provides an automatic continuous system for the introduction of effective chemicals (preservatives, bactericides and insecticides);
2. provides a system which is variable in that the frequency of chemicals introduced is easily adjusted to existing conditions;
3. provides a system which is variable in that the amount of chemicals introduced during each cycle is easily adjusted to existing conditions;
4. provides a system which dispenses the active chemicals in a gaseous or micronized form allowing for maximum surface contact with all contaminated surfaces and air-borne odor, bacteria or insects;
5. provides for the installation of equipment to dispense active chemicals in the compaction chamber, the compaction container, the shredder, baler and in the case of chute-fed systems, the chute itself;
6. provides a system adaptable to any variation of climatic (temperature) condition and type and quantity of those wastes subject to anaerobic splitting by bacteria or fungi;
7. provides a system capable of automatic-continuous odor control during active and non-active operating periods; and
8. provides the opportunity to utilize economic, modern refuse reduction systems and comply with 10- cal, state and federal health regulations.
These objects are accomplished by means of an inexpensive and easy to operate system which may, in whole or part, be attached to an outside wall of a compactor-type solid waste disposal and storage unit and, in the former case, may be wholly self-contained to facilitate continuous and uninterrupted operation even while the filled unit is enroute to a disposal site. The system comprises a source of liquid chemical, valve means and compressed gas apparatus for dispensing the chemical, and a dual timer mechanism for automatically activating the valve means at a pre-determined frequency and for a predetermined duration.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Referring now to the accompanying drawings:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the Compactor-type waste disposal and storage unit with cut-away views of the inside of the chute feed and compaction chamber and of the inside of the protective housing for the valve-nozzle assembly.
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the refuse odor control system shown attached to the compactor unit in FIG. 1 and showing an illustrative circuitry diagram for the dual timer mechanism.
FURTHER DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Referring to FIG. 1, waste matter is channeled by a chute feed 100 into a compaction chamber 101 where it is periodically compressed through an opening into the interior of the unit by a compaction ram 102 which may be either manually or automatically activated. The compacted waste is then stored inside the compaction container 103. Optionally, but not shown in FIG. 1, there may be a shredder for cutting large pieces of waste matter into a more manageable size, and a baler for holding together a compressed bundle of waste. The filled compactor unit is transported to an ultimate disposal site such as a furnace or landfill, where it is emptied by opening the compactor door 104, and the unit is then ready for reuse.
Permanently fastened to the outside of the compactor door 104 is a chemical-deodorizer holding tank 110 and a valve-micronizing nozzle assembly enclosed in a protective housing 111 which is attached to the door by hinges 112. The chemical-deodorizer tank 110 is connected by flexible hose 113 to a conventional, manually-operated valve 114 and to three micronizing nozzles 115, 116 and 117. The housing 111 is hinged to the door 104 in such a way that when the housing is closed over an aperture 118 in the door, the micronizing nozzles 1 15, 116, and 117 face inwardly into the interior of the compactor unit where the compacted waste is being stored.
The nozzle assembly is connected to an external dual timer unit 120 by means of a flexible hose 121 and a quick-release coupling 122. The timer mechanism consists of two clock-like devices 123 and 124 which can be set independently, one to regulate the frequency of chemical-deodorizer applications, the other to regulate the duration. The timer unit is also connected to a source of compressed gas 126, such as an air compressor or a cylinder of compressed air, through a control valve 125.
Referring now to FIG. 2, the chemical-deodorizer tank 210 is shown schematically connected by flexible hose 213 to conventional, manually-operated valve 214 and micronizing nozzles 215, 216, and 217. The nozzles are also connected by flexible hose 221 to a source of compressed gas 226 through a control valve 225 which is regulated by the dual timer mechanism. The illustrative wiring diagram showing timers 223 and 224 is for the 2-HP5 Cycl-Flex timer manufactured by the Eagle Signal Co., of Davenport, Iowa. This is a dual timer unit housed in a single cabinet which permits independent control of the two timing devices. However, this is only intended to show a typical type of timing device.
PREFERRED EMBODIMENT In the preferred practice of this invention, the deodorizer holding tank and the valve-nozzle assembly and housing are permanently mounted on the outside wall of the compactor unit immediately above the corn paction chamber (see FIG. 1). The holding tank, of approximately gallon capacity, is connected to the valve assembly by means. of a flexible plastic or rubber hose, or a metal pipe, containing a plug valve and a disc check valve. The valve-nozzle assembly housing is mounted on hinges adjacent to an aperture in the wall of the compactor unit so that when the housing is closed over the aperture, the three micronizing nozzles are directed inwardly over the compaction chamber and into the interior of the compactor unit.
The valve-nozzle assembly and housing and further connected via flexible tubing and a quick-release coupling to a dual timer mechanism and a source of compressed gas. The compressed gas source is preferably an air compressor operating between 40125 psi. The dual timer mechanism is a commercially-available device which contains two clock-like assemblies, one calibrated in minutes to control the frequency of chemical-deodorizer application, the other calibrated in seconds to regulate the duration of each spray application. The first is continually running and at regular pre-determined intervals activates the second clockdevice which, in turn, activates the valve-nozzle assem bly by opening the valve to the compressed air source. The timer is preferably powered by an external source of V power supply. [An example of such a dual timer device is the 2-I-IP5 Cycl-Flex timer manufactured by the Eagle Signal Co. of Davenport, Iowa] When the compactor unit is full and picked up for disposal, the timer and compressed gas source are disconnected by the quick-release coupling, while the deodorizer holding tank and valve-nozzle assembly remain attached to the unit for re-use.
A preferred chemical deodorizer for use with this invention is marketed under the trademark NODOR by the Nodor Chemical Co., Roselle, NJ.
ALTERNATE EMBODIMENTS The practice of this invention is not confined to the preferred embodiment set forth .above. The refuse odor control system of this invention may be adapted to suit varying needs created by the type and volume of wastes being disposed of and by fluctuations in climatic conditions.
In particular, this invention also contemplates the use of a plurality of micronizing nozzles connected to the valve assembly by means of flexible hosing and so disposed throughout the compactor apparatus as to insure continual contact of the waste material with the chemical deodorizer spray. Thus, under conditions where the type of waste matter and/or temperature and humidity are such as to promote a rapid anaerobic ep-oxidation, micronizing nozzles may be efficaciously positioned in the chute feed, the shredder, the baler, and the compaction container as well as the compaction chamber, for example nozzles 127 and 128 as illustrated in FIG. 1. However, the number of nozzles used is not critical.
Furthermore, under especially acute odor-creating conditions, it may be found desirable to continue chemical-deodorizer applications while the filled compactor unit is enroute to the ultimate disposal site, a furnace or landfill site. The system of the present invention can be made wholly self-contained by employing a cylinder of compressed gas for the gas source and a battery-powered timer mechanism. The complete fourcomponent system can be permanently fastened to the outside wall of the campactor unit in hinged protective housings (as earlier described for the valve means) for easily replenishing the chemical-deodorizer, the compressed gas, or the timer battery. In place of the cylinder of compressed gas, it is also possible to achieve economic mobile operation of the system by coupling the valve assembly to the compressed air produced by truck engines for operating air brakes and the like.
A further refinement within the scope of the present inventionis the use of two or more holding tanks for the chemical-deodorizer wherein each such tank holds one material particularly effective for at least one of the purposes of the inventioninhibiting odor, bacteria, or insects-which is incompatible with the other materials being applied. In this embodiment, each of the chemicals is fed to a separate micronizing nozzle for spraying or to a plurality of separate micronizing nozzles positioned in different parts of the compactor unit as described earlier. Obviously, this necessitates a somewhat more elaborate valve assembly.
EXAM PLES To substantiate the claims of our invention, a 4 month trial 120 days) was conducted. Class three refuse consisting primarily of food wastes and paper products was used. In a previous experiment, stationary compaction equipment was equipped with a commercially available disinfectant spray system which was activated by the ram cycle and discharged into the compaction chamber. A 30 cubic yard container was chosen so as to provide a 4 day capacity for refuse. The experiment proved disastrous since an objectionable environmental condition resulted and caused numerous complaints, objections from the municipal Board of Health and refusal by the city-operated landfill to accept the refuse.
Tests to substantiate our invention were conducted with the knowledge and coordination of the Board of Health and Sanitary Landfill administration.
The test called for the installation of a leak-proof 27 cubic yard, self-contained compaction system and the equipment components of our invention are:
1. a dual variable timer to control; (a) the frequency or cycle and (b) the time allowed for the introduction of odor control chemicals;
2. an automatic valve activated by the timer which allows a pressurized gas to flow to the micronizing nozzle(s);
3. a storage tank which supplies the chemical(s) to the micronizing nozzle(s);
4. a source of pressurized gas to provide the energy required to give a finely dispersed physical state to the chemicals as they pass through the nozzle assembly(s). Any number of non-toxic, inert pressurized gases may be utilized to provide the required energy; the preferred and most economic being compressed air;
5. any number of chemicals or chemical formulas may be utilized to selectively or collectively control odor (anaerobic ep-oxidation), bacteria or insects. The preferred odor control formulas is Nodor, the registered trade mark of the Nodor Chemical Company. The chemical(s) or chemical formula(s) may be independently fed via separate micronizing nozzle(s) or, where compatible, premixed by the user to be dispensed via a common micronizing nozzle(s) system. Like Nodor, the selected odor control formula(s) must be capable of stopping anaerobic ep-oxidation and, furthermore, stopping the ep-oxidation products from still further decomposi tion.
Tests were run under the following conditions: Condition 1. Without the odor control system 4 days 2. With the odor control system but manually operated during active working periods. 4 days 10 hours per day-1 gal. per day (diluted) 3. With the odor control system under automaticcontinuous operation 4 days-24 hours per day at 1.5 gals. per day (diluted). (Cycle timelO min., fogg time 5 seconds) 4. With the odor control system under automaticcontinuous operation for 108 days- 24 hours per day at 1.5 gals. per day (diluted). (Cycle time 8 min., Fogg time 10 seconds) Test results were as follows: Condition 1.
Objectionable odors were noticeable at the end of the first 24 hours and increased rapidly to an objectionable, intolerable level by the end of the 4 day period. The odors were easily detectableat a distance of feet from the compaction system and the condition judged to be totally unsatisfactory by the restaurant management and representatives of the Board of Health. Inspection of the compacted class three waste at the landfill site indicated massive anaerobic breakdown of the waste which was infested with maggots. The material was accepted at the landfill site on the condition that future loads would show substantial improvement.
Operating under manual conditions during normal working hours (10 am. 8 pm.) the chemical odor control formula was introduced to the compactor via a manually operated valve controlling the compressed air input to the mincronizing nozzles. The valve was actuated on a working convenience basis with an average time cycle of l5-30 minutes and an average fogg input of 515 seconds per cycle. Odor was substantially reduced during working hours but increased during nonworking hours (8 p.m.lO am.) At the completion of 4 days the container was discharged at the landfill site. It was evident that a substantial improvement had been .made in reducing the rate of anaerobic breakdown with a corresponding decrease in maggot infestation. The results, while an improvement, did not fully satisfy either the officials of the Board of Health of Sanitation Department. Condition 3.
Automatic-continuous 24 hour control using a 10 minute cycle with a 5 second micronizing input per cycle all but eliminated the development of objectionable odors during the 4 day period. No odor build-up or increase was evident during non-working hours (8 p.m.- 10 am). The compacted waste was acceptable to both the Board of Health and the Sanitation Department. Only trace maggot infestation was noted. Condition 4.
Automatic-continuous 24 hour control using an 8 minute cycle with a 10 second micronizing input per cycle provided total odor control during a ll2-day period. Deliveries of waste to the landfill site during this period were acceptable to the Sanitation Department and Board of Health. Both the waste and the walls of the container showed the absence of maggots. Our invention is applicable to all forms of horizontal and vertical compaction equipment as well to combinations of said equipment, shredders, balers, and feed chutes associated with said equipment whether they are installed inside or outside any applicable facility.
Having described and illustrated the invention, what we claim is:
l. A refuse disposal system consisting of:
a. a compactor-type solid waste disposal and storage unit which comprises a sealed container with one side adapted to receive a compaction chamber and ram which may optionally be connected to a chute feed; and,
b. in combination therewith, a refuse odor control system comprising: a source of liquid chemicaldeodorizer suitable for inhibiting odor, bacteria, and insects in solid waste matter; connector and valve-micronizing means together with a source of compressed gas for dispensing said chemical, said valve means being mounted adjacent to an opening in the storage unit so as to direct the chemicaldeodorizer into said unit; and a dual timer mechanism for automatically activating said valve means at a pre-determined frequency and for a predetermined duration.
2. The refuse disposal system of claim 1, wherein the chemical source and valve means of the odor control system are attached to the outside of the waste disposal and storage unit in one or more protective housings and the timing mechanism and compressed gas source areconnected thereto by a quick-release coupling.
3. The refuse disposal system of claim 2, wherein said valve-micronizing means are mounted within a protective housing with a plurality of nozzles facing outward toward an open face of the housing with said housing hinged to an outer wall of the waste disposal and storage unit adjacent to an aperture in said wall such that when the housing is closed over said aperture the micronizing nozzles are directed inwardly into the interior of the waste disposal and storage unit.
4. The refuse disposal system of claim 1, wherein all of the elements of the refuse odor control system are attached as a unit to one of the exterior walls of the waste disposal and storage unit.
5. The refuse disposal system of claim 1, wherein the chemical source is connected to a plurality of valves for simultaneously channeling the chemical-deodorizer to the chute feed, the compaction chamber, and the sealed container via a plurality of micronizing nozzles.