US 3927582 A
An open end ratchet wrench wherein turning of said wrench on a nut, pipe, tube or bar in one direction forces a ratchet to turn the wrench in one direction only.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Hertelendy et al.
[ Dec. 23, 1975 OPEN END ONE-DIRECTION RATCHET WRENCH Inventors: Nicholas L. Hertelendy; Nicholas A.
Hertelendy, both of PO. Box .104, Folsom, Calif. 95630 Filed: May 1, 1975 Appl. No.: 573,469
Related US. Application Data Division of Ser. No. 356,938, May 3, 1973.
US. Cl 81/58.2; 81/60 Int. Cl. B2513 13/46 Field of Search 81/58.2, 60, 63
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,306,228 12/1942 Shaw .e 8l/58.2 X 2,712,256 7/1955 Fish 81/58.2
Primary Examiner-Harold D. Whitehead Assistant Examiner-James G. Smith Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Ernest L. Brown ABSTRACT An open end ratchet wrench wherein turning of said wrench on a nut, pipe, tube or bar in one direction forces a ratchet to turn the wrench in one direction only.
2 Claims, 12 Drawing Figures US. Patent Dec. 23, 1975 Sheet 1 of3 3,927,582
U.S. Patent Dec. 23, 1975 Sheet 2 of3 3,927,582
US. Patent Dec. 23, 1975 Sheet 3 of3 3,927,582
OPEN END ONE-DIRECTION RATCHET WRENCH BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This is a division of U.S. patent application, Ser. No. 356,938, filed May 3, 1973 by the same inventors for OPEN END ONE-DIRECTTON WRENCH.
Various open-ended wrenches, some ratcheted, have been invented.
For example, U.S. Pat. No. 1,387,866, C. E. Reed, had pivoted gripping members tightened onto a pipe by a ram.
U.S. Pat. No. 2,306,228, H. A. Shaw, taught an openended ratchet wrench particularly for use on bicycle spokes.
U.S. Pat. No. 2,712,259, H. 1. Cowell, taught a plurality of gripping members, each separately springbiased outward in a direction substantially tangential to the torqued item. The wrench engaged when turned in one direction and disengaged when turned in the other direction.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,386,319, J. W. Bloom, used spheres as gripping members which are power-oscillated between a radially inward gripping position and a radially outward nongripping position. The balls are forced outward, the wrench head is then torqued, and the balls are then retracted radially outward. The head is then indexed to the next position.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,527,327, C. H. McCreary, teaches a closed wrench having eccentric pivoted gripping elementw which grip and transmit torque when the frame is turned in one direction and which is dis-engaged or free-running when the frame is turned in the other direction.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,664,213, which issued to R. Anati, teaches another closed wrench having pivoted members which are guided by guides to engage a nut, pipe, or shaft when turned in one direction and to disengage when turned in the other direction.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Our invention is a new kind of ratchet wrench which unites the advantages of a ratchet wrench and an openend wrench. It is an open-end ratchet wrench.
This invention is a wrench which has one open side large enough that it can be slipped from the side onto a nut or over a pipe, tube or bar, and it has a ratchet mechanism which makes the tightening or loosening of the nut fast and easy.
It is therefore an object of this invention to apply a torque to an object in one rotation direction.
It is a more specific object of this invention to provide a mechanism which delivers torque when turned in one direction and which slips when turned in the other direction.
It is still a more specific object of this invention to provide an open-ended one-direction wrench.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Other objects will become apparent from the following description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings:
FIG. 1 is'a partial right-side view, partly in section, of a first embodiment of the invention, in which the outside shell of the wrench is omitted.
FIG. 2 is a bottom view of the embodiment of FIG. 2 in which the coverplate of the wrench is omitted.
FIG. 3 is a left-side view of the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2 in which the outside shell of the wrench is omitted.
A second embodiment of the invention is shown in FIGS. 4, 5, 6 and 7.
FIG. 4 is a view, partly in section, of the second embodiment of the invention in engaged, driving position.
FIG. 5 is a sectional view, taken at 5-5 in FIG. 4, with the driven nut omitted.
FIG. 6 is a view, similar to' FIG. 4, but with the wrench disengaged from the nut.
FIG. 7 is a sectional view, taken at 77 in FIG. 4.
A third embodiment of the invention is shown in FIGS. 8 and 9.
FIG. 8 is a view of the third embodiment of the invention with the gripping members in driving position.
FIG. 9 is a view of the third embodiment of the invention with the gripping members disengaged.
FIG. 10 shows a modification of the wrench of FIGS. 4-7 for use as a pipe wrench.
FIG. 11 is a view of a fourth embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 12 is s fifth embodiment of the invention modified to accomodate a pipe.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The first embodiment of FIGS. l-3 comprises an arm 5 with the ratcheting mechanism 11 and 12, and the exchangable socket member 1, which is broached through to the size of the nut 2. The socket member 1 has a longitudinal slit or opening 3 wide enough, that the pipe, tube or rod 4 can slip through it. The arm 5 has on the end a cylindrical opening or socket 6, into which the socket member fits. On the end of the cylindrical wall or socket 6 is a longitudinal slit 7 or opening of about the same size as the slit or opening 3 on the socket member 1. The socket member 1 will be pushed into the opening or socket 6 so that the slits or openings 3 and 7 are lined up. The socket member 1 has a groove 8 on its outer periphery, which is engaged with spring loaded retainers 9 (only one is shown). The retainers 9 keep the socket member 1 from falling out of the socket 6. The upper face of the socket member 1 has a plurality of radial slits 10, into which the ratchets l1 and 12 extend. They are kept engaged with the socket by the springs 13 and 14 respectively. To tighten the nut 2 the arm 5 will be turned clockwise (FIG. 2) around the nut. The dog 111 of the ratchet 11 is pulling and the end of the leaf spring ratchet 12 is pushing the socket member 1 and with it the nut 2 clockwise. By turning the arm 5 counterclockwise, the ratchets 11 and 12 disengage from the socket member 1, which will stand still, and the arm 5 with the ratchets 11 and 12 move alone until the arm 5 is turned again clockwise. During the tightening of the nut 2 the socket member 1 is indexed relative to the arm 5 and socket 6. So the ratchet 11 eventually comes over the slit 3 and is disengaged. The ratchet l2 alone then pushes the socket member 1 with the nut 2. The ratchets 1'1 and 12 are so far apart that before the ratchet 12 comes over the slit 3 and disengages, the ratchet 11 is already engaged again, and it alone will pull the socket member 1 with the nut 2. The ratchet mechanism is covered with a coverplate 15. To remove a nut with this ratchet wrench one has to turn the tool upside down. Then it engages the torqued item when it is turned counterclockwise, and it disengages when turned clockwise.
The embodiment shown in FIGS. l3 is adapted to engage a hexagon-shaped nut whose outer surfaces are 120 apart. The wrench, therefore, has gripping surfaces extending from one face to the other of the socket member 1 to match the faces of the hexagon shaped nut. For example, the face 113 is 120 from the face 115. That is, the angle 117 is l20.
When the arm 5 is turned in the direction of the arrow 119, the dog 111 of the ratchet 11 pulls on the face 121 while the end 123 of the ratchet 12 pushes against the face 123.
When the arm 5 is turned opposite to the arrow 119, the dog face 127 rides over the face 129, and the surface 131 rides over the surface 113, whereby the arm 5 and socket 6 turns relative to the socket member 1.
A second embodiment of the wrench of this invention is shown in FIGS. 4-7.
The embodiment of FIGS. 4-7 comprises an outer body or wrench frame 200, with the larger end of the frame partly open at 202 to receive an item 2 to be torqued. The cage 16 fits into a substantially cylindrical opening in the region of 202 of the body 200, the cage being substantially circularly cylindrical. The cage has slots 30 apart. In every slot is a sliding member 17, which has a shoulder 206 on one end to prevent it from falling out of the slots 208. Two sideplates 18 hold the assembly together. The inside periphery of the opening 210 in the outer body 15 has cam surfaces 220, the surfaces 220 being smooth surfaces which are substantially 30 apart for grasping a hexagonal nut. The sliding members 17 are cam followers which ride by their end surfaces 222 on the cam surfaces 220. The surfaces 220, and hence the gauge of the serration match the sliding members 17. The cage 16 can turn relative to the outer body 15 about to and is biased by light springs, for example, by leaf or cantilevered springs 19 toward its position where the sliders 17 are forced radially inward by the cam surfaces 222.
In the nut-engaging position shown on FIG. 4, with torque applied as shown by arrow 225, the outer body 200 presses against the sliding members 17 at the cam interface 220, 222. Due to the radical component of the face 222, the members 17 are pressed against the nut 2. When the handle is turned in the direction shown by arrow 225, the whole assembly with the nut 2 turns. Turning the handle in the direction shown by the arrow 227, the outer body or frame 200 moves alone till the deep cavities 250 are aligned with the sliding members 17. By turning the whole assembly further, the sliding members 17 will be pushed by the corners of the nut 2 into the cavities 250 and a new gnp can be taken. The tool ratchets directly on the nut. It is an open-end ratchet wrench. The opening 202 of this tool is so big, that it can be slipped from the side onto the nut 2 as an open-ended wrench.
Thus, the embodiment of FIGS. 4-7 uses a cage fitting into the open end of a crescent-like wrench. In a substantially cylindrical opening of the wrench fits a substantially cylindrical cage member. The opening in the frame is formed with a plurality of cam surfaces on its inner periphery, giving the general impression of a saw-toothed surfaces. However, each of the cam-surfaces is precisely formed and positioned to match cam followers which are attached to the cage member. Slots are formed in the cage member, and into those slots are positioned the cam followers. The cam followers are also the grasping members for the wrench, and the radial position of the grasping members depends upon the relative circumferential position of the wrench body and the cage member. Typically, a cantilevered spring is positioned substantially along the handle of the wrench, and it is attached to the cage member, and it biases the cage member relative to the frame into a position where the cam follower grasping members are forced by the cam surfaces radially inward toward the member to be torqued. Turning of the wrench in one direction causes the grasping members to be pushed into solid contact with the item to be torqued. Turning of the wrench in the other direction causes the cage and wren ch body to move relative to each other toward a position where the grasping members can move radially outward and slip over the surface of the torqued item.
Another embodiment of the invention is shown on FIGS. 8 and 9. Both figures are top-views with removed coverplate to show the gripping members in FIG. 8 in driving (gripping) position, and in FIG. 9 in resetting position.
On the end of the tool 20 is a substantially cylindrical head 21 with a substantially cylindrical hole 300, and it has an opening 302 on the end of it big enough that the wrench can be slipped from the side onto the nut 2. The diameter of the hole 300 is slightly bigger than the diagonal distance between opposite comers of the nut 2. On the inside of the head 21 there are substantially identically formed cavities 22 broached 30 apart. In the cavities 22 are little tumable elements 23 which turn around their shafts 24 which, in turn, are embedded in the side coverplates (not shown). The elements 23 are biased by light springs (not shown) about the shafts 24 toward the position shown in FIG. 8. The elements 23 intrude into the central opening of the tool, and every second one of them lies against a flat of the hexagonal nut 2. Turning the tool in the direction of the arrow 305 presses the elements 23 against the flats of the nut 2 whereby the nut is turned with the handle 20. Turning the tool 20 in the direction of arrow 310 causes the elements 23 to disengage and to be pushed by the corners of the nut 2 into the cavities 22.
To get the nut off, the tool is turned around it length axis. The elements 23 then engage with the nut by turning the tool counter-clockwise and disengage by turning the tool clockwise.
The wrenches which are shown in FIG. 4 and FIG. 8 are easily modified for gripping and tightening threaded piping.
FIG. 10 shows a pipe-wrench with sliding members similar to the wrench in FIG. 4. The pipe-wrench comprises the outer body 25, with the handle partly broken away, the cage 26, which has substantially equally spaced slots. In every slot'is a sliding member 27, which has a shoulder to prevent it from falling out. Two sideplates (not shown) hold the assembly together. The inside of the outer body 25 has as many substantially identical cavities as there are sliding members. The cage 26 can turn slightly relative to the outer body 25 and is biased by light springs, such as cantilevered springs 28, toward its extreme counterclock position. In this position the outer body 25 holds the sliding members 27 pressing against the pipe 29. The ratcheting pipe-wrench of FIG. 10 operates in a fashion similar to the ratchet wrench shown and described in connection with FIG. 4.
FIG. 11 teaches the use of balls or rollers 30 as grip ping members. FIG. 11 teaches an open-ended crescent-type wrench 400 which has a substantially circularly cylindrical opening 402 on one end and an opened portion for receiving a pipe 29 to be torqued. A substantially circular U-shaped cage member 410 is positioned within the opening 402. A plurality of balls or rollers 30 are positioned within slots 412 in the cage 410. In the wall of the opening 402 are a plurality of recesses 415, equal in number to the number of balls or rollers 30. The recesses 415 have an inclined ramp on one side thereof. The ramp is shown exaggerated at 420. As the wrench is turned in the direction of the arrow 430, the spring 28 and the friction between'the balls or rollers and the wrench causes the balls 30 to walk up the incline 420 and to tighten on the pipe 29. When the wrench is turned the other way, friction between the balls or rollers 30 and the pipe 29 causes the balls or rollers to move into position where they can return into the cavities 415, loosening the pipe 29.
FIG. 12 shows a ratcheting pipe-wrench, which is substantially identical in structure and operation to the ratchet wrench shown and described in connection with FIG. 8. On the end of the tool 31 is a cylindrical head 32 with a cylindrical hole slightly bigger than the pipe 29 and an opening big enough that it can be slipped from the side onto the pipe 29. On the inside of the head 32 there are substantially identical and substantially equally spaced cavities 33. In this cavities are little turnable gripping elements 34, which are biased by light springs (not shown) toward a position shown in FIG. 12 so that they intrude into the central opening of the wrench and press against the pipe 29. Turning the tool in the direction of arrow 500 causes turnable gripping elements 34 to wedge between the pipe 29 and the wrench, turning the wrench counter-clockwise the gripping elements 34 recede into the cavities and release the pipe, so a new grip can be taken. The difference between the wrench of FIG. 12 and that of FIG. 8 is that the faces 505 of FIG. 12 match the contour of 6 pipe 29 while the faces 304 of FIG. 8 match the surface 307 of the hex nut 2.
While the invention has been described in connection with present, preferred embodiments thereof, it is to be understood that this description is illustrative only and not intended to limit the invention, the scope of which is defined by the appended claims.
1. A wrench comprising:
a wrench handle having a socket member on at least one end thereof to surround an item to be torqued;
a gripping member within said socket member to turn with said handle in one direction of rotation and to index relative to said handle in the other direction of rotation of said handle;
said gripping member having circumferentially positioned radially directed notches thereon forming ratchet teeth;
a pair of diametrically positioned ratchet pawls engaging said notches, and positioned to block relative rotation in one direction between said gripping member and said handle while allowing relative rotation in the other direction between said gripping member and said handle;
said socket member and said gripping member each having an opening in their peripheries to receive an item to be torqued;
said gripping member having an indentation around its outer periphery;
a substantially radially directed member, spring biased and positioned adjacent said indentation within said handle to hold said gripping member in position.
2. Apparatus as recited in claim 1 in which the faces of said gripping member are positioned substantially apart.