US 3927971 A
A process for the continuous liquid treatment of wide webs of textile material with hot treating liquids such as dye solutions, includes bringing the treating liquid to a predetermined effective treatment temperature prior to its application to the web, applying to each unit length of a moving textile web an approximately equal amount of treating liquid, moving the web and liquid in the same direction during treatment, and for a sufficient time to cause substantial exhaustion of the treating agent from the liquid, the weight ratio of liquid to web being between about 10:1 and 20:1.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Meier-Windhorst 1 Dec. 23, 1975 2,764,010 9/1956 Williams 8/151 X Primary ExaminerHarvey C. Hornsby  hwemor: August Meier'windhorst Assistant Examiner-Philip R. Coe
mdhorst Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Allison C. Collard Hamburg-Harburg, Germany  Filed: Mar. 4, 1974  Appl. No.: 448,119  ABSTRACT Related US. Application Data  c fl i j n f 36275. March [6 A process for the continuous liquid treatment of wide I971, abandoned, which is a division of s webs of textile material with hot treating liquids such 845,677, July 23, 1969, abandoned. as dye solutions, includes bringing the treating liquid to a predetermined effective treatment temperature  US. 8/151.2; 8/152; 68/178; prior to its application to the web, applying to each 68! 181 R unit length of a moving textile web an approximately  Int. Cl. D0611 3/06 equal amount of treating liquid, moving the web and  Field 01 Search 8/ 151, 151.2, 152; liquid in the same direction during treatment, and for 68/ 181 R, 177, 178 a sufficient time to cause substantial exhaustion of the treating agent from the liquid, the weight ratio of liq-  References Cited uid to web being between about 10:1 and 20:1.
UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,693,995 11/1954 Hannay et al 8/151 X 15 Claims, 12 Drawing Figures 1 1| is n is U.S. Patent DfiC.23, 1975 Sheet1of6 3,927,971
U.S. Patent Dec. 23, 1975 Sheet 2 of6 3,927,971
U.S. Patent Dec. 23, 1975 Sheet 3 of6 3,927,971
U.S. Patent Dec. 23, 1975 Sheet 4 of6 3,927,971
2 mm mm 2. 2 mm mm vm 2 mm -m mm 3 mm mm .IIIHI .All IDlll ON MN NM mm H US. Patent Dec. 23, 1975 Sheet 5 of 6 3,927,971
US. Patent Dec.23, 1975 Sheet60f6 3,927,971
PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS FINISHING TREATMENT OF TEXTILE WEB MATERIALS This is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No, 136,275 filed Mar. 16, l97l, now abandoned, which is in turn a division of application Ser. No. 845,677 filed July 23, 1969, now abandoned.
The invention relates to a process for the continuous finishing treatment of full-width material webs, in particular textile webs such as woven or knitted webs, tufted textile webs, fibre fleeces, yarn slivers, fibre rovings, and the like.
ln the continuous finishing treatment of textiles, it is a paramount principle that a constant, maintained quantity of a liquid containing the finishing media or agents in a constantly maintained concentration is ap plied to the web to be treated such as foulard fabric in a finishing apparatus. In such treatment, the volume of the bath through which the web is passed must be as small as possible in order that it can be continuously renewed from the continuously flowing process medium.
The particular processing medium used is, in such cases, usually applied at a low or medium temperature. Apart from some cold steeping techniques, and methods in which the web impregnated with the process medium is subsequently dried, the treatment is concluded with processing in moist heat, preferentially in water vapour, in which the web and the applied processing medium are conjointly heated to a suitable reaction temperature and held at such temperature for a specified time. This technique is normal for continuous finishing and in certain dyeing treatments in which absolute consistency of the concentration of the process medium applied to the textile material from beginning to end of a particular batch is required. Due to this requirement, the continuous finishing treatment in hot processing liquids with a large volume, heated independently of the material web being treated, and wherein the impregnation with the process medium and the treatment by reaction heat are combined in a single operation, has hitherto been restricted to lower quality requirements, and/or to methods not greatly dependent on the particular concentration of the treatment bath.
Attempts have been made to solve the abovementioned problems by greatly reducing the volume of the treatment liquid caused to interact with the material. In the so-called Williams Unit developed in the U.S.A., displacement elements were inserted between the vertical web guides. However, this unit could only be used, for instance in continuous dyeing, either for batches of more than l0,000 metres or if the requirement for uniform end-dyeing could be relaxed. Consequently, in spite of its great inherent advantages, continuous hotliquid treatment has not come into general use in competition with the batch processes.
The present invention provides a continuous process for treatment with hot liquids of a particular kind which retains all the essential advantages, such as: (a) working with substantially lower concentration of the process liquid than in the case of application by impregnation; (b) treatment by processing media contained in the bulk of a process liquid entirely surrounding the whole structure of the material, i.e. filling all interstices and voids therein; (c) affording the possibility of easier migration of particular constituents of the process medium to particular parts of the textile structure e.g. as in difi'erential dyeing; (d) providing better penetration of the textile structure by the process medium; (e) substantially greater facility for heating the process medium separately and independently of the material web to be processed; (f) greater care in handling the material structures, such as more delicate materials, since squeeze concentrations, as in the standard impregnating methods, do not occur; (g) aftenwashing is simple since the application of thickeners or the like, is superfluous, in such a manner that despite the least favorable working conditions the processing characteristics of continuous treatment with a controlled feed of processing means is obtained or maintained throughout the course of the process with high consistency of the process medium concentration and, thus, great advantages are obtained in regard to ensuring uniform end treatment in the finishing process. At the same time, it is also intended to eliminate the economic disadvantage of having a considerable residue of the process liquid remaining at the conclusion of the finishing treatment.
According to the present invention there is provided a process for the continuous finishing treatment of flat-spread webs, in particular textile webs, such as woven and knitted webs, tufted webs, fibrous fleeces,
yarn bundles, and fibrous bands, with chemical reagents or dye transfer and fixing agents in a processing medium. The medium is heated independently of the material web to a suitable reaction, dyeing, fixing or mordanting temperature, wherein with each unit length of the material web to be processed, there is associated, during its passage through the finishing process from the entry of the corresponding batch of material, a predetermined quantity of processing liquid travelling unidirectionally therewith and having an initial predetermined chemical and physical constitution. The finishing process is so timed that for chemical treatments, exhaustion or consumption of the processing medium is obtained. In dyeing, a substantially complete extraction of the dyestuff from the processing liquid is also obtained.
Preferably, the hot processing liquid is introduced at a relatively very low ratio of the weight of the processing liquid to the weight of the material web to be processed, preferentially between about 10:1 and about 40:] (depending on the weight of the material to be processed), and is divided into separate treatment sections with the processing liquid and the material web travelling in the same direction. The liquid is repeatedly applied portionwise over the width of the material web.
Furthermore, there is provided apparatus for performing the process including a series of horizontally arranged upper guide rollers and a corresponding series of lower guide rollers serving as a conventional alternating roller guiding arrangement. A corresponding driving and controlling means forms a static, hangingloop system, and, arranged around a lower guide rollers are semicylindrical dishes or bowl having radii slightly larger than the radii of the corresponding lower guide rollers for receiving the treatment liquid. Heightadjusting overflow elements are arranged between the individual processing vats so that the processing liquid and the processed web run in the same direction. Means are provided for circulating the treatment liquid such that for each unit length of material web to be processed, there is associated during its passage through the finishing process, a predetermined quantity of liquid.
There is also provided apparatus for performing the process including one or more elongated, horizontally arranged treatment tanks or vats. The vats are arranged to receive the material web and the processing liquid at one end thereof, with distribution of the latter over the width of the said web at the one end. There are means for removing both at the other end thereof and control means for regulating the level of the open surface of the liquid, or alternatively with covering or limiting surfaces above so as to allow an adjustment of the depth of the processing liquid so that there is associated with each unit length of material web to be processed, a predetermined quantity of liquid.
There is further provided an apparatus for performing the process in which the material web is guided through the processing space on a conveyor belt with openings between the surfaces carrying the material web for draining of the processing liquid passing from the upper to the under side thereof.
With the solution of the problem of the present invention, valuable new scientific and technological data has been obtained, in particular:
1. Contrary to existing processing practice with systems such as the Williams Unit, for a continuous hotliquid treatment with chemical reagent at the surfaces of the processed material or with transfer of substance as in continuous dyeing, in which truly stable or consistent treatment results are unobtainable, if the reaction effects or the substance transfers are restricted to the region of higher differences in concentration between the treatment liquid and the surface region of the processed material, an equivalent quality to those attainable in steady-state, extractive chemical treatments or extraction dyeing techniques, are obtained,
2. Contrary to exisiting processing techniques, constancy of the physical and chemical processing condition, in particular in the initial phase of a continuous process and hence the desirable, high-quality uniformity of end finishing of the material can be ensured without complicated adaptation of the particular process medium concentration, if during the continuous liquid treatment from the entering end of a batch to be processed, a constant quantity of process liquid is fed to each unit length of the web and thereby both factors, uniformity in the processed web and of the assigned quantities of processing liquid are obtained and maintained throughout the processing time.
It follows from 1 and 2 above in the present invention that a continuous liquid treatment process with a unidirectionally travelling process material and treatment liquid, i.e. with the same arrangement as in the process using direct application of the treatment medium and with the highest possible degree of extraction or exhaustion of the treatment medium from the process liquid, from the entry of the first unit lengths of a batch and to the exit of the finished end part is in fact practicable.
Since hitherto, extraction or neutralization effects with processing results which asymmetrically tend to a stable end value, have been possible over a wide range of application of the process only be comparatively long processing or holding times, it is advantageous to develop novel conditions to arrive at economically advantageous, i.e. briefest possible processing times, and, hence, processing path.
In accordance with the present invention, the continuous finishing process with uniflow entry of the material web and the processing medium increases the pro- 4 cessing results, in particular by comparison with the results of steady-state, discontinuous, liquid treatments.
3. By working with highest possible treatment temperatures from the entry of the batch to be processed i.e. from the start of the action on the material, selectively; improved finishes of the web are obtained, in particular:
a. by working in liquid treatments with aqueous solutions at the boiling temperature of the lowest boiling constituent in the aqueous solutions;
b. by working in a temperature range of C to 200C according to the kind of material being treated, i.e., in aqueous solutions by working at pressures above atmospheric or by substituting for the water, solvent media which boils at considerably higher temperatures;
0. by separate heating or preheating of the fabric web and the processing liquid.
4. lmproved finishes of the webs are also obtained by applying generalized measures for perceptibly increasing the interchange of effects and substances, e.g.:
a. by generating supplementary convective liquid movements with substantial motion components perpendicular to the surface of the material;
b. by working with the lowest possible ratios of weight of processing liquid to weight of material web and thus more favorable, i.e. high starting concentrations of the process medium at the start of the process.
From steps 3 and 4, the individual thennal and physical means most favorable for the successive finishing treatments can be selected and in particular combined, over a wide range of variation.
Separate heating of the material web and the processing liquid, their simultaneous introduction into the process, and possibility of controlled after-heating, or even raising or lowering the working temperature during treatment, afi'ord valuable and hitherto disregarded possibilities of variation of the thermal characteristics of the treatment.
As shown, the methods in accordance with the present invention are considerably extended in scope if the boiling temperatures of the aqueous solutions are insufficient, in particular for the desirable shortening of the treatment time. Many new and valuable combinations of the process according to the invention with a highpressure liquid treatment on the one hand, and a liquid treatment using higher-boiling solvents, are then possible.
Careful evaluation of the new data and/or the novel inventive concepts has now led to a diversity of processing techniques for this, novel, continuous process for liquid treatment, with carefully controlled, unidirectional travel of the material web and the treatment liquid, extended extraction or exhaustion characteristics and treatment efi'ects attainable by special means. These new forms of processing will now be described with reference to the following example and the accompanying drawings.
First of all however, some valuable data should be mentioned:
The most suitable ratios of the weights of process liquid and the material web respectively, are found to be between 10:1 and 30:1 for heavy materials, in particular furniture fabrics and woven floor coverings; and 20:1 to 40:1 for average and light weight materials.
Using a :1 liquid ratio, continuous extraction dyeing of tufted carpet material of about 100 g/m of polyamide fiber in a 0.2% bath of acidic dyestuff in aqueous solution, working at boiling temperature, separate heating of the material web and dye bath, and controlled, continuous convective heating and motion of the process liquid without the addition of special, chemical aids, a curve of the continuous drop in instantaneous dyestuff concentrations against treatment time is obtained as shown in FIG. 1. Already after two minutes, a residual concentration of 10% is underpassed. The dyestuff fallout is almost perfect and clearly superior to all continuous dyeing results, principally the direct application and steaming methods.
With liquid ratios of :1, medium-weight polyester fibers of 175 g/m in a 25% solution of dispersion dyes in a water-soluble, high-boiling solvent at 175C temperature of the processing liquid, were dyed with exceptionally good end results and excellent dye precipitation, in 50 seconds treatment time.
When working with high-boiling solvents, as in the Thermosol dyeing process, it has advantageously been possible to combine the finishing treatment with the shaping treatment of woven or knitted fabrics of synthetic fibers.
The possibility of separately heating the processing liquid before its introduction into the process, also opens the way to the prospect of bringing the fabric web, before entering the treatment bath and by suitable means such as steaming or radiation or contact-heating, to the intended process temperature, as well as to de-aerate the material more thoroughly. The web may also be treated as it passes through the upper guide rollers eg by heating these rollers internally.
Webs of materials difficult to handle, in particular textile fabrics with delicate surface structures can in the process according to the present invention simply be passed once, horizontally or vertically, in full width, through the processing fluid in guided lengths up to 10 metres and more. The advantages of this form of guiding are retained even in case the web is once folded back on itself, i.e. guided in two levels if, as in gauze fabrics only one side of the material is so particularly sensitive, Of course, in the case of less sensitive, but special materials, repeated passes with more than one deflection are also practicable. In some cases it may be advantageous, instead of an upwardly open pass, to use a covered pass, thus forming a closed duct for the material.
ln the case of the smoother fabrics, such as fibrous fleeces, preferably in considerable widths and of light weight, it has been found advantageous to guide the web in folds running transversely to the direction of the web. Guiding the web in the form ofa rope with continuous or intermittent, abrupt variation of the cross-sectional area, will also be found advantageous in some instances.
in the case of normally-structured fabrics, such as films, standard weaves, knitted webs, and yarn bundles, guiding over and under idler rollers will also be found space-saving.
In many cases it has been found stable to conduct the heat-treatment in hot liquid in separate stages. These stages or sections are then interrupted by freely-guided sections of the web. It is consequently advantageous for such open sections to be restricted in length as far as possible, unless these spaces are to be used meanwhile for other treatments: e.g., as will be shown below, reheating stages.
The subdivision into separate sections offers particularly favorable prospects for a further characteristic feature of the process according to the invention. It has been found especially valuable in regard to the guiding of the material web, in the unidirectional (uniflow) guiding of the web, to ensure that the hot processing liquid is continuously, carefully balanced in concentration across the width of the fabric, by the provision of a transverse-circulation effect, but which has no disturbing effect on the fabric.
Besides the guiding of the web to be processed around upper and lower guide rollers, it has been found most satisfactory in the case of heavier fabrics, such as carpets, to provide a carefully controlled guiding, over upper rollers only, in steady handing-loops with a uniform opening.
In both cases it is possible to arrange the hot-liquid feed for the treatment, at the corresponding bottom reversal points of the travelling web, the process liquor being held in dishes at the corresponding points, adapted by their suitably arranged cross-sections to allow the material web to contact a predetermined quantity of processing liquid.
Finally, these special forms of guiding present the great advantage that hot-liquid process treatment can be supplemented by reaction or dye-fixing heat treatment outside the processing bath. Such supplementation has been found particularly useful when diffusion phenomena from the surface to the inside of the fabric, are involved. The heating of the web can be arranged to take place during its free travel through the surrounding liquid, or by special heating means.
The different techniques for passing the material through the hot-liquid treatment bath can, of course, be practically applied in a diversity of different combi nations. Thus, for instance, guiding systems with spread material webs carried over and under guide rollers, with bowls below the lower rollers containing the process medium, or horizontal, open or closed, flat web guiding systems, or vertical web guidance, can be used, and further, flat-web guiding with associated transverse looping of the material and rope guiding can also be used. The path lengths or process times for the individual guiding systems, will be governed by the particular, operational requirements.
it has further been found advantageous to incorporate in the guidance system for passing the material through the process bath, or at the end of a principally wide-band system, a spread-out layoff in folds, floating in the process bath (1:15 to 1:25). This is particularly suitable for the case when the process media have already previously been applied in a first impregnating (padding) stage with wide-web guidance over and under rollers, or in vertical guides, or looped guiding, or a preliminary application in some type of padding machine.
In a further, advantageous, development of the process according to the present invention, the hot process bath, having a very low ratio of the weight of the process liquid to the weight of the material web, of the order of 10:1 to 20:1 (depending on the weight of the material being treated) is in each case subdivided into individual processing sections, with the processing liquid and the processed material moving in uniflow and is repeatedly applied portionwise over the width of the material web. It has been found suitable then to feed 7 the process medium downwards on to the substantially horizontally guided web, in a straight or a looped run, preferentially downwards through the material web.
It is further advantageous to feed fresh bath liquid constituted by a quantity of exhausted processing liquid to which has been added a smaller quantity of processing liquid of greater concentration, repeatedly in correspondingly smaller quantities to mix the same with the processing liquid, sectionally or throughout the progress of the treatment, in a preferably liquid ratio of about lO:l to 50:] with correspondingly lower concentration of the process medium. At the end of the process, a quantity of spent processing liquid is withdrawn from the circuit, corresponding to the quantity of fresh processing liquid initially introduced into the bath.
lt is still further advantageous for the web to be processed, and the processing liquid to be conducted in a constant ratio of lz by weight through the process, travelling in the same direction, and in which the web to be processed is, before entering into the liquid treatment, subjected to a supplementary liquid treatment with a weight ratio of treatment medium to web of about l:l or less, applied directly to the web to be processed. The web is preferably to be processed with a medium having a greater affinity to the material of the web to be treated, than the affinity to the web material of the processing liquid in the following liquid treatment stage.
It is also advantageous that water be used as the vehicle of the first liquid treatment or application as well as for the following treatment with the processing liquid.
It is also advantageous that the vehicle of the first liquid application consists preferentially, of waterinsoluble, non-aqueous solvents, whereas water is used as the vehicle in the following treatment with the processing liquid.
lt is also advantageous that an aqueous solution is applied first, while the vehicle of the following liquid treatment is a non-aqueous solvent.
It is also advantageous that the vehicles of the first liquid application treatment and the following treatment with the processing liquid are in both cases identical, similar, or non-identical, non-aqueous solvents.
It is also advantageous that between the first application stage and the second treatment stage, a wet-heat treatment in steam as a preheating stage is interposed for partial fixing of the first application of treatment media.
Further valuable, alternative forms of application and in particular extensions of the process according to the presesnt invention can be attained in the first phase of the liquid finishing treatment, by a preceding application of processing liquid in some known way, eg by padding.
The practical execution of this variant form of embodiment of the present invention may proceed as follows:
Before entry into the main bath the web to be processed is subjected in a padding machine to treatment with the processing medium in about 50 to 100% concentration. This supplementary processing medium can advantageously itself or with the aid of further, special treatment aids, be prepared for the ensuing impregnating and heating treatment with the following main bath, and the conduct of the process thereby facilitated. The following, continuous liquid treatment then consists of applying the principal bath liquor(s) on such, pre- 8 impregnated, or prepared web. This variant form of embodiment of the method allows the use of many further, effective process combinations of treatment media, in particular, principal and auxiliary treatment media of many different kinds which would otherwise interfere with each other if simultaneously applied to the web; as well as such agents the effect whereof is suitably enhanced by application in succession; and finally, such agents as begin to interact with the web material, by preference, only in direct contact with the surface of the material itself.
In yet a further, advantageous form of embodiment of this variant of the principal process, a part or the principal processing medium or media, e.g., in dyeing, the dyestuff(s), can be applied together with the preceding, supplementary application of the processing medium, before the actual, combined impregnating and heat treatment in the principal processing liquid, to the surface of the material web being processed.
In this case, the latter treatment serves in the first instance for the supplementary, equalizing treatment of the material superposed whereon, as in all other variants, follow the reaction and fixing (mordanting) thermal treatment.
This variant fon'n of embodiment of the method may be referred to as either the quantitative distribution of the same or a similar treatment medium, in particular in the case of dyestuffs, or as the subdivision of different processing liquids.
In the dyeing of textile webs it could prove advantageous, in the case of fibres of different kinds, to treat one fibre by application of the preliminary process medium on the processed web, from the principal processing medium. The dye-reaction and fixing heat treatment is then performed conjointly by the heating section of the process liquid.
Obviously, the dyestuff-fibre combinations with the greatest affinity for each other should receive the dye application in the preliminary, liquid treatment stage. Exhaustive tests have shown that no harm is done if a part of the process medium applied to the web in such preliminary treatment, is only absorbed by the material after entry into the principal processing liquid. The uniflow guiding of the process medium and the processed web characteristic of the present method, will ensure that this component of the treatment medium will be reproducibly and uniformly absorbed by the textile web.
in particular cases the essential treatment medium of a finishing process can be applied to the web in its entirety in the aforesaid preliminary application stage. The ensuing liquid heat treatment then selectively furthers the reaction of the processing medium with the material of the processed web, or fixes the same thereon. The heat-treatment liquid can, however, advantageously receive the addition of technical aids, promoting the action of the process medium.
In order that the practice of the process of the invention, particularly as described in the Examples below, may be better understood, reference is made to various forms of suitable apparatus for carrying out the process, as shown in the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a curve showing the relationship between dye concentration in the treating liquid and time of treatment in minutes;
FIG. 2 is a vertical sectional view of one form of apparatus for carrying out the process of the invention, employing sets of upper and lower rollers;
FIG. 3 is a sectional elevation of an alternative form of apparatus for performing the process, on heavy textiles, employing upper and lower means for guiding the web;
FIG. 4 is a sectional elevation of an alternative form of apparatus for performing the process employing a single set of rollers for passage of the web;
FIG. 5 is a detailed view of the apparatus of FIG. 4, showing the structure between adjacent rollers;
FIG. 6 is a vertical elevation showing an alternative arrangement of rollers in the apparatus of FIG. 2;
FIG. 7 is a vertical elevation showing an alternative arrangement of the guiding means of FIG. 3;
FIG. 8 is a vertical elevation showing a further variation of the roller system of the apparatus of FIG. 2;
FIG. 9 is a vertical elevation showing a web guidance system;
FIG. 10 is a diagrammatic view of a system of web guidance with wavy cross-section;
FIG. ll is a cross-sectional view along the line A-A of FIG. I0;
FIG. 12 is a diagrammatic view of a system of guidance of the web in the form of flat folds.
FIG. 2 shows an arrangement for guiding the material web over upper and lower rollers, wherein l is the web being processed, 2 is a suitably steam-filled space for preheating or deareating the web, 3 is the feed of processing liquid, usually preheated to process temperature. The processing liquid is introduced into the first treatment bath or stage 5 through overflow 4, there being incorporated a guide roller 6 and frame 7 of bow shape fitted beneath the roller 6 with a small gap therebetween. A further overflow 8 conducts processing liquid into the next treatment bath, while the web is deflected over the counter-running roller 9 and then enters the next bath. The material web and processing liquid, their respective speeds being carefully matched, now pass through the entire process. At discharge l0, processing liquid leaves the system with a very low residual concentration of processing agent. The material web leaves through lock element 11 closing chamber 12 which is steam-filled when working with aqueous solutions. Treatments baths 7 are all provided with bottom heating by steam or liquid 13; this supplementary heating, when working with aqueous solutions as processing liquid, generates steam and provides turbulent motion of the liquid at the web surface.
FIG. 3 shows a further apparatus for conducting the process and suitable for continuous dyeing of heavy textile fabrics, the web being guided over top and bottom rollers 27 and 28, with baflles 30 or displacement elements, between which the processing liquid and the web travel unidirectionally, as shown in FIG. 8. Other guidance means are shown in FIGS. 94].
In the flat guiding system shown in FIG. 9, the web is introduced through an entry conveyor roller 14 into the processing liquid, under a bottom guide roller 28, deflected, and withdrawn by a draw-off roller 22. The vat contains a displacement element 36 with lateral guiding surfaces to reduce the volume of liquid. FIGS. I0 and II show flat guiding with a wavy cross-section, FIG. 11 being a cross-sectional along line AA of FIG. 10, showing the direction of motion of web I through container 31 having an upper and lower part. Referring to FIG. 10, the direction of motion of the web is thus perpendicular to the plane of the drawing, as indicated by the arrow in FIG. 11. FIG. 12 shows a system of guiding the web in laid folds in the processing liquid.
10 The practice of the process of the invention will be illustrated with respect to the dyeing of textiles in the following Examples, which are not, however, to be considered as limiting the invention thereto, since the principles of the invention are applicable to any method involving the liquid treatment of textiles.
Example I Dyeing of Polyamide Fibers Using the apparatus of FIG. 2, tufted carpet material having a jute backing, and made with Nylon 66, a textile fiber produced from hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid by the conventional condensation process and containing about I00 g/m of polyamide fiber, in the form of a web about 2 meters in width, is passed continuously through the apparatus in concurrent movement with an aqueous solution of an acid nylon dye, C.l. Acid Blue l 13 (26360) having a dye concentration of 0.2% dye by weight, and a pH of between 5 and I0, the bath temperature being maintained at the boiling point (slightly above l00C). The ratio of textile web to dye liquor-is about 1:40, by weight. Residence time is about 5 minutes. An attractive blue tone is obtained on the web. The exhaustion of the dye solution is very rapid, as shown by the curve of FIG. 1, with a very low unextracted residual dye content.
Example 2 Dyeing of Polyester Fibers Using the apparatus of FIG. 3, a web of polyethylene terephthalate textile material, containing medium weight fibers of about I g/m was dyed in a 25% solution of a dispersion dye of the ahtraquinone series containing an amino group, namely, l,4-diaminoanthraquinone. The dyeing temperature was [75C. The dye was dispersed in a mixture of water and a suitable water miscible, high-boiling organic solvent such as an aliphatic alcohol, using a suitable surfactant, such as sodium dibutyl napthalene sulfonate (about 0. l%). Dyeing was carried out at a temperature of about C, virtually complete dye exhaustion being obtained in 50 seconds treatment time. The polyester was dyed a medium brown shade. The ratio of liquid to textile web was 25:].
While only several embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be apparent to persons skilled in the art that many changes and modifications may be made thereunto without department from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. Process for the continuous liquid treatment of wide webs of textile material wherein the textile web is contacted with a treating liquid which remains in a stable chemical and physical state during the process, which comprises preheating said treating liquid to treatment temperature, applying to each unit length of a moving textile web said treating liquid which travels in the same direction as the web, the rate of movement of web and liquid being such that substantially complete absorption of the treating agent by saidtextile web takes place during the treating operation.
2. Process for the continuous treatment of a flatspread web of textile material with a liquid containing a processing agent comprising the steps of:
a. bringing said processing liquid to a predetermined liquid treatment temperature;
b. causing said processing liquid to flow through a succession of at least two separated treatment stages in a continuous stream;
c. moving said textile web in the same direction as said processing liquid and through each said treatment stage in which it is contacted with said liquid, the liquid being thus repeatedly applied to said web in portions over substantially its entire width;
d. the rate of movement of liquid and web being such that for each unit length of web material being processed there is associated therewith at each stage an amount of said processing liquid sufficient to enable said web to absorb or react with substantially all processing agent before leaving the last stage.
3. The process of claim 2 in which the processing temperature is maintained in the range of about l C to about 200C.
4. The process of claim 2 in which the movement of said textile web is performed by guiding the web into and out of said treating stages by sets of guide rollers over which the web is passed to maintain the web in spread state.
5. The process of claim 2 in which the movement of said textile web is performed by passing the web through said treating stages on a continuous conveyor.
6. The process of claim 2 in which the processing is performed at superatmospheric pressure.
7. The process of claim 2 in which the weight ratio of processing liquid to web material is between about 10: l and about 40:1.
8. The process of claim 2 in which said web is preheated to the treatment temperature.
9. The process of claim 2 in which the processing liquid in said treating stages is subjected to convective movements by motion components perpendicular to the surface of the textile web.
10. The process of claim 2 in which said web is preliminarily impregnated with processing liquid.
H. The process of claim 2 in which said web, during its passage through said treating stages, is laid in folds floating in the processing liquid in at least one treatment stage.
12. The process of claim 2 in which the processing liquid is circulated parallel to the direction of movement of the web through the treating stages in at least one elongated horizontal treatment tank arranged to receive the web and treating liquid at one end thereof with distribution of the liquid over the width of said web.
13. The process of claim 2 in which the processing liquid is a dye bath, the dye being substantially completely absorbed by the textile material during the performance of the process.
14. Process for the continuous liquid treatment of wide webs of textile material including knitted fabric, fiber fleeces, yarn fabric, yarn bands and the like, with hot treatment liquids including chemical and dyeing treatments. comprising the steps of:
a. heating the treating liquid to an effective treatment temperature prior to its application to the web;
b. treating each unit length of the web with an equal amount of a substantially constant physical and chemical propertied treatment liquid;
c. moving the material web and the treating liquid in the same direction during the treatment;
d. performing the treatment for a period of time sufficient to cause substantial exhaustion of the treating chemical or dye from the treating liquid; and
e. at a temperature sufficiently high to maximize the exchange of chemical or dye between the treating liquid and the web.
15. The process of claim 14 in which the weight ratio of treating liquid to web material is between about l0:l and about 20: l.