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Publication numberUS3927972 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 23, 1975
Filing dateMar 11, 1974
Priority dateMar 15, 1971
Publication numberUS 3927972 A, US 3927972A, US-A-3927972, US3927972 A, US3927972A
InventorsHayakawa Akira, Kawamura Sadao, Kurokawa Harutoshi
Original AssigneeToray Industries
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process for treating fibrous articles with an aqueous treating liquid
US 3927972 A
Abstract
Fibrous articles are uniformly treated under low compression by charging them into a treating chamber defined between horizontal upper and lower partitions in a stratiform with a normal thickness satisfying the following relationship: L1>/=0.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Kawamura et al.

1 PROCESS FOR TREATING FIBROUS ARTICLES WITH AN AQUEOUS TREATING LIQUID [75] Inventors: Sadao Kawamura; Akira Hayakawa;

Harutoshi Kurokawa, all of Kyoto,

Japan [73] Assignee: Toray Industries, Inc., Japan [22] Filed: Mar. 11, 1974 [21] Appl. No.: 450,109

Related US. Application Data [62] Division or Ser. N6. 234,152, March 13, 1972,

abandoned.

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data Mar. 15, 1971 Japan 4643678 [52] US. Cl. 8/1552; 8/150, 68/20; 68/184; 68/187 [51] Int. D06B 5/16; D068 21/00 [58] Field ofSearch 8/150, 154, 155, 155.1, 8/1552, 156; 68/20, 184, 187, 189

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,195,325 8/1916 Anders et a1. 81155.2

[ Dec. 23, 1975 1,355,797 10/1920 Maclntyre 68/187 x 2.091.282 8/1937 l-luttinger 8/I55.l

FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 8,975 5/1908 France 68/187 217,758 6/1924 United Kingdom 68/187 Primary Examiner-Harvey C. Homsby Assistant Examiner-Philip R. Coe Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Robert E. Burns; Emmanuel .1. Lobato; Bruce L. Adams [57] ABSTRACT Fibrous articles are unifonnly treated under low compression by charging them into a treating chamber do fined between horizontal upper and lower partitions in a stratiforrn with a normal thickness satisfying the following relationship:

wherein L is the thickness of the treating chamber and L, is the norrnal thickness of the stratum of the fibrous articles in the treating liquid, and by flowing the treating liquid through the stratum of the fibrous articles along the thickness thereof in alternate directions.

12 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures US. Patent Dec.23, 1975 Sheet10f4 3,927,972

Fig.

PRIOR ART RR IOR ART F /'g. 3 PRIOR ART U.S. Patent Dec. 23, 1975 Sheet 2 of4 3,927,972

Fig. 4

mflwfim m M o J e G 5 1.. 7 v 00 5 r //wm/////flfl%////////////// 3 i 5 00 4 J .l 5 G o O GO my N y 5 5 a w Q US. Patent Dec. 23, 1975 Sheet 3 of4 3,927,972

ARTICLE, AFTER PROCESSING IPnI APPARENT DENSITY OF FIBROUS I I I l I I l I l I I I I I I I I O 50 IOO ISO 2OO ARRARENT DENSITY OF FIBROUS ARTICLE, BEFORE PROCESSING (PO) US. Patent Dec. 23, 1975 Sheet 4 of4 3,927,972

Fig 7 F' 8 u u I l I I I I r l I i PROCESS FOR TREATING FIBROUS ARTICLES WITH AN AQUEOUS TREATING LIQUID This is a division, of application Ser. No. 234,152, 5

filed Mar. 13, 1972, and now abandoned.

The present invention relates to a process for treating fibrous articles with an aqueous treating liquid, more particularly, relates to a process for uniformly treating fibrous articles with an aqueous treating liquid under low compression for the fibrous articles.

The term fibrous articles" used herein includes loose fibers, filament tows, fiber slivers, hank-formed yarns, muff-formed yarns, knitted fabrics, knitted pieces and bulky woven fabrics. Also, the term aqueous treating liquid" used herein includes aqueous dyeing liquids, aqueous scouring liquids, aqueous bleaching liquids, and aqueous oiling liquids.

Generally, in order to treat the fibrous article, especially, bulky fibrous articles with an aqueous treating liquid, various batch-type treating apparatus are used. For example, in the so-called package dyeing machine, the fibrous articles are charged into a basket-formed carrier, and the treating liquid fed through numerous apertures formed on an inside cylinder extending along the vertical axis of the carrier flows substantially horizontally through the fibrous articles. in an another method, a dyeing machine which is provided with a carrier having an outside cylinder and a plurality of inside cylinders extending in the same direction as the axis of the carrier, is used. In this machine, the inside cylinders have numerous apertures through which the treating liquid flows. The fibrous articles are charged into spaces formed between the outside cylinder and the inside cylinders, and the treating liquid is forced to flow horizontally through the fibrous articles. In the case where the muff formed yarn is charged into the carrier having a plurality of inside cylinders, the inside cylinders are inserted into the muffs through hollows of the muffs so that a plurality of muffs are superposed along the inside cylinders. In another type of dyeing machine, the inside cylinders extend horizontally so that the muffs are hung on the inside cylinder. However, the above-stated conventional processes have the following disadvantages.

l. The fibrous articles are frequently non-uniformly treated. Especially, in the case where the basketformed carrier is used, if the filling density of thefibers articles is less than 0.15 g/cm, the upper and lower portions of the fibrous articles in the carrier are treated differently from each other. Accordingly, in order to uniformly treat the fibrous articles, they have to be charged at a filling density greater than 0.15 g/cm. However, if the fibrous articles are charged at the large filling density of 0.15 g/cm or more, this results in undesirable deformation and low bulkiness of the fi-. brous articles. In this case, even if the fibrous articles are treated with an amount of oiling agent, the resultant articles have undesirable high stiffness and rough hand feeling.

2. 1n the case where the muff-formed yarns surrounding the inside cylinders shrink during the process, it is necessary to change the diameter of the inside cylinder in response to the shrinkage of the yarn. For example, the relationships between the initial diameter of the muff, shrinkage of yarn, diameter of the treated muff and diameter of the inside cylinder to be used for the muff are shown in Table l.

the diameter of the inside cylinder. For such muffs, it is necessary to use inside cylinders having a diameter smaller than 100 mm.

On the other hand, if the muffs of 10% shrinkage yarn are treated with inside cylinders of 80 mm diameter, the muffs tend to be undesirably deformed during the process due to the large clearance between the inside cylinder and the muffs. This deformation of the muffs frequently results in non-uniform treatment of the muffs and entanglement of the yarn or irregularity of yarn winding in the muffs.

As stated above, the changing of the inside cylinder in response to the diameter of the muffs and shrinkage of the yarn results in low efficiency in the treating process.

3. During processing with the conventional apparatus as stated above, if the fibrous articles are free from compression, frequently the process is accompanied by non-uniform flow of the treating liquid due to the formation of undesirable channels between the fibrous articles themselves, or between the fibrous articles and the carrier wall.

For example, a high shrinkage acrylic yarn of a metre count of 2/48 was formed into a racket muff having a weight of 1.5 kg using a rocket winder, and then steamed at 100C for [0 minutes so as to convert the yarn to a high bulky yarn. The resultant high bulky yarn muffs were treated under various conditions indicated in Table 2.

Table 2 Initial length Length (8) of Compression (A) of mutt shrunk muff ratio before set around A B x 00 processing the inside .4

(mm) cylinder (mm) (96) Remarks Unevenly 380 380 0 treated Sometimes 380 350 unevenly treated Uniformly 380 330 13 treated As Table 2 shows, in the conventional apparatus, it is preferable that the muffs having a length of 380 mm are compressed to a length of 330 mm in order to uniformly treat them. However, such compression for the fibrous articles results in undesirable deformation thereof. For example, the bulky yarn is converted to a flat yarn of small volume by the high compression.

4. If the conventional apparatus as stated above is applied for treating fibrous articles consisting of a single yarn of a metre count of I160 to l/SO, irregularity of yarn winding in the article and formation of fluffs on the yarn frequently results. This causes frequent breakage of yarn in the unwinding or rewinding step.

An object of the present invention is to provide a process for treating fibrous articles with an aqueous treating liquid under a relatively low compression of said fibrous articles while maintaining the bulkiness of said fibrous article.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a process for treating fibrous articles with an aqueous treating liquid while preventing said fibrous articles from fluffing and entanglement.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a process for treating fibrous articles with an aqueous treating liquid at high efficiency to produce a product having uniform quality.

The above-stated objects of the present invention are accomplished by utilizing the process of the present invention.

The process of the present invention comprises the steps of charging fibrous articles into at least one treating chamber and circulating an aqueous treating liquid through the treating chamber and the charged fibrous articles, and characterized in that the fibrous articles are charged into the treating chamber defined between horizontal upper and lower partitions in a stratiform extending horizontally and having a normal thickness in the treating liquid satisfying the following relationship:

wherein L is the distance between the upper and lower partitions and L, is a normal thickness of the stratum of fibrous articles in the treating liquid, and the treating liquid flows through the upper partition, the stratum of fibrous articles and the lower partition through the thickness of the stratum of fibrous articles in alternate directions. whereby the stratum of fibrous articles is uniformly processed under a low compression.

The process of the present invention can be carried out by using an apparatus which comprises an outside tank, an inside casing removably located in the outside tank, means for fixing the inside casing to the outside tank, and a pump for circulating, in alternate directions, the aqueous treating liquid connected to the outside tank and the inside casing, and characterized in that the inside casing comprises an inside cylinder defining a path for the treating liquid and connected to the circulation pump, an outside wall defining a treating space between the inside cylinder and the outside wall, a header for closing the upper end of the treating space and facing the upper end of the inside cylinder, and a bottom means through which the treating space is connected to the outside tank, and the treating space includes at least one treating chamber defined with horizontal upper and lower partitions through which the treating liquid flows in the direction of the thickness of the treating chamber.

The features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional schematic view of a conventional apparatus for treating fibrous articles,

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional schematic view of another conventional apparatus for treating fibrous articles,

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional schematic view of a further conventional apparatus for treatingfibrous articles,

FIG. 4 is a cross'sectional schematic view of an embodiment of the apparatus for practicing the present invention,

FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional schematic view of an inside header of another embodiment for practicing the apparatus of the present invention,

FIG. 6 is a graph showing the relationship between the apparent densities of fibrous articles before and after processing,

FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional schematic view of another embodiment of the apparatus for practicing the present invention,

FIG. 8 is a model view of muff-formed yarn usable for the process of the present invention,

FIG. 9 is a model view showing arrangement of muffs in a treating chamber for practicing the apparatus of the present invention, and

FIG. 10 is a model view of muffs treated in accordance with the process of the present invention.

The conventional process of treating the fibrous articles with a treating liquid is effected by using the conventional apparatus as shown in FIGS. I to 3. Referring to FIG. 1, the fibrous articles 1 to be treated are charged into a treating space 2 in a tank 6 defined by an upper partition 3 and lower partition 4 each having numerous apertures 5. A treating liquid is fed by pump 7 into the tank 6 through an inside cylinder 8, and flows downwardly through the upper position 3, the charged fibrous articles and the lower partition 4 and returns to the pump 7 through a bottom portion 9 of the tank 6 including a heater 10. In this apparatus, the charged fibrous articles have too great a thickness for uniformly flowing the treating liquid therethrough. This large thickness of the fibrous articles results in a large compression of the fibrous articles positioned in the lower portion of the treating space 2. The fibrous articles thus compressed have an undesirable appearance and hand feeling. Further, the apparatus of FIG. 1 is inconvenient for charging, discharge and transfer of the fibrous articles.

Referring to FIG. 2, the fibrous article is charged into an inside casing 11 received in an outside tank 12 and having numerous apertures 18. The treating liquid is fed by way of a pump 13 into the inside casing 11 through an inside cylinder 14 having numerous apertures 15, and flows to the outside tank 12 through the fibrous articles in the inside casing 11. Then, the treating liquid returns to the pump 13 through the bottom portion 16 of the outside tank [2 having therein a heater 17. In this apparatus, the treating liquid tends to flow non-uniformly through the charged fibrous articles. Accordingly, the treated fibrous articles have non-uniform qualities in hand feeling, appearance and color. Especially, polyester fiber yarns or acrylic fiber yarns tend to lose crimps thereon or develop differences in hand feeling thereof during the treatment.

Since the apparatus has the inside casing 11 capable of being separated from the outside tank 12, it is possible to transfer the charged fibrous articles together with the inside casing 11. However, an amount of the treating liquid remains at the bottom of the inside casing ll. Therefore, it is impossible to uniformly dry the treated articles even when the inside casing 11 containing the fibrous articles is put in a dryer chamber.

Referring to FIG. 3, a plurality of treating chambers 21 received in an outside tank 28 are connected to an inside cylinder 22 through the corresponding apertures 23. The treating liquid is fed by means of a pump 24 into the treating chambers 21 through the inside cylinder 22 and apertures 23, and flows to the outside tank 28 through an upper partition 25 having apertures, the charged fibrous articles, a lower partitions 26 having apertures and apertures 27 formed on the outside wall of the treating chamber 21. The treating liquid in the outside tank 28 returns to the pump 24. In this apparatus, it is difficult to uniformly distribute the treating liquid to all the treating chambers through the apertures 23 of the inside cylinder 22. Generally, the treating liquid flows at a large flow rate through the lower chamber but at a small flow rate through upper chamber. This results in non-uniform qualities in hand feeling and density of the treated fibrous articles. Further, the apparatus of FIG. 3 has the disadvantage of a small volume capacity for the fibrous articles due to the existence of numerous passages for the treating liquid.

In order to overcome the above-stated disadvantages of the conventional apparatus, the process of the present invention is carried out using apparatus, for example, as shown in FIG. 4. Referring to FIG. 4, an outside tank 31 removably contains an inside casing 32 therein and if necessary, is closed by a header 33. The bottom 34 of the outside tank 31 is connected to a circulation pump 35, which is capable of rotating in alternate directions, through a conduit 60. The bottom 34 contains therein a heater 36 for heating the treating liquid to a desired temperature. The inside casing 32 comprises an inside or inner cylinder 37 having a top end opening into the inside casing 32 and a bottom end connected to the pump 35 through a conduit 38, an outside or outer cylinder 39 defining a treating space 40 between the inside surface of the outside cylinder 39 and the outside surface of the inside cylinder 37, a header 41 for closing the upper end of the treating space 40 and a bottom means 42 having numerous apertures 43 through which the treating space 40,is fluidly connected to the outside tank 31.

In the apparatus of FIG. 4, the treating space 40 is divided into three treating chambers 44, 45 and 46 independent of each other. The treating chamber 44 is defined by the inside surface of the outside cylinder 39, the outside surface of the inside cylinder 37, and two horizontal partitions 47 and 48 each having a plurality of apertures 49 through which the treating liquid can flow.

The horizontal partition 47 defines the upper end of the treating chamber 44 and the horizontal partition 48 defines the lower end thereof. In the same way, the horizontal partition 48 defines the upper end of the treating chamber 45, a horizontal partition 50 defines the lower end of the treating chamber 45 and the upper end of the treating chamber 46 and a horizontal partition 51 defines the lower end of the treating chamber 46. That is, the treating space 40 includes three chambers 44, 45 and 46 defined by the upper partition 47, intermediate partitions 48 and 50 and the lower partition 51. The treating chambers 44, 45 and 46 are fixed to each other by a fastening means 58.

A spindle 52 extends upward from the bottom of the outer tank 31 through the inside cylinder 37. The top end portion 53 of the spindle 52 is threaded. A bolt 54 extends into the upper portion 55 of the treating space 40 through the inside header 41. The bottom end portion 56 is threaded so as to engage with the threaded portion of the spindle 52. The spindle 52 and the bolt 54 are fixed to each other by rotating a handle 57 connected to the top end of the bolt 54.

In the apparatus shown in FIG. 4, the treating liquid supplied into the outside tank 31 is circulated by way of pump 35 through the conduit 38, inside cylinder 37, through the treating space 40, bottom portion 34 of the outside tank 31 and conduit 36, in alternate directions. The lower surface of the inside header 41 inclines downward from the center to the periphery thereof. When the treating liquid circulates along the path shown by solid arrows in FIG. 4, the treating liquid which is fed through the inside cylinder 37 is ejected toward the lower surface of the inside header 41 through the top end of the inside cylinder 37 and then uniformly distributed into the treating space 40 along the inclined lower surface of the inside header 41. In the apparatus of FIG. 4, the cross-sectional profile of the inside header 41 shows that the lower surface of the inside header 41 is shaped substantially in a partial sphere. The lower surface may take the shape of a part surface of a cone as shown in FIG. 5. The treating liquid distributed into the upper portion 55 successively flows down into the treating chambers 44, 45 and 46 through the apertures 49 of the partitions 47, 48 and 50 and leaves the treating chamber 46 from the lowest partition 51. The treating liquid afterward flows from the bottom means 42 into the outside tank 31 through the apertures 43. Then, the treating liquid returns to the pump 35 through the conduit 36. In the abovestated circulation, the treating liquid uniformly passes through the treating chambers 44, 45 and 46 so as to uniformly treat the fibrous articles 59 charged into the treating chambers. When the treating liquid is circulated in the direction shown by dotted arrows, the treating liquid uniformly flows upward through the treating chambers 46, 4S and 44 containing the fibrous articles 59.1n the process of the present invention, it is important that the fibrous articles are charged into the treating chamber in a stratiform extending horizontally with a normal thickness in the treating liquid satisfying the following relationship:

L 0.9L, wherein L, is the distance between the upper and lower partitions and L is a normal thickness of the stratum of fibrous articles in the treating liquid, and the treating liquid flows through the stratum of fibrous articles along the thickness of the stratum of the fibrous articles in alternate directions.

The term normal thickness of stratum of fibrous articles" used herein refers to the thickness of the stratum of fibrous articles under the condition where the stratum of fibrous articles is under no pressure or stretching forces.

By the above-stated process of the present invention, the stratum of fibrous articles charged in the treating chambers is uniformly treated under a low compres- The inside header 41 may be provided with one or more apertures for connecting the upper portion 55 of the treating space 40 to the outside tank 31 so as to flow air orgas therethrough. This is effective for removing air or gas initially contained in the fibrous article. Further, this aperture is effective for leveling the treating liquid in the outside tank 31 and the inside casing 32. The inside header 41 may have means for measuring static pressure in the treating space 40. This means is effective for determining the resistance of the stratum of fibrous articles to the flow of the treating 7 liquid therethrough.

The upper end portion of the outside cylinder 39 of the inside casing 32 may have one or more apertures for the same purpose as that of the inside header 4!. Needless to say, it is necessary that the size of the apertures be small enough to prevent the charged fibrous articles from receiving non-uniform treatment.

In the process of the present invention, the resistance of the stratum of fibrous articles to the flow of the treating liquid therethrough depends on the thickness of the stratum and the filling density of the fibrous articles. Accordingly, if the thickness of the stratum of fibrous articles and the filling density are suitably established, it is possible to carry out the treatment under a low compression of the fibrous articles. Therefore, the fibrous articles have to be charged at ordinary thickness in the treating liquid satisfying the relationship:

If L is larger than L,/0.9, undesirable deformation of the fibrous articles results.

Further, it is preferable that the stratum of the fibrous article in the treating liquid has a thickness satisfying the relationship:

L, E 0.95L2 in order to prevent the deformation of the fibrous articles. Moreover, it is preferable that the thickness of the stratum of the fibrous articles in the treating liquid satisfiles tpe following relationship:

Also, it is preferable that the thickness of the stratum of the fibrous articles in the treating liquid satisfies the following relationship:

in order to prevent the fibrous articles from receiving nonuniform treatment. Also, it is desirable that the thickness of the stratum of the fibrous articles has an ordinary thickness in atmosphere the same as or smaller than the distance between the upper and lower partitions. In any case, the treating liquid flows through the stratum of the fibrous article through the thickness thereof.

In FIG. 4, the fibrous articles 59 are charged separately into the three chambers 44, 45 and 46. If fibrous articles of the same quality as in FIG. 4 are charged into the apparatus as shown in FIG. 1 in the same filling density, and the same treating liquid flows at the same flow rate as in FIG. 4, the resistance of the stratum of the fibrous article to the flow of the treating liquid is substantially equal to the total of the resistances of the three strata of FIG. 4. However, it is obvious that the fibrous articles located in the lower portion of the treating space 2 of FIG. 1 are subjected to a compression larger than the fibrous articles located in the lower portion of the treating chambers 44, 45 and 46 of FIG. 4, because the thickness of the stratum in FIG. 1 is greater than that of FIG. 4. This large compression results in large filling density of the stratum and high resistance of the fibrous articles to the flow of the treating liquid therethrough.

Therefore, after treating, the fibrous articles located in the lower portion have a hand feeling, appearance, and bulkiness, remarkably different from those located in the upper portion.

In order to carry out the circulation of the treating agent under a low pressure, it is desirable that the stratum of the fibrous articles have a resistance of 0.2 to 0.5 kg/cm" to the flow of the treating liquid therethrough. Further, in order to adjust the resistance to the flow of the treating liquid within the above range, it

is preferable that the thickness of the treating chamber is in a range from 200 to 500 mm and the stratum of fibrous articles has an apparent density in atmosphere of 0.09 to 0.16 g/cm". Further, it is preferable that after the process is finished the stratum of the fibrous articles has an apparent density in atmosphere satisfying the following relationshi pn/po ID to (01+ lpo) wherein pn is the apparent density of the stratum of fibrous articles in atmosphere after processing, p0 is the apparent density of the stratum of fibrous articles in atmosphere before processing, a is 0.6 to 0.63 and B is 80 to 90.

Generally, when bulky fibrous articles, for example hank-formed or muff-formed acrylic yarns or polyester or polyamide textured yarns, are treated by circulating the treating liquid through the bulky articles, the apparent density of the bulky articles increases with advance of processing. This tendency increases with the increase of filling density of the fibrous article in the treating chamber. The high density of the treated fibrous articles results in a flattened shape and low bulkiness thereof. If the fibrous articles are charged in a low filling density, for example, smaller than 0.09 g/cm the treating liquid flows non-uniformly through the charged fibrous articles so as to result in non-uniform treatment.

In order to uniformly treat the fibrous articles, it is preferable that the treating liquid flows through the stratum of the fibrous articles at a flow rate of 10 to 30 liters/min per kg of the fibrous articles.

If the flow rate is less than l0 liter/min per kg of the fibrous articles, the fibrous articles are frequently nonuniformly treated. And, if the flow rate is greater than 30 liters/min per kg of the fibrous articles, the fibrous articles are subjected to a large compression.

Referring to FIG. 6, on line A, the apparent density of the fibrous articles after processing (pn) equals the apparent density of the fibrous articles before process ing (p0). This shows the ideal condition. In the case where an acrylic high bulky yarn is treated in accordance with the present invention at a flow rate of 10 to 30 Iiters/min/kg fibrous article, the relationships between pn and p0 is shown by circles (0) in FIG. 6. In the case where the acrylic high bulky yarn is treated at a flow rate greater than 30 Iiterslmin/kg fibrous articles, the relationship between p0 and pn is shown by points in FIG. 6. Further, in the case where the acrylic high bulky yarn is treated using the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 at a flow rate of 10 to 30 Iiters/min/kg fibrous aritcle, the relationship between p0 and pn is shown by crosses (x) in FIG. 6. FIG. 6 shows that the circles (0) are nearer the ideal line A than the points or the crosses (x). That is, the high bulky yarn which has been treated in accordance with the process of the present at a flow rate of 10 to 30 liters/min/kg fibrous article, has a higher apparent density after processing. Therefore, as FIG. 6 shows, it is desirable that the fibrous articles have apparent densities before and after processing ranging between the ideal line A (pa p0) and the line B (pn apo [3) wherein a is 0.62 0.63 and B is 80 to 90. a and (3 vary depending the kind, thickness and shrinkage of the fibrous articles.

The apparatus for carrying out the process of the present invention may include only one treating chamber or may include two or more.

Also, in the case where the apparatus includes two or more treating chambers, the thickness of the treating chambers may be the same as or different from each other, and the treating chambers may be separated from each other.

Referring to FIG. 7, the inside cylinder 61 is divided into three parts, upper cylinder 62, intermediate cylinder 63, and lower cylinder 64, and the outside cylinder 65 is divided into three parts, upper cylinder 66, intermediate cylinder 67 and lower cylinder 68.

Therefore, the treating chambers 71, 72 and 73 can be successively superposed, and if desired, one or two of the treating chambers can be removed so as to use only two or one treating chamber.

The process and apparatus can be applied to various fibrous articles such as loose fibers, filament tows, fiber slivers, hank-formed yarns, muff-formed yarns, knitted fabrics, knitted pieces and bulky woven fabrics. Especially, the process and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized for treating high bulky articles such as woolen articles, synthetic polyester or polyamide textured yarn articles and acrylic fiber high bulky yarn articles. Particularly, muff-formed acrylic fiber high bulky yarns can be advantageously treated by the process and apparatus of the present invention.

The acrylic fiber muffs are treated by steam so as to develop high bulkiness. The bulky muffs are formed in a hollow cylinder as shown in FIG. 8 or in a substantially nonhollow cylinder. In the process of the present invention, it is preferable to use the non-hollow cylinder-formed muffs due to high density thereof. The muffs are charged into the treating chamber by aligning them on the bottom partition in a stratiform. In this charging, some spaces are formed between the muffs as shown in FIG. 9. Referring to FIG. 9, the spaces 75 formed between muffs 76 causes non-uniform flow of the treating liquid and thus non-uniform treatment of the muffs results.

In order to avoid the above-stated disadvantages, it is preferable that the spaces 75 are filled by fillers which are made of a material selected from natural or synthetic resins, metallic materials or wood through which the treating liquid can not flow. The fillers may be previously fixed in the treating chamber or may be inserted between the muffs charged into the treating chamber so as to close the spaces. By filling the fillers, the treating liquid can uniformly flow through the muffs with a uniform resistance to the flow of treating liquid. Accordingly, the treated muffs have a uniform quality in bulkiness.

In the treatment of the acrylic fiber bulky yarn muffs, it is preferable that the stratum of the charged muffs has a resistance to the flow of the treating liquid of 0.2 to 0.5 kg/cm. If the resistance is larger than 0.5 kg/cm, the treated yarn has a low bulkiness and undesirable stiff hand feeling. In some case, when the muffs are dyed at a resistance of 0.45 kg/cm' to 0.5 kg/cm and then subjected to gradual cooling at a resistance of 0.3 kg/cm or smaller, the resultant muffs have a good hand feeling and bulkiness. Further, it is more preferable in order to obtain muffs having superior bulkiness and hand feeling that the muffs are dyed at a resistance of 0.3 kg/cm or smaller.

The acrylic fiber bulky yarns may be muff-formed by the filling winding method.

Recently, use of the muff of yarns has remarkably increased due to the advantages that the muff can contain much more yarn than the hank, and can be easily handled and is effective for decreasing cost. Further, due to improvement of winders for making muffs, the

muffs can be prepared at a high velocity twice that of the conventional hank preparation. Therefore, it is obvious that the use of muffs is much more economically beneficial than the conventional hank. Also, in the field of weft knitting sweaters and stockings where the yarn is knitted at a relatively high velocity, the muff-formed yarn has the economical advantages that the muff-formed yarn can be used as a yarn-feeding package by setting the muff to expand and thus can be directly knitted without rewinding. This is effective for shortening the knitting process. In the conventional process, the muffs are charged into a carrier of a package dyeing machine which carrier comprises one or more vertical or horizontal cylinders having numerous apertures through which the treating liquid flows, in a method whereby a plurality of muffs are superposed around the vertical cylinder by inserting the cylinder into the hollows of the muffs. The treating liquid fed through the apertures of the cylinder flows through the muffs while outwardly extending them. The muffs treated by the above-stated conventional process have hollows of a diameter of 60 to 150 mm. Such hollow muffs can be directly fed to a knitting process. However, the hollow muffs treated by the conventional process have the disadvantage that the yarn located in the inside surface portion of the muff is frequently undesirably flattened due to pressure and abrasion between the inside surface of the muff and the outside surface of the cylinder. Sometimes, the yarn located in the inside surface portion of the muff is fluffed or stretched by pressure of the treating liquid which flows outwardly from the cylinder to the muff so as to expand the muff outwards. This results in low bulkiness of the yarn. Further, when the muff is expanded outward by the treating liquid pressure, a clearance of about 2 cm is formed between the cylinder and the muff. The clearance causes a turbulent flow of the treating liquid, and the turbulent flow results in formation of fluffs on the yarn located in the inside surface portion of the muff. If the turbulent flow is vigorous, this results in frizzing of the yarn due to entanglement of the fluffs on the yarn. Such frizzing of the yarn and the entanglement of the fluffs produces difficulty in unwinding the yarn from the treated muff. Further, the hollow of the treated muff causes a decrease of the number of the muffs filled in a predetermined space, and this results in increase of transportation cost for the muffs.

In order to eliminate the above-stated disadvantages of the conventional process, the treated muff is given a pressed form as shown in FIG. 10 and has a thickness of to 200 mm. Referring to FIG. 10, the muff 81 has a flat hollow 82. Sometimes, the muff may have substantially no hollow. A muff so treated having a flat hollow or no hollow and a thickness of 90 to 200 mm can be favorably supplied to a knitting or waving process at a low transportation cost.

The muff is preferably prepared by a filling winding process. The muff thus wound can be readily unwound without difficulty.

The desirable thickness of the treated muff is variable within the range of 90 to 200 mm depending on the amount and thickness of the yarn to be wound and the diameter of bobbin used. Table 3 shows thicknesses of some high bulky yarn muffs treated in accordance with the process of the present invention.

Table 3 Item Diameter Wei ht Thickness of of treated Shrinkage Meter bobbin muff muff Yarn count (mm) (kg) (mm) Regular I 2 l 60 200 I0 90 acrylic l2 H60 250 I0 80 yarn Middle l8 H48 200 I0 l00 bulky l8 1148 250 I0 90 acrylic 22 2/48 200 I0 160 yarn 22 2/48 300 I 140 High 28 2/48 300 I5 160 bu ky 28 2/48 300 I80 acrylic 28 2/32 300 I0 I80 yarn 28 2/32 300 20 200 The process and apparatus of the present invention may be applied to dye fibrous articles with an aqueous liquid containing at least one dye and, if desired, at lease one auxiliary agent, for example, dispersing agent, levelling agent, acid, alkali, reducing agent, oxidizing agent, carrier for dye and the like. After dyeing, the process and apparatus of the present invention may be used for finishing or oiling the dyed fibrous articles with an aqueous liquid containing at least one oiling agent.

in the oiling for the fibrous articles in accordance with the process of the present invention, it is desirable that the dyed fibrous articles are charged into the treating chamber of the apparatus at a filling density of 0.09 to 0.14 g/cm and that the oiling liquid flows at a temperature of to 60C through the fibrous articles at a fiow rate satisfying the following relationship:

Q,/Q l =0.a-|.s wherein Q, is the flow rate of the dyeing liquor in the previous dyeing process and Q is the flow rate of the oiling liquid.

Generally, the higher the flow rate of the oiling liquid, the higher the amount of the oiling agent absorbed on the fibrous article. However, if the ratio Q,/Q is smaller than 0.8, the amount of the oiling agent absorbed on the fibrous articles is too small, and if the ratio Q,/Q is greater than 1.8, the resultant fibrous articles have a low bulkiness. in any case, it is preferable that Q is 10 to 30 liters/min/kg fibrous article.

As stated above, the process and apparatus of the present invention have the following advantages.

1. The treating operations are easy. The fibrous articles can be charged into the treating chamber by merely aligning them on the lower partition at a predetermined thickness and filling density. Since the charged fibrous articles do not rub against each other, the surface of the fibrous article remains in a smooth condition even after the processing.

2. The fibrous articles can be kept under a low compression. This prevents the fibrous articles from undesirable deformation.

3. [n the fibrous article entanglement and frizzing of the yarn or filaments is prevented.

4. Fibrous articles having high bulkiness or high stretchability can be obtained. Particularly, high bulky single yarn articles can be treated. Such high bulky single yarn articles are very difficult of treatment by the conventional processes due to formation of fluffs, deformation of the article or entanglement of yarn. The high bulky single yarn article treated by the process and 12 apparatus of the present invention can be unwound at a high velocity without yarn breakage.

5. The treated fibrous article has a good hand feeling and elegant appearance.

Further, the apparatus of the present invention can be utilized for drying the treated fibrous articles charged in the treating chamber. In this case, after the treating liquid is discharged from the apparatus, hot air is circulated through the treating chamber for the necessary time. This drying is valuable for maintaining the treated fibrous articles in the desired form. Since the treating chamber has a lower partition through which the treating liquid can flow down, the treating liquid is readily separated from the fibrous articles in the treating chamber.

The following examples are intended to illustrate the application of the present invention but are not intended to limit the scope thereof in any way.

EXAMPLE 1 An acrylic fiber yarn (Toraylon: trade mark of acrylic fiber made by Toray Industries, Inc., Japan) of 2/48 metric count having a shrinkage of 28% at 100C was formed into rocket muffs each having a weight of 1.5 kg by means of a rocket muff winder. The muffs were preshrunk by steaming them at 100C for 20 minutes.

The muffs thus preshrunk were charged into treating chambers having a thickness (depth) of 300 mm of the dyeing apparatus as shown in FIG. 4 in stratiform at an apparent density of 0.10 g/cm. The strata of the muffs had a normal thickness of 280 mm in the dyeing liquid. The horizontal partitions defining the treating chambers each had numerous apertures the total area of which was 35% of the whole area of the partition. Spaces between the charged muffs were filled up by stainless steel fillers so as to obstruct the flow of the dyeing liquid through the spaces.

A predetermined amount of water was fed into the dyeing apparatus and heated to C. When the temperature of water rose to 70C, the following dyeing composition was dissolved into water in the apparatus.

2.0% based on the weight Cathilon Navy Blue RH Note: Cathilon Navy Blue RlLCathilon Blue SLR and Cathilon Pink BH are trade marks of basic dye: for acrylic fibers made by Hodogaya Chemical Co., Ltd. Japan.

Cuthiogen PAN and Cuthiogen AN Super are trade marks of levelling agent: for basic dye: for acrylic fibers made by Daiichi Kogyo Seiyaku Kaburhiki Keisha. Japan.

The dyeing liquid was heated to C for l0 minutes, and to C for 60 minutes and maintained at 100C for 40 minutes to dye the muffs. After dyeing, the dyeing liquid was cooled to 50C for 30 minutes. During the process, the dyeing liquid was circulated through the muff strata through the thickness of the strata in alternate directions. The direction of the circulation was changed at time intervals of minutes. The flow rate of the dyeing liquid was adjusted so that the strata of the muffs had a resistance of 0.25 kg/cm to the flow of the dyeing liquid. After cooling, the muffs were rinsed with cold water and treated with an aqueous liquid containing 3% of Taflon Parma A sol (trademark of a softening agent made by Daiichi Kogyo Seiyaku Kabushiki Kaisha, Japan) at 50C for 20 minutes.

The dyed muffs were discharged from the treating chambers and dried. During the above-stated treatments, the muffs were processed without undesirable deformation, entanglement or fluffing of yarn. The dried muffs were backwound into cones at a winding speed of 350 m/min without breakage or creation of large tension in the yarn.

The cone had a volume of 38 em /g. For comparison, the same yarn as stated above was formed into a hank and dyed under no tension and no pressure in the laboratory. The dyed yarn was wound into a cone in same way as above. The comparison cone had a volume of 39.5 em /g. That is, the yarn processed in accordance with the present invention had a bulkiness substantially similar to that of the yarn processed in the laboratory under no tension and no pressure.

The backwound yarn was knitted into a fabric. The resultant fabric had a uniform hue, hand feeling and appearance. For comparison, the same procedure as the present example was repeated except that the treating chamber was adjusted to a thickness of 240 mm. Accordingly, the strata of the muffs were compressed to a thickness of 240 mm. The resultant muffs were wound into cones. The cones had a volume of 32.5 cmlg. The knitted fabric from the comparison yarn had a low bulkiness and rough hand feeling.

For further comparison, the same procedure as the present example was repeated except. that the treating chamber was adjusted to a thickness of 430 mm. Accordingly, the clearance between the stratum of the muffs and the upper partition was 150 mm. By the same process, the resultant muffs were deformed and nonuniformly dyed.

EXAMPLE 2 The procedure of Example 1 was repeated except that the resistance to the dyeing liquid. flow was adjusted to 0.38 kg/cm during dyeing and to 0.28 kg/cm during cooling after dyeing, and the cooling of the dyeing liquid was effected from 100C to 50C over 30 minutes. The dyed muffs were treated with the same softening agent as Example 1. The dyed muffs had the same appearance as Example 1. The yarn of the muffs was backwound into cones. The cones had a volume of 36.5 cmlg which is a little smaller than that of Example 1.

The yarn was knitted by means of a weft knitting machine into a fabric. The resultant fabric had a bulkiness and appearance similar to those of Example 1.

EXAMPLE 3 The procedure of Example 1 was repeated except that the resistance to the dyeing liquid was adjusted to 0.46 kg/cm during both dyeing and cooling. The dyed muffs were treated with the same softening agent as Example l. The resultant muff had a thickness smaller by 3.5 cm than that of Example 1. The yarn of the muffs can be rewound into cones without difficulty. The cones had a volume of 34 cm lg. The knitted fabric 14 from the yarn had a uniform hue and appearance and a good hand feeling, but the bulkiness of the fabric was a little smaller than that of Example 1.

EXAMPLE 4 A Toraylon acrylic fiber yarn of 1/60 metric count having a shrinkage of 18% at C was formed into rocket muffs each having a weight of 1.3 kg. The muffs were preshrunk by steaming at 100C for 20 minutes. The preshrunk muffs were charged into treating chambers having a thickness of 250 mm in a stratiform at an apparent density of 0.12 g/cm. The strata of the muffs had a normal thickness of 240 mm in the dyeing liquid. The partitions had numerous apertures of total area of 35% of the whole area of the partition. Spaces between the muffs were filled up with polypropylene fillers.

The muffs were dyed with the following aqueous dyeing composition.

0.8% based on the weight Cathilon Pure Blue SGl-l Note: Cathilon Pure Blue 56H. Cathilon Yellow 3GLl'l and Cathilon Blue 3111.." are trade marks of basic dyes for acrylic fibers made by Hodogaya Chemical Co.. Ltd., Japan.

, The dyeing and cooling processes were carried out by the same method as Example 1. During the dyeing and cooling, the resistance of the muff stratum to the dyeing liquid flow was adjusted to 0.25 kg/cm. After cooling, the muffs were rinsed with water and then treated with an aqueous oiling liquid containing 1.0% of Taflon parrna A sol at 50C for 20 minutes.

It was clear that the resultant muffs were treated without undesirable deformation, entanglement and fluffing of the yarn. The muffs were backwound into cones at a winding speed of 320 m/min with few breakages of the yarn. The yarn was knitted into a triple interlock jersey. The resultant jersey had clear stitches uniform hue and elegant hand feeling and bulkiness.

EXAMPLE 5 A polyethylene terephthalate high bulky spun yarn of metric count of 2/33 having a shrinkage of 9.5% in boiling water was formed into rocket muffs each having a weight of 1.5 kg by filling winding. The muffs were preshrunk by steaming at 100C for 20 minutes. The preshrunk muffs were charged into the treating chambers of the apparatus as shown in FIG. 7. The treating chambers had a thickness depth of 200 mm and the strata of the muffs had a normal thickness of 210 mm and an apparent density of 0.1 25 g/cm set by adjusting the upper partition of the treating chamber.

The muffs were dyed with the dyeing liquid containing the following composition at C for 60 minutes at a flow rate of 25 litres/min/kg muff.

-continued 1.5% based on the weight Dianix Fast Blue GM of muffs (Dispense Blue 90) based on the weight Sunsolt No. 1200 of muffs Note: Dianix Fast Blue RN and Dianix Fast Blue GN are trade marks of disperse dyes made by Mitsubishi Kasei. Japan. Sunsolt No. I200 is the trade mark fiber made by Nikka Chemical Co. Ltd. Japan.

of the nonionic levelling agent for polyester Composition 2 gll Amiladin 2 g/l Sodium hydroxide 2 g/l Sodium dithionite Note: Amiladin is the trade mark ofa detergent for polyester fiber made by Daiichi Kogyo Seiyaku. Japan.

The cleared muffs were treated with an aqueous solution containing 4 g/l of Taflon No. 320 A (trade mark of a softening agent made by Daiichi Kogyo Seiyaku, Japan).

After the solution was discharged from the apparatus, the muffs were dried by blowing hot air through the treating chambers.

For comparison, the same muffs were dyed in a basketformed carrier of the apparatus as shown in FIG. I at an apparent density of 0.123 g/cm using the same method as the present example. The processed muffs were dehydrated by a centrifugal separator and then dried in a cabinet-type dryer. The apparent filling densities of the muffs of the present and comparison examples are shown in Table 4.

Table 4 Item Apparent filling density g/l Before After After Bulkiprocess- After clearoiling ness Process mg (po) dyeing ing (pn) pn/po (cmig) Example 5 I25 128 129 130 L04 27.4 Comparison I23 I65 l70 [72 1.40 24.3

When the apparent filling density (p0) of the muff is 123 g/l, it is preferable that the ratio pn/po is less than EXAMPLE 6 A polyethylene terephthalate spun yarn of 1/48 metric count having a shrinkage of 9.0% in boiling water was formed into hanks. The hanks were preshrunk by steaming at l00C for 20 minutes. The hanks were reprocessed by the same method as Example 5. For

16 comparison, the same hanks were processed by the same method as the comparison process of Example 5. The resultant hanks of the present and comparison examples had the apparent filling densities as shown in Table 5.

Table 5 Item Apparent filling density (g/l) Before After After Bulkiprocess- After clearoiling ness Process mg (po) dyeing ing (pn) pn/po (cmlg) Example 6 I50 157 I60 I62 1.08 2L9 Comparison lSl H9 180 188 1.98 l9.8

[n the case where po is 15], it is preferable that the ratio pn/po is less than EXAMPLE 7 An acrylic fiber spun yarn of [/60 metric count having a shrinkage in boiling water was formed into rocket muffs by filling winding. The muffs were shrunk by steaming at C for 20 minutes. The shrunk muffs were processed by the same procedure as Example 5 except that the flow rate of the dyeing liquid was 10 litres/min/kg muff, the dyeing was carried out using the same dyeing liquid as Example 1 at 100C for 60 minutes and the oiling was carried out at 40C for 20 minutes. The processed muffs were dried in the treating chambers by blowing hot air therein. For comparison, the muffs were processed in a basket-formed carrier of the apparatus of FIG. 2 in the same way as above. The

resultant muffs had apparent densities as shown in Table 6.

Table 6 Item Apparent filling density (g/l) Before After Bulkiprocessing After oiling ness Process (po) dyeing (pn) pn/po (cmlg) Example 7 95 I00 Lil 32.4 Comparison 100 I58 1.65 27.6

[n the case where po is [00, it is preferable that pn/po is less than EXAMPLE 8 An acrylic fiber spun yarn of 2/42 metric count having a shrinkage of 28% in boiling water was formed into rocket muffs by filling winding. The rocket muffs were preshrunk by steaming at 100C for 20 minutes. The preshrunk muffs were processed by the same procedure as Example 7.

For comparison. the muffs were processed at a flow rate of the treating liquids of 50 l/min/kg muff.

The resultant muffs had apparent filling densities as shown in Table 7.

17 Table 7 Item Apparent filling density (gll) Before After Bulkiprocessmg After oiling ness Process (po) dyeing (pn) pnlpo (cm'lg) Example 8 100 110 112 1.12 34.0

Comparison I I50 160 1.60 28.2

In the case where po is 100, it is preferable that pn/po is less than Although, both the muffs of the present example and the comparison example were uniformly dyed, the comparison muffs had a low bulkiness and the yarn of the comparison muffs was flattened.

EXAMPLE 9 An acrylic fiber yarn of 2/48 metric count having a As Table 8 shows, the hanks processed at the initial apparent filling density of 80 g/l were non-uniformly dyed whereas the hanks had a high bulkiness and a high absorption of the oiling agent.

EXAMPLES 10 to 13 10 An acrylic fiber yarn of 2/60 metric count having a shrinkage of 18% in boiling water was formed into rocket muffs using a cake rocket winder, and then preshrunk by steaming at 100C for 20 minutes. The preshrunk muffs had an apparent density of 101 g/l.

The muffs were charged into the same treating cham her as Example 1 at apparent filling densities as shown in Table 9 and processed in the same procedure as Example 4. In the process, the flow rate (0,) of the dyeing liquid and the flow rate (0,) of the oiling liquid were altered as shown in Table 9.

The resultant muffs had evenness of dyeing, bulkiness and oiling agent absorption as shown in Table 9.

shrinkage of 28% in boiling water was formed into hanks and then preshrunk by steaming at 100C for 20 minutes. The hank was processed by the same procedure as Example 1. In the process, the apparent filling density of the hanks before processing was 100 g/l, and both the dyeing liquid and the oiling liquid flowed at a flow rate of 13.2 l/min/kg hank (Q and 0,) in alternate directions at time intervals of 5 minutes.

For example, the same hanks as above were processed by the same procedure as above except that the initial apparent filling density of the hanks was 80 g/l.

The evenness of dyeing and bulkiness of the hanks and amount of the oiling agent absorbed on the yarns of the resultant hanks are shown in Table 8.

In the comparison example where Q,/Q is 1.92, the resultant muffs had a low bulkiness.

* EXAMPLES 14 and 15 An acrylic fiber yarn of 2/48 metric count having a shrinkage of 28% in boiling water was formed into hanks and then preshrunk by steaming at 100C for 20 ness and oiling agent absorption as shown in Table 10.

resultant hanks had a low bulkiness.

where pn is the apparent density of the stratum of fibrous articles in the atmosphere after treatment, p is the initial apparent density of the stratum of fibrous articles in the atmosphere before treatment, a is about 0.62 to 0.63 and B is about 80 to 90.

]n the comparison example where Q,/Q is 1.9, the

bulky yarns with an aqueous treating liquid, comprismg:

a. providing a stratiform treating chamber having a thickness L defined by a pair of horizontally extending partitions having apertures therethrough to permit the flow of treating liquids through the treating chamber along the thickness dimension;

b. providing fibrous articles, consisting of bulky yarns, to be treated;

c. charging the treating chamber with the fibrous articles to form a stratum of fibrous articles having an uncompressed thickness in the atmosphere less than L an apparent density in the atmosphere of about 0.09 to 0.16 g/cm, and an uncompressed thickness L, in the treating liquid, where L, 1.sL,,

in order to effect a resistance to the flow of the treating liquid through the treating chamber of about 0.2 to 0.5 Kg/cm; and

d. flowing the treating liquid through the treating chamber in alternate directions along the thickness dimension at a flow rate of about 10 to 30 litres/- min per Kg of fibrous articles within the treating chamber for a period of time sufficient to change the apparent density of the stratum of fibrous articles accordin to the relationship pn/po 1.0 to 0+ B/pO) 2. A process according to claim 1, further comprising, drying the fibrous articles after said flowing the treating liquid through the treating chamber.

3. A process as claimed in claim 2, wherein said drying comprises blowing hot air through said treated stratum of fibrous articles in said treating chamber.

4. A process for treating muffs consisting of bulky yarns with an aqueous treating liquid, comprising:

a. providing a stratiform treating chamber having a thickness L defined by a pair of horizontally extending partitions having apertures therethrough to permit the flow of treating liquids through the treating chamber along the thickness dimension;

b. providing muffs having a transverse dimension of about 90 to 200 mm, and consisting of bulky yarns, to be treated;

c. charging the treating chamber with the muffs to form a stratum of muffs having an uncompressed Table I0 ltem Flow rate l/min/ kg hank) Apparent I Even- Oiling 1 ling Dyeln Oilin ness Bulkiagent density "Sli li ui of ness abso tion es (gl I) 1) 0J0. dyeing (cmIg) Example 14 95 7.0 6.1 0.85 good 330 0.26-0.3l Example I5 138 28.0 49.1 1.7 32.5 0.27-0.30 Comparison 95 9.0 17.1 1.9 28.0 0.2S-0.29

thickness in the atmosphere less than L an apparent density in the atmosphere of about 0.09 to 0.16 g/cm, and an uncompressed thickness L, in the treatin liquid, where L 1. t,, in order to effect a resistance to the flow of the treating liquid through the treating chamber of about 0.2 to 0.5 Kg/cm; and

d. flowing the treating liquid through the treating chamber in alternate directions along the thickness dimension at a flow rate of about ID to 30 litres/- min per Kg of muffs within the treating chamber for a period of time sufficient to change the apparent density of the stratum of muffs according to the relationship .v /p 1 (+Bp where pn is the apparent density of the stratum of muffs in the atmosphere after treatment, po is the initial ap parent density of the stratum of muffs in the atmosphere before treatment, a is about 0.62 to 0.63 and B is about to 90.

S. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said fibrous articles are selected from the group consisting of loose fibers, filament tows, fiber slivers, hankformed yarns, muff-formed yarns, knitted fabrics, knitted pieces and bulky woven fabrics.

6. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said providing fibrous articles comprises providing a plurality of muff-formed yarns, and wherein said charging the treating chamber includes filling spaces between said yarn muffs with fillers, whereby said aqueous treating liquid passes through said yarn muffs only.

7. A process as claimed in claim 6, wherein said filling spaces between said yarn muffs with filler includes selecting the filler from the group consisting of natural and synthetic resins, metallic materials and wood.

8. A process as claimed in claim 4, wherein said muff consists of an acrylic bulky yarn.

9. A process as claimed in claim 4, wherein said muff is provided by winding said bulky yarn by the filling winding method.

10. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said treating comprises dyeing and said aqueous treating liquid contains at least one dye.

11. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said treating comprises oiling and said aqueous treating liquid contains at least one oiling agent.

12. A process as claimed in claim 11, wherein said oiling liquid is circulated at a temperature of 40 to 60C at a flow rate of 0.8 to 1.8 times that of said dyeing liquid.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4126484 *Jun 1, 1977Nov 21, 1978Monteiro Charles CPaint roller cleaner and method
US4231236 *Apr 7, 1978Nov 4, 1980Tidue S.R.L.Dyeing machine, particularly for dyeing and drying stocking articles and like garments
US4410694 *Mar 4, 1982Oct 18, 1983Kao Soap Co., Ltd.Process for producing fibrous carboxymethyl cellulose
US6233982Apr 4, 1996May 22, 2001Thies AgMethod and device for the treatment of ready-to-wear, textile apparel parts
US6789404 *Aug 1, 2001Sep 14, 2004Samsung Electronics Co., LtdWashing machine and controlling method therof
US6874191Jun 29, 2004Apr 5, 2005Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Washing machine and controlling method thereof
EP0737771A2 *Apr 3, 1996Oct 16, 1996Thies AGMethod and device for treating manufactured textile articles
Classifications
U.S. Classification8/155.2, 68/20, 68/184, 68/187, 8/150
International ClassificationD06B5/00, D06B5/12
Cooperative ClassificationD06B5/12
European ClassificationD06B5/12