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Publication numberUS3929280 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 30, 1975
Filing dateJun 7, 1974
Priority dateJul 11, 1973
Also published asCA1010706A1, DE2428895A1, DE2428895B2, DE2428895C3
Publication numberUS 3929280 A, US 3929280A, US-A-3929280, US3929280 A, US3929280A
InventorsKloot Leslie John
Original AssigneeCape Air Cond Pty
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Terminal air outlet device
US 3929280 A
Abstract
A terminal air outlet device for use at a discharge from a building air distribution system comprising a housing; a chamber defined within the housing; an inlet leading into the chamber and being adapted for connection to a building air distribution system; a first air outlet from the chamber through which air is adapted to be discharged in a first direction; a second air outlet from the chamber through which air is adapted to be discharged in a second direction, which direction is substantially at right angles to the first direction; and control means for regulating air discharge through the first and second outlets.
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United States Patent 1191 Kloot Dec. 30, 1975 TERMINAL AIR OUTLET DEVICE 3,389,648 6/1968 Larkfeldt et al. 98/41 R 3,575,234 4/l97l Dieckmann 98/40 N [75] lnvemor- Lesl'e Cape Town, 3,811,369 5 1974 Ruegg 98/40 D South Afnca R25,2l6 8 1962 Kennedy 98/40 1) [73] Assignee: Cape Air Conditioning (Proprietary) Ltd., Milnerton, Primary Examinew-William E. Wayner South Afri a Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Lars0n, Taylor & Hinds [22] Filed: June 7, 1974 21 A I N 477 331 [57] ABSTRACT 1 pp' A terminal air outlet device for use at a discharge from a building air distribution system comprising a [30] Foreign Application Priority Data housing; a chamber defined within the housing; an July 11, 1973 South Africa 73 4666 inlet leading into the Chamber and being adapted for connection to a building air distribution system; a first [52 US. Cl. 236/1 B; 236/93 air outlet f the chamber through which i i 51 Int. (31. F24F 11/02; F24F 13/08 adapted to be discharged in a first direction; a second [58] Field of Search 98/40 D, 40 C, 1 B, 36, air Outlet from the chamber hr gh whi h ir i 98/93, 41; 137/5253; 165/53 adapted to be discharged in a second direction, which direction is substantially at right angles to the first di- [56] Referen Cit d rection; and control means for regulating air discharge UNITED STATES PATENTS through the first and second outlets.

3,308,744 3/1967 Schach 98/40 D 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures US. Patent Dec. 30, 1975 Sheet 2 of2 3,929,280

TERMINAL AIR OUTLET DEVICE The present invention relates to terminal air outlet devices.

It is an object of the invention to provide an improved terminal air outlet device for use in building air distribution systems.

According to the invention, a terminal air outlet device for use at a discharge from a building air distribution system, includes:

a. a housing;

b. a chamber defined within the housing;

c. an inlet leading into the chamber and being adapted for connection to a building air distribution system;

(I. a first air outlet from the chamber through which air is adapted to be discharged in a first direction;

e. a first fixed air guide means at the first air outlet for guiding air in the first direction;

f. a second air outlet from the chamber through which air is adapted to be discharged in a second direction, which direction is substantially at right angles to the first direction;

g. a second fixed air guide means at the second air outlet for guiding air in the second direction; and

h. control means for regulating air discharge through the first and second outlets.

The first direction may be substantially vertical and the second direction may be substantially horizontal, and heated air may be discharged in the first or vertical direction, and cool air in the second or horizontal direction.

The control means may include a first outlet closure member for closing the first air outlet when required so as to allow discharge through the second air outlet only.

Furthermore, the control means may include a second outlet closure member for closing the second air outlet when required so as to allow discharge through the first air outlet only.

In one embodiment of the invention, the second outlet closure member may be adapted to be moved away for opening the second air outlet when an increased air flow is supplied from the building air distribution system.

In another embodiment of the invention, the control means may include a temperature responsive device adapted to operate the first outlet closure member for closing the first air outlet. The temperature responsive device may include a heater member over which air supplied from the building air distribution system is adapted to flow so as to be heated, and, downstream from the heater member, a bellows responsive to variation in temperature of the air passing over it, and a connection member for connecting the bellows to the first outlet closure member for moving it away from the first air outlet when heated air flows over the bellows and towards the first air outlet when cool air flows over the bellows.

The control means also may include a closure mechanism for moving the second outlet closure member to close the second air outlet when temperature in a room, served by the terminal outlet device, drops to a particular level.

The first outlet closure member, when in its position ofclosing the first air outlet, may be adapted to prevent full closure of the second air outlet by the second outlet 2 closure member so as to allow a gap in the second air outlet for air to be discharged.

Further according to the invention a building air distribution system includes at least one high pressure main air supply duct, a plurality of branch ducts for distribution of air to terminal air outlets in rooms, a volume regulator located between the main air supply duct and each branch duct; a static pressure regulator for regulating the pressure in the branch ducts, and each terminal air outlet including at least one terminal air outlet device as set out herein.

Also according to the invention, a building air distribution system includes at least one high pressure main air supply, a plurality of branch ducts for distribution of air to terminal air outlets in rooms, an expander unit provided between each branch duct and the high pressure main air supply, a volume control unit in each branch duct, a temperature control unit in each branch duct, and each terminal air outlet including at least one air outlet device as set out herein.

Also according to the invention, a method of air discharge from a building air distribution system, includes the steps of automatically varying the air discharge by passing heated air substantially downwardly along a window or wall of a room where the room is to be heated, and cool air substantially horizontally along the ceiling of the room, where the room is to be cooled.

The invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings.

The drawings illustrate in FIG. 1 a sectional side view of a first embodiment of a terminal air outlet device in accordance with the invention, with its second air outlet closed off;

FIG. 2 the device of FIG. 1 but with the second air outlet open;

FIG. 3 a sectional side view of a second embodiment of a terminal air outlet device: in accordance with the invention;

FIG. 4 a different type of diffuser for use on a device as illustrated in FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 cooling air flow in a room;

FIG. 6 heating air flow in a room;

FIG. 7 a layout of a building air distribution system including terminal air devices illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2; and

FIG. 8 a layout of a building air distribution system including terminal air outlet devices illustrated in FIG.

Referring to FIG. 1, the terminal air outlet device 10, which is of elongated box section, includes a housing 12 defining a chamber 14.

The inlet 16 is connected to a pipe 18 for supplying air into the chamber 14 from a building air distribution system (not shown). The chamber 14 has a first air outlet and combined therewith a first fixed air guide means 20 and a second air outlet 22, which leads into a second fixed air guide means 24. The area of the second air outlet 22 may be substantially larger than the area of the first air outlet 20.

The second air outlet 22 is normally closed off by a biassed closure plate 26, which is hingedly attached at 28 to the housing 12. This plate 26 can pivot about 28.

When heated air is required, the air supplied through pipe 18 is heated by heating means (not shown) and passes into the chamber 14. Here the heated air is deflected by the closure plate 26 and passes out through the first air outlet 20 in the direction of arrow 30. This vertical discharge (direction arrow 30) is utilized to form a layer of air along a window or outer wall of a room. In the case of cold outside temperatures the heated air is transmitted across the wall or window. Thereby an insulating layer is provided and also the air in the room is heated (see also FIG.

When the outside temperature increases and the room is to be cooled the volumetric rate of air supply through the pipe 18 is increased by means not shown. The air is not heated and it even may be cooled. Due to the higher rate of flow of air, the pressure is increased on the closure plate 26 and it is pivotted, against its inherent biassing, in the direction of arrow 32. Thus the second outlet 22 is opened as is shown in'FIG. 2. The air now isdischarged partially in the direction of arrow 30 (vertical flow) but for the greater part via the guide 24 is discharged in the direction of arrow 34 (horizontal flow).

The air travelling along arrow 34 forms a moving layer along the ceiling of the room and provides a diffuser effect to distribute cool air along the ceiling, moving downwardly along an opposite wall and finally rising against the floor of the room. Cool air is also passed along arrow 30 vertically downwardly (see also FIG. 6).

Referring to FIG. 3 a second embodiment of a terminal air outlet device is illustrated. The terminal air outlet device 36 includes a housing 38 defining a chamber 40. The housing 38 is of elongated box section. The inlet 42 is connected to a duct 44 for supplying air from a building air distribution system into the chamber 40.

The chamber 40 has an elongated rectangular first air outlet 46 and an elongated rectangular second air outlet 48. The first air outlet 46 leads into a first fixed air guide meansin the form of a diffuser 50, and the second air outlet 48 into a second fixed air guide means in the form of a diffuser 52.

The first air outlet 46 is closable by means of a first closure member in the form of a channel-shaped plate 54. A rod 56, is attached pivotably at one end to the plate 54. The outer U-shaped end 58 of the rod 56 is connected to a bellows 60. The bellows 60 is supported by a plate 61 attached to the housing 38. Ahead of the bellows 60, in the inlet pipe 62, there is provided a heater 64. The plate 54 is pivotably mounted at 66.

The second air outlet 48 is closable by means of 'a second closure member in the form of a channelshaped plate 68 which is pivotably mounted at 70 to the housing 38. The plate 68 is gravity biassed and can pivot freely about 70. Yet, if necessary, a spring may be provided to force it into its open position. The plate 68 has a striker arm 72.

The arm 72, and thus the plate 68, is movable by a plunger rod 74 of a thermostatically controlled actuator 76. The actuator 76 is attached to the pipe 62 by means of the arm 76.1. The rod 74 has an arm 78 adapted to operate a micro-switch 80 attached to the pipe 62, which switch 80 is adapted to close and open the electrical supply circuit of the heater 64. The actuator 76 may be in the form of a pneumatic plunger, an electrically operable solenoid, an actuator operable by gas or liquid expansion, or any other suitable means. Furthermore the actuator 76 may be inverted so that the arm 78 acts on the arm 72 and the rod 74 engages the switch 80.

The purpose of the device 36 is to allow warm air to flow vertically downwardly through the first air outlet 46, and cold air horizontally through the second air outlet 48, the y olumetric rate of flow being constant.

The operation of the device 36 is as follows:

Assuming that the temperature in the room has dropped to such an extent that heated air is required, the following steps will take place: The thermostat (not shown) will cause the actuator 76 to be energized so as to move the plunger rod 74 in the direction of arrow 82 for engaging the arm 72 and for closing the plate 68 against the outlet 48. (A resilient sealing layer may be provided around the outlet 48 to facilitate closure). Simultaneously the rod 74 will move the arm 78 against the micro-switch so as to close it. Thereby current will be supplied to the heater 64 and warm air to the bellows 60. The bellows 60 are expanded upwardly, the rod 56 will be moved in the direction of arrow 84 and the plate 54 is pivotted in the direction of arrow 86 to its open position shown in dotted lines 54.1. Now the first air outlet 46 is opened.

Warm heated air therefore flows vertically downwardly from the first air outlet 46, e.g. down a window or outer wall of a room, in the direction of arrow 88 through the diffuser 50.

The rod 74 will keep the plate 68 to close the outlet 48 so that no air flows out of the second outlet 48.

When the temperature in the room has been increased sufficiently the thermostat will cause the actuator 76 to withdraw the rod 74 slightly so as to release the pressure on the micro-switch 80. Now the circuit to the heater 64 and the bellows 60 is interrupted. The heater 64 is switched off and the bellows 60 (by means of the r0d 56) moves the plate 54 back into its closed position. The plate 54 has an adjustment screw 89, which, in the downward position, abuts against the plate 68 and forces it slightly away from second air outlet 48. A restricted volume of air now can flow out through the gap 90 between the plate 68 and the air outlet 48. The purpose of this restricted air flow is to have an air supply into the room during the changeover from horizontal to vertical flow, and vice versa.

If the temperature in the room is such that cooling is required, the actuator 76 withdraws the rod 74 fully. The air flow will force the plate 68 to its fully open position shown in dotted lines 68.1 and a full flow of cool air will take place through the second air outlet 48 and the guide part 52 to flow substantially horizontally along the ceiling.

Referring to FIG. 4, a different diffuser part 50.1 is shown. This diffuser part 50.1 slightly deflects the air away from a vertical direction and is intended where the device 36 is located some distance from a window or wall against which downward flow is to be directed.

Referringto FIG. 5, the condition is shown where it is warm outside the room 92 and cooling is required. The air (which may be cooled) flows from the device 36 (or 10) along the ceiling 94 up to the opposite wall 96, downwardly along the wall 96, and returns along the floor 98 to rise as shown.

In FIG. 6 the condition is shown where it is cold outside and heating is required. Here the heated air from the device 36 (or 10) flows downwardly along the wall 100, which is an outer wall and may contain a window, and along the floor 98 to rise as shown. The warm air buoyancy is used to produce air circulation.

Referring to FIG. 7, a schematic layout of a building air distribution system 102 is illustrated. Only part of the system is illustrated but it is duplicated for all the other rooms in the building. The multi-storeyed building 104 has a central lift and conduit shaft 106 in which a number of vertical high pressure air supply shafts 108 are provided. Each shaft 108 is joined to an expander unit 110, which also includes a silencer and damper means. The unit 110 again is coupled to one or more volume control units 112, which in turn are joined to one or more terminal air outlet devices 114. Each volume control unit 112 also includes a temperature control means. The devices 114 are the same as the device illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2. By means of the control units 112 the temperature may be controlled in each room 116.

Referring now to FIG. 8, a schematic layout of a building air distribution system 118 is illustrated. Only part of the system is illustrated but it is duplicated for all the other rooms in the building.

The multi-storeyed building has a central main supply duct 120 with high pressure supply. A number of low pressure branch air supply ducts 122 lead from the main supply duct 120. Between the main duct 120 and each branch duct 122 a volume regulator 124 controlled by a static pressure regulator 126 is provided so as to maintain a constant pressure in the branch ducts 122. A sound attenuator could be provided in the duct system connected of the volume regulator 124.

Each duct 122 isjoined to a number of terminal ducts 128 which terminate in terminal air outlet devices 130, which are the same as the device 36 illustrated in FIG. 3.

It will be noted that the device 36 of FIG. 3 is practically a combination of the device 10 (FIGS. 1 and 2) and the volume control unit 1 12 (FIG. 7). In the case of relatively small installations the entire distribution system may be of a low pressure design. Thus there is no need for the volume regulator 124 and the attenuator. In this case the static pressure regulator.126 would control the supply from the supply fan (not shown) to the duct 120.

I claim:

1. A terminal air outlet device for use at a discharge from a building air distribution system, including a. a housing;

b. a chamber defined within the housing;

c. an inlet leading into the chamber and being adapted for connection to a building air distribution system;

d. a first air outlet from the chamber through which air is adapted to be discharged in a first direction,

e. a first fixed air guide means at the air outlet for guiding air in the first direction;

f. a second air outlet from the chamber through which air is adapted to be discharged in a second direction, which direction is substantially at right angles to the first direction;

g. a second fixed air guide means at the second air outlet for guiding air in the second direction; and

h. control means for regulating air discharge through the first and second outlets.

2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said control means is responsive to the level of air flow into said chamber.

3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said control means is responsive to the temperature of air passing through said chamber.

4. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said control means is responsive to temperature levels exterior to said chamber and on the downstream sides of said air outlets.

5. A device as claimed in claim 1, in which the first direction is substantially vertical and the second direction is substantially horizontal.

6. A device as claimed in claim 1, which is adapted to discharge heated air in the first direction, and cool air in the second direction.

7. A device as claimed in claim 1, in which the control means includes a first outlet closure member for closing the first air outlet when required so as to allow discharge through the second air outlet only.

8. A device as claimed in claim 1, in which the control means includes a second outlet closure member for closing the second air outlet when required so as to allow discharge through the first air outlet only.

9. A device as claimed in claim 7, in which the control means includes a temperature responsive device adapted to operate the first closure member for closing the first air outlet.

10. A device as claimed in claim 9, in which the temperature responsive device includes a bellows responsive to variation in temperature of the air passing over it, and a connection member for connecting the bellows to the first closure member for moving it away from the first air outlet when heated air flows over the bellows and towards the first air outlet when cool air flows over the bellows.

11. A device as claimed in claim 8, in which the control means includes a closure mechanism for moving the second closure member to close the second air outlet when temperature in a room, served by the terminal outlet device, drops to a particular level.

12. A device as claimed in claim 11, in which the closure mechanism is of a plunger type mounted to the housing, and of which its plunger rod is adapted to move the second closure member against the second air outlet for closure thereof.

13. A device as claimed in claim 12, in which the plunger rod is adapted, on reaching a particular position, to close an electrical circuit for supplying electrical current to a heater member.

14. A building air distribution system which includes at least one high pressure main. air supply, a plurality of branch ducts for distribution of air to terminal air outlets in rooms, an expander unit provided between each branch duct and the high pressure main air supply, a volume control unit in each branch duct, a temperature control unit in each branch duct and each terminal air outlet including at least one air outlet device comprising a housing; a chamber defined within the housing; an inlet leading into the chamber and being adapted for connection to the branch duct; a first air outlet from the chamber through which air is adapted to be discharged in a first direction; a second air outlet from the chamber through which air is adapted to be discharged in a second direction, which direction is substantially at right angles to the first direction; and control means for regulating air discharge through the first and second outlets.

15. A building air distributions system which includes at least one high pressure main air supply duct, a plurality of branch ducts for distribution of air to terminal air outlets in rooms, a volume regulator located between the main air supply duct and each branch duct; a static pressure regulator for regulating the pressure in the branch ducts, and each terminal air outlet including at least one terminal air outlet device comprising a housing; a chamber defined within the housing; an inlet leading into the chamber and being adapted for connection to a branch duct; a first air outlet from the chamber through which air is adapted to be discharged in a first direction; a second air outlet from the chamber through which air is adapted to be discharged in a second direction, which direction is substantially at right angles to the first direction; and control means for regulating air discharge through the first and second outlets.

16. A terminal air outlet device for use at a discharge from a building air distribution system, including a. a housing;

b. a chamber defined within the housing;

c. an inlet leading into the chamber and being adapted for connection to a building air distribution system;

(1. a first air outlet from the chamber through which air is adapted to be discharged in a first direction;

a first fixed air guide means at the first air outlet for guiding air in the first direction;

a second air outlet from the chamber through which air is adapted to be discharged in a second direction, which direction is substantially at right angles to the first direction;

a second fixed air guide means at the second air outlet for guiding air in the second direction; and

control means for regulating air discharge through the firstand second outlets; the control means including a second outlet closure member for closing the second air outlet when required so as to allow discharge through the first outlet only, and the second outlet closure member being biassed towards the second outlet for closure thereof and being adapted to be moved away for opening the second air outlet when an increased air flow is supplied from the building air distribution system.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3308744 *Dec 7, 1964Mar 14, 1967Barber Colman CoStrip type air distributor
US3389648 *Jul 11, 1966Jun 25, 1968Svenska Flaektfabriken AbDevice for the supply of ventilating air in rooms
US3575234 *Aug 22, 1969Apr 20, 1971John J DieckmannHeating and cooling systems
US3811369 *Sep 5, 1972May 21, 1974Hess & Cie MetallwarenfabAir outlet for ventilation equipment
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7992795 *Nov 30, 2007Aug 9, 2011Air System Components, Inc.Shape memory alloy actuator
US20100319875 *Jun 18, 2010Dec 23, 2010Julian RimmerDisplacement diffuser with heat/cool changeover
Classifications
U.S. Classification236/1.00B, 236/93.00R
International ClassificationF24F13/14, F24F13/06, F24F11/053, F24F7/06, F24F13/10, F24F11/04
Cooperative ClassificationF24F2013/0612, F24F11/053, F24F13/06, F24F13/10, F24F7/06
European ClassificationF24F13/06, F24F7/06, F24F13/10, F24F11/053