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Publication numberUS39370 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 4, 1863
Publication numberUS 39370 A, US 39370A, US-A-39370, US39370 A, US39370A
InventorsElias Alexander
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Improvement in manufacture of boots and shoes
US 39370 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)




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PATENTED AUG, 4, 1863.


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PATENTED AUG. 4, 1863.





bpccitication forming part of Letters Pate'ntNo. 39,370, dated August 4, 1863.

.To allwhom it may concern:

Be it-known that l, ELIAS ALEXANDER, of Providence, in the county of Providence and State of Rhode Island, have invented anew and useful Improvement in the Manufacture of Boots and Shoes; and I do hereby declare that the followingisa full, clear, and exact description of the same, reference heinghad to the accompanying drawings, making part of this specification, in which- Figure 1 represents one construction of my improved boot, (an open-top boot.) Fig. 2 is a similar view of the same with the lapels L L folded back, showing the arrange -diagra1n of the ankle piece F :of the front of such boot. Fig. 8 is a transverse section of my improvedheel for boots and shoes. Fig. 9 is a plan of one of the lifts of such heel. Fig. 10 is a diagram illustrating the method proposed of cutting such lifts from the hide with economy. Fig. 11 is a diagram of a straight piece of leather which maybe converted into such lifts by bending, Fig. 12 represents the boot-upper? upon thef last, showing the improved method of staying the same over the shank. Fig. 13 is a diagram of the pieces comprising the vamp of the closedtop boot, Fig. 6. 1

Similar letters of reference indicate corresponding parts in all the figures. 4

In the manufacture of boots'it has heretofore been the practice to form the front and back of the same each in one piece, which are united by aseam, g, on each side, or to form each in two pieces, which .nre united by a seam, h. {In cutting such piecesofthe proper size andi'orm a large percentage of the skin is necessarily wasted, the remainingpieces being of such size and form as to be compara portions of the skin go to form the leg and instep of the boot, where it is subjected to but little strain and wear, while the thinner and less durable portions thereof goto form''the toeand vamp, where it is subjected. to the 'severest strain and wear, in consequence'of which this'latter portion of the boot soon breaks or wears out often before the sole is worn through, and. the boot is thus rendered useless, exceptfor footing. By the present method,'also, if the boot breaks out at the side, or any part of the upper-leather wears through, it can only be repaired by patching, which is both weak and unsightly. Again, when-the vamp and toe of the'boot'become so worn and broken that the boot is worthless, except for footing, in most cases-the leg and instep of the upper-leather are as good and useful as ever. The eel i s"goed,acd .the shank is in perfect form and firmly secured to the upper leather, notwithstanding whieh'the inst-ep,-the shank, and the heel are all cut away and lost, in order that the-simple leg maybe again made serviceable byfooting, .and if theback of the leg at O'ismjorn to a ho1e,-or even thin, (and it is at this"p'oint that the leg first wears out-,) the cntirel'boot is rejected as worthless for any purpose whatsoever, Y

To provide a remedy for these and other objections in the present method of making boots and shoes is the object of my'invention, which consists in making the front and back of boots each in anumber of pieces, and in such aform'ation and arrangement of such pieces that those portions of the boot which, from being subjected to the severest'strain and wear, are the soonest worn out may be removed and replaced with uew leather without disturbing'the other parts of the same, substantially as hereinafter specified.

My invention further consists in easing and ventilating thefoot and aukle of'a b'oiotby meaus of an opening extending along the top of the foot from the toe to the upper part of the ankle, which is drawn together and adjusted by two or more lacing s and is covered to exclude rain, snow, 'a.nd dirt, and by perforating that portion of the leg which surtiv-ely worthless to the manufacturer,=and in order to cut the skin advantageously-it not unfrequently happcus thatthe more durable in combination with the said coveredflaced 1 opening the use of a strap aml'buckle across rounds the ankle, as'hereinafter spceifiedQand the instep of such boot for the purpose of holding the foot firmly therein and preventing it from crowding forward against the toe.

My invention also consists in the peculiar construction of the heels of boots and shoes to effect a'savin g in leather as compared with the ordinary method of making leatherheels, substantially as hereinafter specified.

To enable others skilled in the art to make use of my invention, 1 will proceed to describe the same.

In the annexed drawings, Fig. 1 represents an open-top boot, it being made to open along the top of the foot and ankle, as shown in Fig. 2, and Fig. 6 represents a closed-top boot, the front being closed over the foot and ankle, the former being a ventilatiug-bootdesigned for warm weather, and the latter being intended for general use and wet weather.

The front of the open-top boot, besides the leg-piece D, Figs. 1 and 2, may be composed of the following pieces, which are shown in black lines in Fig. 4, viz: two ankle-pieces,- F F; two shank-pieces, I I. two side pieces or vamp-pieces, J J, and the toe-piece K, with th efollowing pieces, being coverings and fastenings, shown in blue lines: the lapels L L, and the straps N N, and the liningpieoesshown in red lines, Figs. 4 and 5, the front foot-lining, A, and the "side foot-lining, a a. These pieces are'formed and arranged as shown in the several figures.

The back of the boot may be composed of the leg-piece D, the two ankle-pieces H H, the back ankle-piece, (J, and the counter M. These are formed and arranged as shown in Figs. 1, 2, 3, and are united to the front above described by the side seams, 9, Figs. 1, 2, and 6.

It is evident that in forming a boot in such a number of pieces not only may the skin be cut. more economically, but the thicker and mrre durable portions may be selected to form such parts of the boot as are subjected to the severest wean-via, the vamp J J, the toe K, and the ankle-piece O,-while the less durable portionsthereot' may be out into ankle and leg pieces, which are but little affected by wear; also, that a better grade of leather may be worked into the foot of the boot, while an inferior grade may go to form such parts as are but little" exposed to wear and sight, thereby considerably cheapeniug the cost of the boot without din'iinishing its usefulness or durability.

The parts of the boot which wear out the soonest are the toe K and vamp J of the foot and the back of the ankle at 0, Figs. 1 and- 3; and in order that these parts maybe removed when worn, and replaced with new leather, li'orm each of the parts in a separate piece and unite the sameto the less perishable parts by seams so locatcd and arranged that the former pieces may be removed without disturbing the. latter.

To accomplish this purpose, I make the seam f, Figs. 1, 2, and 6, which. extends from the junction of the tap m with the shank p of the sole, upward and backward toward the ankle, as shown, uniting the vamp J with the shankpiece I, whereby the tap m and the vamp J may be removed and replaced with-out disturbin g the shank p and the shank-pieces I I. In replacing the toe-piece K it is only necessary to lift up the foremost part of the tapas faras the seam e.

The seam 1'', located as shown and described, has an important bearing upon the manufacturing and repairing of boots and shoes, for by means of this scam the vamp J and toe;piece forward of the same may be renewed from time to time as long as the more durable instep heel, and shank remain serviceable,-

which are thereby saved and made useful instead of being cut away, as heretofore, in footing a boot, or thrown away as useless in a shoe; also, instead of patching the vamp J, as formerly practiced, the broken or worn piece J or J, or the toe-piece K, may be renewed with the same facility that a patch can be put on in the manner above described. This seam f, therefore, for the specified purpose forms one feature of improvement in my invention.

The seams d d in the back of the boot, in connection with the scam h, are also of great importance, for by means of the said seams the ankle-piece 0 may be renewed from time to time as long as the leg and counter remain firm and sound, thereby giving increased strength and durability to the leg-of the boot when and where it is most needed. The anklepieces H B may also be renewed from time to time with equal facility by means of the said seams.

It is obvious from the above description that the removable piece 0 may include the two pieces H H-that is, he formed in one piece, terminatiugin the side seams, g g--and the same desirable result obtained.

The seams d d, in combination with the removablepiece 0, form another feature of improvement in my invention.

It will be seen that the seams g and d d are formed by stitching a welt or narrow strip of leather to the two pieces thus united. The advantage of this form of seam in this connection isthat it gives additional strength to the parts thus united. It receives the wear which would otherwise come upon the leg, and as it is closed from the outside, contrary to the usual form of side seam used, it provides for the removal and replacement of the pieces. Another kind of scam for this purpose is shown in Fig. 14, in making which the thread is sewed through from and whipped over upon the outside. This kind of scam has the advantage of being quickly and easily made, as well as renewed in case it should give out, besides being a strong and durable seam for the side seam to the leg of a boot, and for securing the leg to the counter.

It has been above stated, and it will be soon I by reference toFig. 2, that the opening in the front of the boot extends fromthe toe-piece K to .the.'upper part'of the ankle piece F,,that the edges of said opening are drawn together 7 to adjust the boot to the proper degree of snuguess by meansoftwo or more separate sets of lacings, l, 2, and 3, and it is the par-- ticular location and extent of the opening and the use of two or more distinct lacings,

'asspecified, which distinguish my arrangement from that of openings heretofore employed in thefront' of boots and'gaiters, and

the use of a single lacing therewith for the sake of-mere ornament or for the purpose of admitting 'the foot and fastening the" gaiter- 'boot thereon, the ordinary construction of a laced; opening with buta single lacing being 7 parts connected by the several lacings may be separately adjusted to favor a more sensitive part of the foot, or to ease the boot when thefoot becomes swollen from long-continued walking or standing.

In applying this improvement to shoes it will only be necessary to use the lacing. 1 across the toes and ball of the foot, as the laced opening which constitutes the fastening will furnish sufficient means of ventilation'and' relief to the foot. It should be here stated, by way of explanation, that the several sets of lacings are to be adjusted when the boot or shoe is first put on,and-that they are not afterward to be disturbedin pulling the boot or shoeon andofi.

In combination with a' laced opening, as abovedescribed, it is necessary to use a lapel or covering, L L, to exclude rain, snow, and dirt, and as the instepof a boot is divided by the said opening. a strap and buckle, N N, is required to hold the foot-from shoving forwardand breaking through the toe of the boot; and though both the lapels and the strap and buckle are old and well known,

when combined with the said laced opening each is considered as forming a partof such combination andimprovement, and are consequently therewithiclaimed.

. The legofthebootis ventilated at the ankle by meansof a number of perforations or openings, j j, made directly through the leg of-the boot, as shown in Figs. l and 2, inwhioh perforations eyelets may be inserted, if desired. The front foot-lining, A, Figs 2 and 5, may be of either cloth or leather, the former being preferred for a cool ventilated boot, and when additional warmth is required in boots'of this construction- 71 purpose Ito insert a layer or padding of woolen cloth or other suitable ma: terial between; the foot-lining A and the lapel L, which covers the same. 1 a

The closed-top boot, Fig. 6, is intended for general use and for wet weather, and though its construction is mainly like that of the openltop-boot, it contains some-important points of difference, which areiimprovements in closedtop boots of the ordinary construction. The parts or pieceswhich are common inboth are indicated by the samelett'ers of reference.

It will be seen that thevamp J is formed in two;v pieces, J? and J Figs. 6 and 13, adiagrani'of which is shown in Fig. 13, and it will be seen that there is a continuous seam, I,

extending from the top-of the leg to the toein the front of the boot, which divides the upper part of the leg into two equal pieces, D the ankle into two equal pieces, Fhand the vamp and toe into two equal'pieces, J and J Fig. 13. The advantages of this continuous seam l are, that the leather may be cut with greatereconomy by'making each part of the front-via, D F, and. J d -intwo pieces,

instead of a singlepieee; that in forming the ankle in two pieces, as represented in Fig. 7,

' and'uniting the sa-me'by the scam I, the operatlonof 'crimpi'n'g' the front to form the bend of the ankle is avoided, and a more natural and easy shape is given to this portion of the boot, without a tendency to wrinkle By means of this separate crimped ankle-piece lam enabled'toinsert a more pliable piece-of leather in 'the ankle of thick 'boots, and by so doing overcome the stiffness and con'sequent'liability to chafe the-ankle,so universally experienced in wearing such boots, By forming the vamp J. intwo' pieces, nnited'by a seam, l', I am 'enabled, by cutting the edges'S S, Fig.13, which areunited in said seam, with a suitable cur-vature, to remove the'surplus of leather-which goes toform wrinkles over-the ball of the foot,

and to make-'thisportion of a boot or sho'e conform more nearly to'the shape of the foot without wrinkling. p v a The seam f, which has been more particu= .lar] y described'above,has the same advantages in the closed-top as in the open-top boot, and, in addition to those hereinbefore specified, there is one other'of considerable importanceviz., near the-ball of the great toe, upon the inside of the footo'f the boot, there is (owing to the hollowing in of the foot at this point) a surplus of leather, and-upon the opposite side of the foot thereis'acorrespondingroundness or fullness. To make-the boot conform more .nearl y to the shape ofthe 'foot at these two points, I cut-thetwo edges t t, which are united in thescam fupon'the inside of the foot, in the form shown inFigs. 4 and 13, to remove the surplus leather, and-I cut the two edges r r upon the outside of the foot in the form shown in the said "figures to create a fullness at this point. I v I flu-Fig. 6 of the drawings, B is a slip-leg or coveringfor protecting the ankle from cold and: dampness, for which pnrpo-e, especially intraveling, it is exceedingly useful. It consists of asleeve of leatherlincd with woolen,

- fur,'or a similar material, or ofthick woolen cloth or canvas of the proper size and form to slip smoothly over the boot-leg and fit easily around the ankle of the same. It is easily put on and off, and when not in use it may he folded into a small package and carried without inconvenience in the pocket.

in r newingthe toe and vamp of the boot or shoe a number of times, using the same shank, 1), it is necessary that the shanlepiece I be secured as firmly as possible tothe said shank. To effect this purpose, I insert eyelets ii in the closing; ed ges ot' the two shank-pieces I I, as, shown in Fig. 4., and by means of a short waxed lacingor thono', u, passing through the said eyelets, I lace the two edges snugly over the inner sole, 0, in the operation of lasting the boot or shoe, and secure the ends in a knot, as shown in Fig. 12, which connects the two edges securely by a direct pull across the shank, and thereby sustains and relieves the stitching or peggiug upon each side of the shank from the severe strain to which the same would otherwise be subjected. This lacing also greatly facilitates the operation of lasting, besides drawing the upper-leather down over the shank more evenly than it can possibly be done by pinchers in the ordinary way. 1

An improved method of constructing the heel of boots and shoes is shown in Fig. 8, which consists in forming aheel ot' a number of horseshoe-shaped lifts of leather, V V, Fig. 9, and a top lift, covering the hollow space inclosed by the previous lift V V. Within this hollow space there may be arranged a suita le support, consisting of two metal plates, T T, united by two posts, W W, or a flat piece of wood placed directly beneath the top lift, with its edges resting upon one of the under lifts, or a block of wood occupying the entire hollow space, either being sultlcient for the purpose. An interior support is, however, entirely unnecessary, as the top lift will be sutticientl y supported if the horseshoe-shaped lil'ts V be ofa proper width-say halt. an inch. The open spacein the front of the. heel may be closed with pieces of leather pegged to the sole and to each other. In this way heels may be constructed not only of solo leather, but of lifts o1" upper-leather, in every way as substantial and durable as a heel made in the ordinary way, and with a saving of from eighty to one hundred and ten per cent. in material as compared with the ordinary method. As this heel is made entirely of leather, and is built upon the sole in the usual way, with the same tools usually employed, it can be readily made by any boot or shoe maker.

The horseshoe-shaped lil'ts V, Fig. 9, may be cut from the leather in the manner shown by the diagram Fig. 10, with but little waste of stock, while the leather which, in the ordinary construction, forms the interior of the heel, is, by my method of cutting, converted into aportion of the outsideviz., the ends of the lifts V-which results in a saving oleighty per cent. in nmterialthat is, eighty percent. more hits of the horseshoe form may be cut from the same piece of leather than of the ordinary form.

The horseshoeshaped lifts V may be made with still greater economy from strips like that shown in Fig. 11, which may be cut from the hide without any waste, and which-may be cut from scraps of both sole and upper leather, which arenow thrownaway as being too small for any purpose. These strips may be'rcadily curved into the form required forthe lifts V, separately, with the fingers as they are wanted, and by means of a very simple machine a number may be curved into the proper form at one operation.

It will be seen that the outside counter, M, Fig. 3, is formed in two pieces, M M which are united in a seam at w an, over which is stitched aslitt'ener or patch U, as shownfully in Fig. (3, and by dotted lines in Fig. 3, for the twofoldpurpose of concealing the seam w and stiffening the counter.

By forming the counter in two pieces instead of a single piece a considerable saving in stock is ett'ected, as,the counter being the smallest piece in the whole boot, it often happens that a piece otherwise of sufficient size and every way suitable for a counter lacks a corner or is a trifle too short. Such pieces, though worthless for whole eounters,-may be converted into half counters and stifl'eners, resulting in a saving of such pieces and their substitution for counters cut direct from the skin. Forming the outside counter of boots in twoor more pi ces forms another feature ofimprovement in my invention.

In the closed top boot. represented in Fig. 6, it will be seen that the foot of the boot is united with its leg by means of the seam Ir,

extending from one side seam 9 directly across the instep to the opposi e side seam g, and that in connection with such seam a sep arate crimped ankle-piece, F, Fig. 7, formed in two pieces united by a single straight seam, l, in f'ront--or its equivalent, a single piece crilnped in the usual wayis employed to carry into effect the several purposes to be accomplished in forming the front of the boot in a number of pieces, substantially as herein specified,

Having thus described my invention, I wish it midcrstood that I do not restrict myself to the exact number or form of the pieces, nor to the precise location of the seams, as herein set forth, butl claim all merely formal variations therefrom by means of which those parts ot' a boot or shoe which are the soonest worn and broken may he removed and replaced with new leather without disturbing the other parts of the same; that the more durable portions of the skin may go to form those parts of the boot or shoe which are subjected to the severest wear, and that greater economy may be exercised in cutting the leather than by the ordinary method, substantially as herein specified.


I claim- 1. Forming the front and back of boots and shoes each in a number of pieces, termed and arranged substantially as herein described, to efl'ect the purpose specified.

2. The two side seams f f,in combination with a removable piece or pieces forming the vamp of a boot and shoe, substantially as described, for the purpose specified.

an opening in the front of a boot extending from the toe to the ankle, as set forth, two or more separate lacings, l 2 3, the lapels L L, and the strap and buckle N N, substantially as described, for the purpose specified.

5. The heel R, composed of a number of horseshoe-shaped lifts, V, of leather and a top lift either with or Without an interiorsupport, substantially as herein shown and described, for the purpose specified.

6. Forming the outside counter, M, of boots in two or more pieces, substantially as described, for the purpose specified.




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US7216443Mar 31, 2005May 15, 2007Oakley, Inc.Elevated support matrix for a shoe and method of manufacture
US8140796Dec 27, 2007Mar 20, 2012IgtSerial advanced technology attachment write protection: mass storage data protection device
US8423738Feb 14, 2012Apr 16, 2013IgtSerial advanced technology attachment write protection: mass storage data protection device
US20060218820 *Mar 31, 2005Oct 5, 2006Colin BadenElevated support matrix for a shoe and method of manufacture
US20090172227 *Dec 27, 2007Jul 2, 2009IgtSerial advanced technology attachment write protection: mass storage data protection device
US20090213450 *May 5, 2009Aug 27, 2009Idc, LlcSupport structures for electromechanical systems and methods of fabricating the same
US20090273823 *May 5, 2009Nov 5, 2009Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc.Method of manufacturing mems devices providing air gap control
Cooperative ClassificationA43B13/34