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Publication numberUS398228 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 19, 1889
Publication numberUS 398228 A, US 398228A, US-A-398228, US398228 A, US398228A
InventorsFeus Caestensen
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 398228 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

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BICYCLE. No. 398,228. Patented Feb. 19, 1889.

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v BICYCLE. 7 No. 398,228. Patented Feb.'19, 1889.

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No. 398,228. Patented Feb. 19, 1889.

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nirnn Frarns Arniwr mans Fni'fs CARSTENSEN, or BRIDGEPORT, CONNECTICUT.


SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 398,228, dated February 19, 1889. Application filed November 21, 1883- Serial No. 29l,478 (No model.)

To all 2071-0722, it may concern.-

Be it known that 1, Lines Fnt s (lans'rnnsEN,a citizen of the United States, residing at Bridgeport, in the countyof Fail-field and State of Connecticut, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Bicycles; and I do I hereby declare the followin tobe a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.

My invention has for its object to simplify and cheapcn the construction of this class of machines and to greatly improve their operation in use. 'With these ends in viewI have devised the novel construction of which the following description, in connection with the accompanying drawings, is a spccificatiom;

numbers being used to denote the severah I the ball-case, being secured thereto by screws,


Figure l is an end elevation of onc of the 1 hubs; Fig. 2, a side elevathm thereof; Fig. 3, a longitudinal section on. the line .2 .2 in. Fig. 4, looking toward the left; Fig. -i-, a section on the line 03 as in Fig. 3; Fi 5, a similar section illustrating certain changes in the details of construction; Fig. 6, a section on the line y '3 in Fig. 3; and Fig. '7 is an elevation and edge view of a special style of spring used in the threaded to engage the threaded portion of the axle and is turned up tightly against the flange; and 5, the spokes, which are connected in any suitable manner to thehub.

6 denotes the drum; 7, the ball-case; 8, the fork, which is bolted to a lug, 9, on the ballcase; 10, the fulcrum, which is forged integral with or rigidly secured to the ball-case; 11, the pedal-lever, the foot-rest and the pivotal point to the fulcrum not being shown; and 12, the chain, one end of which is attached to the pedal-lever and the other to the periphery of the drum, the point of attachment not being shown, as it is notan essential feature of my invention. By making the f ulcrum' rigid with the ball-case and placing the latter outside the drum I do away With the wabbling motion which exists in many machines of this class and secure greatly-increased firmness and rigidity. The drum is made in a single piece, its construction being clearlyshown in Fig. 3.

\Yithin the hub is an extension, 13, of the drum, having a flange, 1%, which forms, with the back of the drum, a circular box, in which the pawls 15 are pivoted, as will presently be more fully explained.

\Vithin the drum is a strong spring, 16, one end of which is attached to the inner periphery of the drum by ahook, 17, formed by bending over the end of. the spring itself, which engages any one of a series of lugs, 18, formed upon the drum. (See Fig. (3.) The other end of the spring is connected to an angle-plate, 19, which lies'against the hub 30 of the drum, and the outer end of which is recessed into as shown in Fig. 3, or in any suitable manner. The inner end of the angle-plate is provided with a notch, which is engaged by a hook, 21, at the inner end of the spring, as clearly shown in Fig. (i. The outer end of the drn n1 is closed by a plate, 6, secured to the drum by screws, as shown in Fig. .1. Upon the inner periphery of the hub is'a ratchet, 22, rigidly secured thereto, preferably by screw-threads formed upon both parts, as shown in the drawings. This ratchet is adapted to be engaged by the pawls 15, as clearly shown in Fig. 4C,said paw1s being pivoted to the extension in the drum within the hub in any suitable mann er, pref erably as shown in Fig. 3.

23 denotes a friction device, which bears against the ratchet. This device may be made of metal, wood, vulcanite fiber, or any suitable material. In practice I ordinarily use ebony wood. It is provided with a shank, 24, adapted to slide in a-holder,25. A spring, 26, (see dotted lines, Fig. 4,) acts to press the friction device outward against the ratchet. If preferred, the friction device itself may be made of spring metal. The holder is shown as having arms 27, and is connected by links 28 to the pawls. It will of course be apparent that the axle and hub must turn forward to gether, the direction of movement being indicated by the'arrow in Fig. 4. The drum has independent movement on the axle, and the ball-case is of course stationary. The ratchet is wholly silent in operation. \Vhen the pedallever is pressed down, the pawls instantly engage the ratchet, so that the entire power is applied to the hub by means of the chain, drum, and pawls, thereby carrying the machine forward. The downward movement of the pedal-lever being against the power of spring 16, it of course follows that the instant the downward pressure upon the pedal-lever is relieved the spring will turn the drum backward, thereby winding the chain thereon. In use the pedal-levers are ordinarily pressed downward alternately, so that the application of power to the wheel is continuous. Theinstant the power is removed and the spring 16 begins to act to turn the drum and extension 13 backward and to wind the chain the friction device will drag upon the ratchet, the effect of which is to tilt holder 25, and by means of the links to throw the pawls out of engagement with the ratchet. The instant power is applied to the pedal-lever again holder 25 is tilted in the opposite direction, and the pawls are caused to engage the ratchets, as before. It will thus be seen that the pawls never drag upon the ratchet, but are either perfectly engaged therewith or wholly disengaged, the engagement or disengagement taking place the instant the movement of the drum is reversed. In the form illustrated in Fig. 5 the construction is the same, exceptthat the friction device acts against an inner shoulder, 29, upon the hub instead of against the ratchet. The friction device in this form consists of a circular spring, which I have denoted by 23, (see Fig. 7,) said spring being the holder. (See Fig. 5.) In order to avoid an extra figure in the drawings-I have shown shoulder 29 and friction deviee23 in Fig. 3, it being of course understood that either form of friction device maybe used. It will furthermore be apparentthat the section-line of Fig. 5 is such that spring 23 would not Show therein. I have, however, indicated its position by dotted lines. The operation isprecisely the same as in the other form. The-instant power is removed spring 16 acts to re-:

verse the movement of the drum. The friction of spring 23 upon shoulder ltlwill retard the motion of the hub by dragging thereon,

which will tilt the holder and disengage the pawls, as before.

Itshould be noted as an importantfeature of my invention that the organization is com pact, the hub and drum lying close together and the ball-case being placed on-the outer side of the drum. This feature of construe tion is especially valuable, as it enables me to place the bearings at the greatest possible constructed the fulcrum has b'eenattached to the fork, the organization being such that it was impossible to attach it to the ball-case.

In the present instance it will be noticed that the ball-case and fulcrum are made integral. At each end of the axleone end only being shown in the drawingsare two reversed cones, 30-and 31. The end of the axle is provided with a screwihread, 32, and the cones areinternally screw-threaded to engage therewith, the inner cone, the incline of which is outward, being screwed up tight against a shoulder on the axle, as at 38. On the interior of the ball-case, at the inner end thereof, is an incline, 3a. The outer end of the ballcase is provided with an internal screwthread, 35, which is engaged by a ring, 36, having external screw-threads corresponding with those upon the ball-case, and also having an incline, 37, corresponding with incline 34 upon the ball-case.

The opening in ring 36 is closed by the out-er cone, 31, which, as already stated, is screw-threaded to engage the thread upon the axle, the incline of the outer cone being inward and corresponding with the outward incline upon the inner cone. The anti-friction device consists of a, duplicate series of balls, 38, the opposite balls being connected by a cross-bar, '39. One ball in each pair is therefore in engagement with incline 34- upon the ball-case and the incline upon the inner cone, and .the other ball being in engagement with incline 37 upon ring 36 and the incline upon the outer cone. The special advantages of this construction are its great strcngtl1,tl1e steadiness with which it causes the machine to run, and the perfection and simplicity of its 7 adjustment. The adjustment is effected by provided with a lug, 24., for engagement with found necessary, and looking it with a checktu'rning in the outer cone as much as maybe fork attached to the ball-case, so that the bearings are placed at the great-est possible distance apart and the weight is placed directly upon the bearings.

,2. In a bicycle, a rotating axle, hub, and

ratchet, a drum turning on the axle, and a ball-case placed outside of thehub and drum, and thavi'nga fulcrum made integral therewith and afork attachedthereto.

The combination, with the hub and drum,

of the ball-case-placed outside of both and a fulcrum and fork connected to the ball-case, .as and forthepurpose set forth.

Aballrcasc having incline 34 and ring 3 6,threadedtoengagethe interior of the ball- ,ica se, and-havingan-incline, 37 ,in combination with the axle having reversed cones and a connected by cross-l )ars engagin said incl in es and cones.

6. The ball-ease having incline 3i, ring 36, threaded to engage the ball-case, and having incline 37, in combination with the cones having reversed inclines, as shown, balls connected by cross-bars engaging said inclines adjustment.

. 7. The axle having a shoulder, -33, and a 1- scrcw-thread, 32, the ball-case having an incline, 34c, and the fork secured to the ball-case, in combination with ring 36, having incline 37, inner and outer cones having reversed inclines, the inner cone engaging shoulder 33, and a duplicate series of balls connected by with the rotating axle, hub, and ratchet, pawls pivoted to said extension and engaging the ratchet, and a friction device to which the pawls are connected, whereby when the backward movement of the drum commences the pawls are disengaged from the ratchet, as and for the purpose set forth.

12. The rotating axle, hub, and ratchet, in combination with the drum, pawls pivoted thereto and engaging the ratchet, and a friction device consisting of a holder, 25, pivoted to the drum, links connecting said holder with the pawls, and. a spring-actuated friction-piece which engages the ratchet when the backward movement takes place, whereby the holder is tilted and the pawls disengaged from the l ratchet. and cones, and means, as a check-nut, engaging the axle, and a key engaging the ring, whereby the parts are secured in place after I 13. The hub rigidlysecu red to the rotating axle and the ratchet secured to the hub, in

combination with the drum and extension 13,

turning on the axle, a spring within the drum,

1 nor end being connected to a fixed angle-- cross-bars and engaging the inclines and the CODES.

clines, as shown, the ring being threaded to engage the ballcase, in combination with the axle having a screw-thread, inner and outer cones engaging the axle, a duplicate series of balls connected by cross-bars which engage the inclines and cones, said ring having notches, as shown, which are engaged by a key, 41, to lock it in position, and a checknnt engaging the outer cone to lock that in position.

9. The axle and the inner and outer cones, the latter being adjustable, the ball-case having an incline, and the adjustable ring engaging the ballcase, and also having an incline, in combination with a duplicate series of balls connected by cross-bars, the bearing being adjusted by turning the outer cone and ring inward, as described.

10. In a ljneycle, the combination, with a rota-tin axle and hub, and ratchet and pawls within the hub, of a drum having lugs 18 on its inner periphery, spring 1( i, engaging either of said. lugs, and an an gleplato secured to the ball-case and extending within the drum, to which the inner end of the spring is connected.

11. The drum having extension 13 and a spring, 16, within the drum, in combination whose outer end is connected thereto, its inplate, pawls pivoted lo the extension and en-- gagin the rz'ttchet, and a friction device within the hub, which disengages the pawls when the reverse movementbegins.

ll. The ball-case having an gle-plate 19, connected thereto and the fulcrum made integral l therewith in combination with the hub drum I z I 7 7 J S. The liiall-case and ring 3t,hav1ng 1nratchet, pawls, and friction device acting as described, anda spring within the drum, whose outer end is adj ustably connected thereto, its inner end being connected to the angle-plate.

15. The ball-case and fulcrum made integral. and the fork connected to the ball-case, in combination with the rotating axle, hub, and ratchet, the drum turning on the axle, the spring within the drum, and the pawls and friction devices, arranged as described, whereby the entire weight is supported by the bearings which are placed at the greatest possible distance apart, as and for the purpose set forth.

16. The drum having extension 13 and flange 1e and the hub and ratchet, in combination with the pawls pivoted between said flange and the drum and a friction device carried by a holder pivoted to the drum, and links connecting said holder with the pawls, as and for the purpose set forth.

In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.



A. M. W oosrnn, 'BERTHA E. LEE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6155394 *Mar 22, 1999Dec 5, 2000Shook; William B.Bicycle coasting mechanism
Cooperative ClassificationF16D41/12