US 398272 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) v M. MESTERN.
ELEMENT FOR THERMO ELECTRIC BATTERIES.
- Patented Fgb..19,
. UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
MAX MESTERN, or TURIN, ITALY.
- ELEMENT FOR THEaMo-EL cTmc BATTERIES.
SPECIFICATION .forming' part of Letters Patent No. 398,27 2, dated February 19, 1889.
' Applicltionfiled November 22, 1888. Serial Ho.291,545. CH model.) Patented in France February 16,1888, lie-188,7
gium February 1,6, 1888, N0- 80,665 in Italy April 12, 1883, III, 23,059, and in Spain June 30, 1888, N0- ma/7,983.
To all whom it'may concern:
Be it known that I, MAX MESTERN, a subject of the Emperor of Germany, residing at Turin, in the Kingdom of Italy, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Elements for Thermo Electric Batteries, (for which patents have been obtained with my knowledge and consent in France, dated February 16, 188R, No. 188,764; in Belgium, dated February 16, 1888, N 0. 80,665; in Spain, dated f June 30, 1888, No.'983/ 7','983, and in Italy,
, dated April 12, 1888, No. 23,059, v01. XXI;),- and I do hereby declare the following to be-a' full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same, reference bing'had to the accompanying drawings, and to letters or figures of reference marked thereon, which, form a part of this specification.
In the drawings, Figures 1 to 4,inclusive, are
vertical longitudinal sections of elements differing slightly in' their general construction. Fig. 5 is a vertical axial section of aheater in which .a battery made up of my improved elements is arranged. Fig. 6 is atransverse section of the heater, taken about on line war of Fig. 5.
Theinvention relatesto elementsfor generators of electricity, more especially designed for-use ingenerating electricity by the application of heat, though I do not limit myself to this application. 5
In the art of gcneratingelectricity by means of heat the battery elements as heretofore coustructedpresentmanydisadvantages,themost serious of which is the perishable nature of these elements, in that they are readily broken as well as readily destroyed when brought in direct contact with the source of heat-unless the less effectiveradiatcd or transmitted heat is resorted to. Then, on the other hand, interruptions in the electric circuit are liable to 00- our, owing to the readily-fusible natureof the alloys usually employed for these elements. Practical experience has also demonstrated that where elements as'usually constructed are brought in contact with the fuel or the products of combustion such elements are notonly -rapidly destroyed by the' alternating oxidizing and reducing flame and. the alloy heat. formed of an alloy of nickel and copper, andchanged in its nature or composition, but the flame, beinga conductor of electricity, an auxiliary or derived circuit is established, that tends to materially impair the effect of the battery. v The object of this invention is to overcome the difiiculties referred to; and itconsists in the construction of the battery elementssubstantially as hereiimftcrdcscribed, and as set forth in the claims.
Referring to Figs. 1 to 4, inclusive, p indicates the readily-fusiblo positive electrode,
formed of an alloy .01 antimony and zinc, and
'nis the negative electrode, formed of an alloy of copper and nickel. These two electrodes are firmly connectedby a dovetailed 'tongueand-groove joint, nip, respectively. By connecting the electrodes as described I not only obtain a very intimate and firm connection between the electrodes, but also increased contracting surfaces. closed-in a protective metallic casing, m, of iron, nickel, or other mcl al capable of resisting high temperatures, and between said casing and the electrodes I interpose a lining,a, ofa
The electrodes arcinfire-proof composition ornm-lerial, preferably asbestus, that serves to isolate the electropositive alloy from its inclosing casing. As
shown in Fig. 4, the casing inclosing the electrodes maybe made of a single piece, the end or cap -m' being rc-enforced to better protectthe electrodes against heal; or said cap 'm may be a separate .or distinct portion of the casing, as shown in Fig. l, the cap serving also as a means for holding the casing; or it may take ,the form of a plug, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, which serves as a conductor of The connecting-strips l and l are which is more directly exposed to the action,
of the heat of an alloy of greater refractory power than the alloy of the other electrode, .thus laying it less liable to speedy destruction. 011 the other hand,=both electrodes being protected by the inclosing-casing and the more fusible electrode by the addition of a fire-proof lining,while the electrode subjected to the action of greatest heat has the additional protection of cap orplug m','their speedy destruction is. effectually guarded against; hence the more fusible electrode is not liable to be melted, and thereby destroy the circuit; but should the temperature become such as toresult in apartial fusion of the positive electrode the'circuitwill not be destroyed, owing to the intimate connection between the two electrodes.
As shown in Figs. 5 and6,a,number of the described elementsare arranged in battery within a cylindrical stove or heater, 0, having axially arranged therein a'basket-grate,
. 'R, of cylindro-conical form.
- The heater, according to the uses made thereof, is constructed of asbestus,poreelain, or other non-conductor of heat and electric-' ity, and is so arranged that anyone of the elements E that constitute the battery may be readily removed from its bearings whenever this becomes necessary. I
S is the feed-hopper for the stove; z, the smoke-pipe; f, the ash-pit, which here serves as a fire-pot, and is provided with a tilting grate, K, the fuel being fed to the fire-pot through feed-pipe f.
The air necessary to the combustion is admitted through ports h and 'i, Fig. 5; and 'r and 'r' are the top and bottom plates, that serve to secure the heater-body through the medium comprising a positive and negative electrode in contact with each other, a metallic inclosing-c'asing of greater refractory power than that of the electrodes, and a fire-proof nonconductive lining arranged to isolate one of said electrodes from the casing, substantially as and for the purposes specified.
An element for thermo-electric batteries,
comprising a positive and negative electrode v in contact with each other, a metallic inclosing-casing of greater refractory power than that of the electrodes, a cap .or plug of greater thickness than the casing for the smaller end of the element, and a fire-proof non-conductive lining arranged to isolate one of said elec trodes from the casing, substantially as and for the purposes specified.
3. An element for thermo-electric batteries, comprising two electrodes composed of alloys of metals of varying refractory power, that electrode more directly exposed to the heat being formed of an alloy of greater refractory power than that'of the other electrode, in combination with a conductive sheathing constructed of a metal of greater refractory power than eitherof the electrodes, and a fire-proof lining interposed between said sheathing and the more fusible electrode, substantially as and for the purposes specified.
4. .An element for thermo-electi ic batteries, comprising two electrodes composed of alloys of metals of varying refractory power,'that electrode more directly exposed to the heat being formed of an alloy'of greaterrefractory power than that of the other electrode, in combination with. a conductive sheathing oonstructed of ametal of greater refractory power than either of the electrodes, said sheathing being re-enforced at that point which is more directly exposed to the heat, and a fire-proof lining interposed between said sheathing andv the more fusible electrode, substantially as and for the purposes specified. v
5. An element for thermo-electric batteries, comprising a positive electrode formed of an alloy of antimony and zinc, and a negative electrode formed of an alloy of copper and nickel,
in combination with an inclosing-casing of a conductive metal of greater refractory power than that of either of the electrodes, and a fire-proof insulating =lining interposed be-. tween said casing and the positive electrode,-
substantially as and forthe pu rposes specified.
In testimony whereof I aifix rny signature-in" presence of two witnesses. I MAX MESTERN;
EMMA M. GILLE'IT, HENRY ORTH.