|Publication number||US3993110 A|
|Application number||US 05/549,155|
|Publication date||Nov 23, 1976|
|Filing date||Feb 12, 1975|
|Priority date||Feb 27, 1974|
|Also published as||DE2507322A1, DE2507322B2, DE2507322C3|
|Publication number||05549155, 549155, US 3993110 A, US 3993110A, US-A-3993110, US3993110 A, US3993110A|
|Inventors||Sven Gustaf Gustafsson|
|Original Assignee||Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (8), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention relates to a method for introducing radioactive gas, preferably tritium, into a vacuum sealed closed vessel, for example a gas-filled overvoltage protector without using any pump pipes. Tritium acts in this connection in known manner as ionizing radiation medium which serves to stabilize the striking voltage of the overvoltage protector.
The proposed method makes possible the re-use of the radioactive gas which is supplied to the charging system of the production process. The re-use has essential advantages, among others, that the loss or escape of tritium can be substantially eliminated.
The hitherto known method to apply tritium in a gas discharge tube is based on the use of tritium as an addition to the filling gas. The method is applicable without great difficulties when producing discharge tubes provided with pump pipes. The gas filling occurs individually via the pump pipe which during the filling procedure is connected to a completely closed gas filling system. Any escape of radioactive gas cannot occur.
Gas discharge tubes without pump pipes are gas filled and simultaneously closed in great numbers in one and the same operation sequence in a closed sealing oven. This filling method saves work but substantial quantities of excess gas have to be evacuated after each gas filling-sealing procedure. As the filling gas is polluted when sealing it can not without a complicated filtration procedure be reused but has to be discharged via ventilation arrangements to the surroundings. Overvoltage protectors can contain a tritium concentration up to 10 μCi/mm3 = 10,000 Ci/m3, whereby this filling method entails great difficulties to obtain limitation of the total loss or escape of tritium as well as of the tritium concentration in the venting air.
The proposed filling method is based on the premise that light gases for example helium, hydrogen, tritium, and so on can diffuse through solid material such as glass, ceramic, metals and so on. The total gas quantity q which at constant temperature penetrates a wall of glass or ceramic is determined by the relation
q = A/d K t (P1 - p2)
A = the area of the wall
d = the thickness of the wall
K = the constant of the penetration speed
t = time
P1 - p2 = the difference in pressure between high- and low pressure side
K is a temperature dependent function of the type
K = C e+ Q/RT
C = a constant
Q = the activation energy of the wall material
R = the gas constant
T = the temperature in K
By suitable choise of the parameters pressure, temperature and time for the filling procedure a desired quantity of tritium can consequently be caused to diffuse into a vacuum sealed vessel at the room temperature and having walls which at least partly consist of glass or ceramic.
The tritium preparation of for example overvoltage protection is carried out according to the invention in a vacuum sealed reaction vessel which via a ventilation system is connected on one hand to a vacuum pump and on the other hand to a container with tritium. The reaction vessel is provided with an outer heating arrangement. The tritium container can be a reversible getter pump, usually a so called "uranium furnace".
The invention is described more in detail in the following with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2.
FIG. 1 shows an example of a gas filling vessel constituting as overvoltage protector, the construction of which permits the application of the charge method according to the invention.
FIG. 2 shows schematically an example of equipment for tritium filling according to the invention.
In the overvoltage protector, which is shown in FIG. 1, two metal electrodes 1 and 2 provided with flanges and with a ring shaped insulator body 3 form a gas sealed discharge vessel. The electrodes and the insulator are gas sealed joined by means of hard-soldered connections 4 and 5 between the flanges of the electrodes and the sintered metal coverings on the end surfaces of the insulator ring. The height of the insulator ring and the two electrodes inserted in the discharge space are so dimensioned that the distance between the circular surfaces facing each other in known manner forms a discharge distance 6 the length of which together with the gas pressure determine the striking voltage of the overvoltage protector. Evacuation, gas-filling and closing of the discharge vessel occur in an operation sequence in a closed soldering oven. The gas-filling 7 comprises tritium as preionization medium which preferably via the insulation wall is diffused into the charge space after the joining.
Tritium preparation occurs in an arrangement which is diagrammatically shown in FIG. 2. The overvoltage protectors 25 to be processed are in a reaction vessel 8 which is provided with a dismountable flange coupling 9 with metal insert and an electrical resistance element 10 serving as an outer heating source. Vacuum valves 11 and 12 permit selective connection of a vacuum pump 13 and a reversible getter pump 14 functioning as tritium container. The getter pump 14 contains powder 15 of hydride forming metal, preferably uranium. The tritium pressure in the system is measured with a manometer 16 and is regulated by adjustment of a temperature regulator 17 which controls the effect to a resistance element 18. The temperature in the reaction vessel 8 is measured with a termoelement 19 and is regulated by adjustment of a temperature regulator 20 which controls the effect generated by the resistance element 10.
The preparation procedure occurs in three steps.
1. Degassing of the overvoltage projector tubes in vacuum.
2. Preparation in the tritium atmosphere. Adjustment of pressure, temperature and time is determined by the desired quantity of diffused-in tritium and by the wall structure of the tubes.
Degassing of the outer surfaces of the tubes in neutral atmosphere and at room temperature.
As an example can be mentioned that closure of the tubes occurs at the temperature 800° C, after which the degassing occurs at 400° C and diffusion of tritium gas occurs at a pressure of 10-50 Torr., at a temperature of 400°-500° C and for 2-10 hours. If particularly advantageous pressure, temperature and time value are chosen such as 30 Torr., 450° C and 5 hours respectively, a tritium activity of 10-100 μCi/mm3 is obtained in dependence on the wall structure.
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|US3108621 *||May 6, 1960||Oct 29, 1963||Harries John H O||Evacuation of vacuum and gas-filled envelopes|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5246042 *||Nov 20, 1992||Sep 21, 1993||Litton Systems Canada Limited||Method of filling a suspended particle display|
|US6965302||Dec 13, 2002||Nov 15, 2005||Current Technologies, Llc||Power line communication system and method of using the same|
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|US20020110311 *||Jul 26, 2001||Aug 15, 2002||Kline Paul A.||Apparatus and method for providing a power line communication device for safe transmission of high-frequency, high-bandwidth signals over existing power distribution lines|
|US20150123539 *||Nov 6, 2013||May 7, 2015||General Electric Company||Systems and methods for regulating pressure of a filled-in gas|
|EP0470414A2 *||Jul 19, 1991||Feb 12, 1992||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Method of producing a vacuum-tight sealed gaslaser|
|U.S. Classification||141/4, 141/66|
|International Classification||H01T4/00, H01J9/38, H01J9/395|