US 400204 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
(No Model.) 10 Sheets-Sheet 1.
No. 400,204. I Patented Mar. 26, 1889.
(No Model.) 10 Sheets-Sheet 2.
' No. 400,204. Patented Mar. 26, 1889,
10 Sheets-Sheet 3.
Patented Mar. 26, 1889.
(No Model.) 10 Sheets-Sheet 4. W. GOLDING.
No. 400,204. Patented Mar. 20, 1889.
N. PETERS Pholoh ihognphey. Wanlfmgtnn D C.
' 0 10 Sheets-Sheet 5. W. GOLDING.
No. 400,204. Patented Mar. 26, 1889.
n. PETERS. Pmwmm w. Wuhinglun, o a
-(No Model.) 10 SheetsSheet 0.
VELOGIPEDE. No. 400,204. Patented Mar. 26, 1889.
( No Model.)
I 10 Sheets-Sheet 7. W.- GOLDING.
No. 400,204. Patented Mar. 26, 1889.
N. PETERS PholmLilhngrapher, Walhi nnnnnnn C4 (No Model.) 10 Sheets-Sheet 8.
4 W. GOLDING.
VELOOIPBDE. No. 400,204. Patented Mar. 26, 1889.
(No Model.) 10 Sheets-Sheet 9.
No. 400,204. Patented Mar. 26, 1889.
51/; 0671-16-01 "Lays.
UNITED STATES PATENT ()EEICE.
IVILLIAH GOLDING, OF MOSS SIDE, COUNTY OF LANCASTER, ASSIGNOR TO THE CLAVIGER CYCLE COMPANY, (LIMITED) OF IW'IANCIIESTER, ENGLAND.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 400,204, dated March 26,1889.
Application filed July 14,1887. Serial No. 244,340.
No. 8,049, July 16,
1886, No.9,234, January 27, 1887,110. 1,304, and June 27, 1887, No.
(No model.) Patented in England October 9, 1885, No. 11,990,-Iune17,-1886,
9,091; in Belgium July 15,1887,
Not 78,050; in France October 2'7, 1887,110. 184,164, andin Germany April 21, 1888, No. 43,827.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that 1, WILLIAM GOLDING, a subject of the Queen of England, residing at Moss Side, in the county of Lancaster, England, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in or relating to Velocipedes, (the same having been patented in the following countries, to wit: England, No. 11,990, October 9, 1885, No. 8,049, June 17, 1886, No.
IO 9,234, July 16, 1886, No. 1,304, January 27, 1887, and No. 9,091, June 27, 1887; France, No. 184,164, October 27, 1887; Belgium, No. 78,050, Julylo, 1887, and Germany, No. 43,827, April 21, 1888,) of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates, generally, to the application of a distinctive combination of rods or levers with movable fulcra to the propulsion of and other functions in connection with velocipedes, such levers operating by a combination of direct thrust or pull and of leverage, and being designated claviger rods or levers.
It also relates to certain other details in the construction and steering and gearing up of velocipedes directly or indirectly arising from the employment of the said claviger rods or levers.
And in order that my said invention may be well understood, I now proceed to describe the same more particularly, and for that purpose refer to the accompanying sheets f drawings.
Figure 1 represents the driving mechanism 5 for a bicycle with the driving-wheel in the rear, and Fig. 2 represents a similar movement applied to a tricycle. Figs. 3, 11, and 12 illustrate a modification of the drivinggear. Figs. 4 and 5 illustrate one variety of the rollerclaviger. for gearing up a bicycle. Figs. 7 and 8 illustrate another form of gearing. Fig. 9 is a view of an automatic steering device. Fig. 1.0 shows the preferred form of joint for claviger movements. Figs. 13 and 14 show the preferred form of a tricycle steering mechanism. Figs. 15, 16, and 17 show one form of sun-and-planet gear with the claviger-levers.
Fig. (5 shows a sun-and-planet gear Fig. 18 represents a modification of Fig. 4. Figs. 19 and 21 show a modification of the claviger-levers especially adapted to'drive a tricycle through direct gears. Figs. and 27 represent the claviger-rods adapted for driving tandems. Figs. 22, 28, and 24 are details. Figs. 25 and'26 show one form of the claviger-Tevers with an improved steering-head.
The pedalrod O (J carries the pedal P at one end, and is pivoted at the other to a crank, 17, either rigidly attached to the axle of the wheel, or, when sun-and-planet gearing is used, it is pivoted to a crank or radius rod running loose on the axle, or to a crank fast on a spindle running loosely inside the hub. The pedal-rod C C is supported and controlled by the link 1 1, which is pivoted at a point, 8, above the pedal-rod to the framework. In order to allow room for the heel the pedal-rod is preferably curved downward, as shown, and the lower 'end of the link is pivoted at no to the connecting-bracket d, which is rigidly fixed to the pedal-rod. The line of travel of the pedal-center for one complete movement is indicated by the dotted line. When the wheel is turned once round for each double stroke, the up and down strokes are equal as to time. When the wheel is geared up by means of sun-andplanet gear wheels, the downstroke takes rather less time than the upstroke, the diiference depending upon the length of the pedalrod and the relative diameters of the planetwheel and the sun-wheel. This arrangement, in combination with sun-and planet gear in the proportions shown in the figures, gives a mechanical advantage to the o erator during the downward stroke, more particularly at the commencement of the stroke, where it is most required. The upward movement of the pedal is made correspondingly slower toward the termination of the return-stroke. The relative times of the downward and upward strokes in the proportion shown are about as eleven to twelve.
Fig. 3 shows a 1110(lll'l0zttl0l1,l11 which the pedal-rod O C, while carrying the pedal P and controlled by link 1 1, as before, is pivoted at the other end to a crank, b, which in this case is carried in bearings rigidly fixed to the framework or to the fork B. This is shown on a larger scale in Figs. 11 and 12. The changeable spurwhecl I, rigidly connected with. the crank-axle or crank, drives the pinion 2, which is fixed on the axle of the wheel In this case the direction of travel of the pedal indicated by the arrow is in the opposite direction from that of the pedal in Figs. 11. and 2. It will be understood that in this case the gearing, as well as the crank and pedal-rod, is duplicated on each side .of the machine.
Figs. t and 5 illustrate a variety of rollen claviger for operating the front wheel of a bicycle or tricycle. The pedal-rod C O is preferably made of steel tubing, bent as shown, to accommodate the foot when the movement is at the lowest point. The circle marked P shows the pedal end. The pedalrod is rigidly fixed at the other end to a crosspiece, (I (Z, one end of which carries the stud S, upon which the r ller 1' turns. The other end of the cross-piece (Z (I is pivoted upon the crank-pin o of the crank I). A A represent a continuation of the fork side, and form a bracket against which the roller 7 bears during the movement. The roller r thus forms the movable fulcrum for the leverage part of the force. The slight guide 9 is to keep the roller in position. The roller is allowed a small amount of play between the two surfaces.
Fig. i represents the movement applied to a tricycle with a single front drivingwhecl and two small trailing-wheels. The mechanisms are duplicated upon the other side.
Fig. 6 represents a modification of; the sun and -planet gearing for gearing up velocipedes, the object of this modification being to eiilect the driving with a sun and planet wheel on one side only in combination with the swinging elaviger-rod, as before described. The drawings represent the parts in section. The hub of the wheel. 71 h is hollow, its interior surface being cylindrical. A spindle, s 3, passes through the hub, and is supported inside it preferably by balls I) 2 running between solid and hollow cones, the former adjustable by means of screw-threads and held in position by nuts and lock-nuts. The spindie and hub are concentric, and are free to revolve on their axes independently of each other. A crank, (J C and (1' C, is keyed or otherwise rigidly fixed to each end of the spindle. The cranks G O at the crank-pin end are coned out to accommodate a coned pin, f t. The coned surfaces are preferably adapted for adjustable ball-bearings, as described, for the hub-sphidle, but with one lixed cone, or they may be plain parallel bearings. any case the crank-pin is allowed to freely turn in the crank. The crank-pin after passing through the crank passes through the pedal-rod a a. The crank-pin is here made of greater diameter with flats and fitted into a slot of the same shape in the rod a a. In this it is held firmly in position by the fixed collar and nut shown; or the crank-pin may be fixed in the crank and the rod a may be pivoted upon it in the usual way when. gearing up is not required. hen gearing up is required, the spur-wheel r is keyed or otherwise rigidly attached to the extended end of the hub 71 Another spur-wheel, p, is keyed or otherwise rigidly attached to the end of the crank-pin t, so as to gear with the spurwhcel 7*. The spur-wheelp is by this arrange ment prevented from turning upon its own. axis, but is free to be revolved round the axis of the hub, carrying the spur-wheel 1' round with it and gearing up the driving-wheel. The grooves (Z 6 represent the channels for the balls for the bearings of the frame work of the velocipede.
Figs. 7 and 8 show the application of my system of varying the number of revolutions by rolling contact. Fig. 8 shows the outlines of the rollers and teeth with the geometrical curves for obtaining them. The proportions shown in the figure are for varying the revolutions in the ratio of: three to four. Fig. 7 shows its application to the hub of a velocipede. The same letters refer to the same parts in each. The hub is formed of a hollow cylindrical drum, h 71, preferably of gun-metal, which may be parallel or diminished in diameter in the middle, as shown, having a projecting flange, m m and m 012', along each edge, into which the spokes are screwed. Under one of the flanges this piece is recessed out for a short distance to admit the end piece, 71;. This piece carries an annular projecting boss, j, corresponding to boss j, which is part of the drum 71.. Upon these bosses are fixed the bushes of the ball-bearing cases a a and a a, which are secured to the lower part of the fork sides F F. The hub is free to turn inside these bearings. The toothed wheel or curved flange Z Z is rigidly fixed to the inside of piece 7." and concentric with it. A spindle, s, having a crank at each end, is passed through the hub and held in a position eccentric to it by the ball-bearing cases I) and I), attached to the end of the fork sides. The disk or wheel n a, carrying studs p 2, upon. which revolve the rollers -r r, rigidly fixed to the spindle .sin gear with the teeth 6 l. The spindle s is free to revolve without touching the hub when it actuates the hub, and consequently the driving-wheel revolves faster in the ratio of four to three. The gearing is ellected by rolling contact.
In Fig. i the application of this mechanism to a front-driving tricycle represented in combination with the roller claviger-rod, as before described.
I would observe that I do not claim generally gearing up a veloeipede inside the hub,
but only the novel and original method of effecting it by rolling contact inside the hub, as just described.
Fig. 9 represents a plan view, and in Fig. 4 is shown an elevation, of an arrangement for controlling the steering as adapted to afrontdriving tricycle. A camshaped rod, 0, is pivoted upon or rigidly fixed to the handlebar If t at a and a, on either side the head'of which 7t represents the head-pin. A forked bracket, 6, is pivoted through the forked ends to the backbone. At the upper end of this bracket a grooved roller, d, is pivoted. The roller is held firmly against the hollow in the cam by two springs, 17 and p, which are each connected at one end to the ends of a stud, s s, passing through the neck a, and at the other ends to a stud passing through the bracket 6. hen the steering wheel or wheels are turned from a straight course, the cam turns with them, and, pressing against the roller, forces it outward if the force operating is sufficient to stretch the springs. \Vhen the force ceases, the springs pull the wheels back straight again. It also holds the wheels straight against slight inequalities and renders the steering easier for the operator.
Fig. 4: also illustrates a combination of raked or inclined centers with a direct transverse handle-bar and steering-controller, substantially as last described, and I desire to state that I do not claim individually any of the points in this triple combination, but only their combination. The raked or inclined head carrying the centers is shown clearly at the top of fork A. tis the transverse handlebar, and for the steering-controller (which, however, in this combination may be of any of the well-known suitable forms) I show the arrangement at d e, hcreinbefore described and shown at Fig. 9.
Figs. 2, 13, and 14 show my novel steering arrangements as applied to tricyeles with a single rear driving-wheel, and which are steered by the two front wheels. In these figures, e is the cross-bar connecting and carrying the two front steering-wheels. It is in advance of the center of the wheels, its ends being bent backward, as shown at f, and carrying the wheel-bearings at g. Rigidly attached to this cross-bar, and in the center of the machine, is the head or hinge h at a backward inclination of about one in four to the Vertical. This head carries the centers, in which the neck-spindle 76 works, and this is rigidly attached to the main frame D. By this arrangement the main frame, with seat and rear driving-wheel, is caused to incline toward the center of the curve over which the tricycle is traveling, andthe advanced position of the hinge relatively to the center of the steering-wheels gives a tendency for the said wheels to remain in a straight or central position when traveling. The handle-bar m and steering-pillar n are attached to the crossbar 6 either rigidlyfor a mans machineor pivoted or hinged so that it can be turned down or lowered away to the front, as shown at 0 in Fig. 2, to allow ample room for a lady to mount.
Fig. 10 shows my novel method of constructing joints or pivots for velocipedes actuated by levers, as herein described, B representing a bracket rigidly secured to the framework, and c c the pedal-rods. d d are brackets attached to the latter, and 1 1 are the controlling-links. These links are formed with bosses at each end, which fit in loosely be tween the bosses of brackets B and D. Centrally situated in the inner faces of each of these bosses are coincident hemispherical recesses, and into each spherical recess thus formed is inserteda hardened-steel sphere, as shown at s. For convenience of insertion, adjustment, and hardening of the recesses, I use screwed nipples or bushes 01, instead of forming the recesses in the bosses of the brackets themselves. These nipples can be locked in position by locknuts or any convenient device. The recesses in the central boss of the double bracket B are formed in a plain piece, 0, inserted therein for the purpose, and which may be secured in position by a pin, p. The oiling is effected by the holes 0, as shown.
Figs. 11 and 12 show my method of changing and adjusting the gear-wheels so as to obtain different velocity ratios between the cranks and driving-wheels of velocipedes in which direct gearing is used, as represented in Fig. 3, and hereinbefore described. The pinion 2 is keyed or suitably fixed onto the axle of the driving-wheel and runs upon ball or other suitable bearings in the bracket f, which is secured at f to the end of fork B, Fig. 3. Aslot, h, is cut in this bracket, and the stud 2', passing through it, is secured to the bracket by nut \V and a collar. Upon this stud the crank I) revolves, which carries upon its boss the spur-wheel I, prevented from turning on the boss by the screw t. 0 represents the end of the pedal-rod, and u the crank-pin, these being similar to those previously described. WVhen it is desired to vary the gearing, the nut WV and the screw t are removed. The crank b, stud t, and Wheel 1 being then withdrawn from bracket f, the wheel can be removed and another one substituted, and on putting the parts together again the stud i is adjusted in the slot h to suit the radius of the newly-inserted wheel. These parts are duplicated upon the other side of the machine. H
Figs. 15, 16, and 17 showa typical form and arrangement of claviger-lever and restraining-arm in connection with sun'and-planet gear for propelling velocipedes. Ais a bracket attached at one end to the lower part of the fork side, and carrying at the other end the stud S, which is the fixed axis of the hanging claviger B O D S. The latter consists of a rod, B C D, and a link, 0 S, called the restraining-arm. O is the pivot by which the tworods are attached to each other. By prefercnce the restraining-arm S C is forked atC, and the pivot is formed in the method hereinafter described with reference to Fig. 10. Though the movement of these joints is very small the means described allow of adj l'lSl ment for wear and prevent rattle. The rod B D carries the pedal P,which can be adjusted laterally and vertically by the screw c. The other end, at I), terminates in a boss, in which is cut a rectangular slot, as shown in Fig. 1. ll is a small spunpinion provided with a l oss or projection on one side which fits into the slot in the end of the clavis-rod at l). K
a spur-wheel which is rigidly fixed to the v axle of the driving-wheel. Between thespurwheel K and the bearing-ljiox l is a slotted radius-arm, N, which may be mounted loosely on a hardened-steel bush or sleeve attached to the spur-wheel K and to the axle of the driving-wheel. A spindle, 17, having a fixed collar,is clamped in position in the slot of the radius-arm N by means of the nut 11. The spnr-pinion H is mounted nponthc spindle n, and is free to revolve upon it. The boss or projection of the spur-pinion ll is passed through the slot in the end I) of the cla vis-rod B O D, and secured in position by the nut n. The spur-pinion H is thus tied to the axle, and held in gear with the spur-whecl K, while it is prevented from turning upon its own axis. The spur pinion and wheel t] 1 us :form
the movement known as the sun-andqilanct gear. An alternative arrangement is to change the positions relatively of the radiusarm N and the spur pinion and wheel, the former being placed outside the latter. The rod B D may be bent laterally at G in order to narrow the tread. Fig. 17 represents them in POSlCiOlI applied to a rear-driving tricyclel The spur wheel and pinion are completely covered in from. the dust by a thin metallic box, :13, which is supported inward round the boss of the radius-arm N and outward by the spindle 11 between the spur-pinion if and the cla-vis-rod l), and it revolves with these parts.
It will be seen from the foregoing description that by loosening the nuts n, n, and n the small s )nr-pinion or planet-wheol may be readily taken out and another with more or fewer teeth substituted, a supply of planetwheels of different diameters being conveniently carried in the ioohbag.
Fig. 1.8 represents the form of elaviger described as a roiler-claviger of the secoinl kind. A is a bracket attached to lower end of the fork side. It is recessed and bored to form a knucklejoint for the Mill-bearings, the box of which is shown at l. The lower part of the bracket is extended fin-ward, and is iinished elf below with a broader flat or grooved surface for the roller it to bear against. 13 C l) is the clavis-rod or pedal-lever. It may terminate at the end lrl in a slotted are, as shown, to allow the pedal to be adjusted to different riders, or it may end with a boss to support a pedal which is not adjustable. In the latter case the clavis-rod 1) C B is straight in the plane represei'ited by the paper. It is bent laterally at G to allow of a narrower tread. The pivot at (J is a long boss, giving a wide bearing on the crank-pin of the crank. M, which is rigidly attached to the axle L of the driving-wheel. The end 1) is provided with a roller, it. The stress of the force both when the pedal is driving the crank and when the crank is returning the pedal into position is always upward against A. The dotted lines and marks indicate the relative posi= tions of the crank-pin and pedal-center at equal intervals of time during the movement. It will be s .en that in this movement the variaticn of force is the same as in a pedal hav ing rotary motion. The motion is peculiarly smooth and silent and free from vibration, as it has no fixed point. It is adapted to a bicycle having a large driving-wheel in front. The fork side is represented with a rake of one in four. This, together with the arrangementallowin the stroke to be given through out in the rear of the axle, affords the necessary element of safety.
Fig. 1f? represents a clavigeranovement in combination with two spur-wheels in direct gear, adzitpted to propel a tricycle with two driving and steering wheels in front with a small, rear trailing-wheel. The movement is a bent lianger-claviger of the first kind. The size and position of the drirdngavheels in relation to the parts re 'iresentcd in the figure are indicated by the circle which represents them priiijected on. the plane of the paper. The backbone, rear wheel, and seat are not shown. A is the front bone, consisting, is usual, of a vertical hollow tube terminating at the upper end in the head. It is bent ljiackwaixl j nst above the axle and then continued vertically downward to fa, as shown in the iignriii. liigidly attached to it near the bond is the fork-piece A and A, depending from it to the right and left and then curved forward and downward. ()n the fork-pieces are the two bosses i), one on each side. 'ihrough each of these passes a vertical bolt carrying a knuckle-joint, Y, at the end, to
" '\\'hich the ball-bearing box is attached. L
represents in cross-section the solid axle, and I/ the hollow one, which are connected together by the lnila-nce-gear at one end. The ends of the forks each terminate in aknncklejoint, which carry ball-bearing boxes 1), which support at both ends a subsidiary axle, 7. A crank, Ill, is keyed orotherwise securely attached. at each end to this axle. On this subsidiary axle, between the two bcarii'lgs, there is rigidly attached a spur-wheel, T. To the hollow axlel'i there likewise rigidly at tar-lied another spur-wheel, It, the centers be ing arranged so that the two are held in gear. The rod l (l l) is thccla-vis-rod or pedal-lever. t5 U is the restraihing-arm, the fixed axis S being rigidly attached to the bottom of the tube A. The restraining-arm S O is pivoted to the clavis-rod at (J. The end I) terminates with a boss giving a deep bearing upon the crank-pin. The crank-pin is adjustable in the usual way, allowing the length of stroke of the pedal P to be shortened or lengthened. In the figure the movement is repre sented at the commencement of the stroke. The dotted lines show the position of the movement on the other side of the machine at the termination of the stroke. The drawback to this class of tricycle has hitherto been the difficulty of steering and the danger of the brake, which, when put on under usual circumstances, causes the rear part of the machine with the rider to revolve round the driving-axle, much to the latters discomfiture. The stroke of the foot being almost directly downward, the steering is rendered exceptionally easy. To remedy the latter drawback a safety brake and step combined are shown in the figure attached to the frame-work just described. The step a c is also the brake-lever with the fulcrum at 72 toward the lower end of the tube A. It is operated by the foot, which, when the machine is in motion, is withdrawn from a pedal for the purpose. The power is transmitted by the connecting-rod 1T cl to the bell-crank lever e, which tightens a band-brake acting upon a drum rigidly attached to the hollow axle in the usual manner.
Fig. 20 represents a machine similar to the one just described, which may be operated by one or two ridersin the latter case forming a tricycle-tandem. The frame-work and tandem-movement will be first described. A is a straight vertical hollow tube placed behind the axle about the same distance as the lower part of the vertical tube shown in Fig. 19. The forked bracket, knuckle-joints, bearin gs, SIJHDWllGQlS, cranks, and subsidiary axle are substantially the same as those shown in Fig. 19, and the same description will apply. The bracket D is rigidly attached to the upright tube A to support the adjustable seatrod, spring, and seat with the supporting-handles, all of the usual kind. The movement is a double bent hanger-claviger of the first kind. The part E U C is preferably constructed in one piece. It terminates at E in a boss, which allows of a deep bearing on the crank-pin, which is adjustable, so as to allow the length of stroke to be varied. The other end terminates in a pivot at O, to which point the end of the restraining-arm C S is connected. The fixed axis is at S at the lower end of the front bone, A A. Just above the pivot C the rod E G has a strong boss, U, which is drilled or bored out to accommodate the rod B B. The latteris by preference a hollow tube of steel. It carries at each end the two segmental slotted pieces 1) and p, to allow of the adjustment of the pedals P and P to suit different riders. The tube B B can be moved backward and forward through the bearing in the boss U. Thus the length of the stroke can be adjusted between the two riders. If a lady occupies the front seat, the length U B may be shortened and the length U B correspondingly lengthened, the length of the stroke corresponding. When the rod B U B is arranged in position, it is firmly held there by the set-screw a. The rods then form a rigid cross. of the two pedals are half a stroke apart. "When one is at the commencement the other is at the middle of the stroke, so that fullimpulse without break is transmitted to the crank. The oscillation of the rod C S is in time between the other two, being a quarter of a stroke before one and a quarter of a stroke behind the other.
Fig. 21 represents a bent roller-claviger of the second kind applied to a tricycle with two rear driving-wheels and a smaller front steering-wheel. The forkbracket, bearings, wheels, cranks, &c., are similar to those shown in connection with Fig. 19, and the same description will apply. The shape of the forkbracket is different and the spur-wheels differently arranged to suit the altered conditions. A step, S, binds the two ends of the fork-bracket together and allows easy access to the saddle from the rear of the machine over the axle. The tube A of the upper end accommodates the seat-pin, which is adjustable as to height by means of the set-screw C.
Fig. 22 represents a longitudinal section of the steering-head or hinge of a velocipede. It is shown applied to a rear-driving bicycle in Fig. 17 and toa rear-driving tricycle in Fig. 21.
Fig. 23 represents the lower part of the head 011 a larger scale, so as more clearly to illustrate its details. In Fig. 22 the piece Z) Z) b 12" represents the head and neck, which are tubular. They are preferably made in one piece, as shown, and the upper end of the neck 11 is brazed, by means of a cone-piece, into the rest of the backbone, which is connected with the axle of the rear wheel or wheels. The steering-rod a a passes through the head, having bearings within it for a short distance at each end ate and b". its lower end it is rigidly connected to the washer a." and to the boss a, which latter is securely brazed into the top of the fork of the small steering-wheel. The top and bottom of the head are made of greater diameter, so as to admit of an annular groove being cut into them to accommodate a ring of hardenedsteel spheres, with which they are filled. Above and below the head are steel washers O and 0, bearing upon. the steering-rod a a and free to move up and down upon it. They have an annular collar at the inside projecting slightly beyond the face of the washer in a direction away from the head. These steel washers have annular grooves cut into them opposite to and corresponding with the grooves cut into the head. The grooves and balls are fitted so that when brought together the faces of the head and of the washers shall not butt together, but that the head shall bear and roll upon the balls. Two steel washers, e and e, are turned of the shape shown in the figures. They are thin disks with a thin The movements I 'lindrical center piece projecting on both sides of the disk. Round each of these washers two rubber rings are placed, one above and one below the disk. They are represented by r, r, r', and r". The fixed washer a has an annular projection or bearing similar to those on ball-bearin g washers. .l. he parts described are placed in position as shown in the figures. A loose steel washer 1o shaped the same the fast one, a, is placed at the top reversed in position. A part of the steering-rod above the head is threaded and a nut, it, placed upon it. This s slightly screwed down, the extent dependl 5 ing upon the weight of the rider. The locknut n is then utilized to hold all secure. The head of the machine thus held inequilibrium between the rubber rings above and be low, while the balls and channels are held together by an elastic tension. The rubber rings are held entirely by the washers e and 6, so that they cannot bind against the steeringrod or the other washers, but are free to be compressed or expanded in response to the 2 5 jolts of the small steering-wheel, the washers sliding upon each other inside and upon the steering-rod. In this manner the vibration of the front wheel is intercepted by the rubber. During steering the head rolls upon the balls and renders the steering easier. The arrange ment also 'Jrevents the rubber being injured by the erosive action of the oil as it is exuded.
Fig. 24. represents a detail of this improved head for velocipedes. Instead of the vertical spindle terminating in coned centers, which are very liable to break off and difficult to re pair, they have a hemispherical. hole cut at each end. The adjustable head-pin at the top 40 and the bush at the bottom of the spindle are treated in the same manner. \Vithin these holes a rather large steel sphere is placed at top and bottom, and, the spindle turns upon these spheres. \Vhen worn or broken they 5 can be readily replaced.
Fig. re} n'esents a rear driring-tricycle of the form in which all the wheels operate in steering, combined with a suitable applica tion of elaviger driving and with an improved form of anti-vibration springs. A A represent the main frame-work of the tricycle. It is L-shaped, and is composed of two straight: pieces of steel tubing, one placed in a vertical and the other in a horizontal directioi'i.
These are joined together at the bend by aright-angled core-piecc, which. is pinned and brazed into both tubes. 'ries two ln'ackets, Z)"one on each side and each bracket is widened out, and terminates in a smooth plane surface about half an inch in width, set at an angle of forty-five degrees, or thereabtnit. These form the guides g for the rollers. Above the point of junction of the tubes a sleeve, i, carrying two forks, Z)
and h, is pinned and brazed round the tube. The upper forked bracket, Z2, terminates in ball-bearing cases, which rest upon the hol- This core-piece carf low axle w of the driving-wheels. The lower forked bracket also terminates in ball-bearing cases, which support a short subsidiary shaft parallel to the main axle. This short shaft carried through the bearings, and has a crank, (I, securely fixed at each end one hundred and eighty degrees angular distance apart from each other. A spurwheel, 7:, is keyed or otherwise rigidly fixed to the center of this short shaft, and it is arranged to gear with a spur-pinion, a, fixed upon the hollow axle, which is connected with the balance-gear of the driving-wheels. On each, side of the machine, pivoted to the cranks by the crank-pins, is a rod, B C I), carrying a roller, It, upon a fixed stud, C. The end B of the rod slotted to accommodate a pedal, P, which is clamped in position in the usual way. The upper end of the vertical tube accommodates a seat-rod which is adjusted vertically in it by means of a set-screw. The lower end of the tubular fran'ie-work carries the neck j, with the steering-spindle p. The head or steering centers are vertical and are placed midway between the axle or of the front wheel and the axle m of the driving-wheels. They are held by lugs I and Z, which are securely attached toward the lower part of a vertical tube, f. The steering-rod with handle-bar of the usual bicycle pattern is placed within the vertical tube and is adjustable in it by means of a set-screw. The fork of the front wheel is placed horiztmtally and is connected to the head by two springs. The springs are preferentially made of round bars of steel. Each one consists of a straight length with a single coil at the top and bottom. The ends of the bars are carried for a short distance away from the coils in a direction parallel to the straight length and are then bent backward at right angles to it. The straight length of the spring is then socured to the end of the front wheel-fork by bolts and screws, as shownin the figures. To effect this, a square-shaped rack-piece, 10, (see Fig. 26,) firmly brazed to the nipple and end of the l1orizontally-placed fork in of the front wheel. This piece, when in position, has a smooth vertical face to the rear, forming a hollow square. The upper and lower horizontal pieces of the square have each two concave recesses cut in them to accommodate the springs. The sides of the springs opposite to these recesses are filed flat. The springs are then nippedin position by means of: two shaped short flat steel rods, 11* and w', and four bolts and nuts, 'u n. and *1: r, which pass through the pieces above described. The two lugs and Z, which support the steering-centers, are each made with a projecting boss on each side. These are drilled through in a horizontal direction, and the four ends of the two springs are passed through these holes, each end through its corresponding hole, and the ends secured by set screws. The two springs-the head and the front forkare thus rigid. together as far as lateral movement is concerned, as neither spring can have any differential action apart from the other. The steering is therefore unaffected by the springs, but they are together efficient for excluding the vibration of the front wheel from the rest of .the machine.
Fig. 27 represents an application of the claviger system of driving to a tandem-bicycle. Direct spur-gearing is used, as in Fig. 3. The fork B is placed in an almost vertical position, and carries the bearings of wheels 1 and 2, as before. At its upper end it is attached to the backbone D, which is simply prolonged to the rear sufficiently to carry the rear saddle, S, the front saddle, S, being carried in the usual way, as shown. 7:. is the steering neck and spindle. The pedal P, the lever or pedal rod C, and restrainingarm l are very similar to those shown in Fig. 3, except that the lever C is rather longer to suit the altered position. of the crank l). Rigidly attached to the lever O is an arm, (Z, carrying the rear pedal, P. Both. pedals are adjustable in the ends of their lever-arms. t is the mounting-step for the front rider, and f for the rear rider. The arrows show the direction of the pedals on their orbits.
Iaving now particularly described and ascertained the nature of my said invention, and in what manner the same is to be performed, I declare that what I claim is 1. In a bicycle or tricycle, the combination, with the pedal-lever having the pedal at one end and connected at the opposite end to the crank connected by gearing to the axle of the driving-wheel, of the shifting fulcrum for said lever, located between the pedal and axle, substantially as described.
2. In a bicycle or tricycle, the combination, with the pivoted pedal-lever having the pedal at one end and connected at the opposite end to the axle of the driving-wheel, of a shifting fulcrum, 011 which said lever pivots, consisting of the plane surface and the roller on the lever, bearing thereon, substantially as described.
3. In a bicycle or tricycle, the combination, with the drive-wheel and steering-wheel, the frame carried thereby, and pivoted pedal-lever having the pedal at one end and connected to the drive-axle at the opposite end, of a shifting fulcrum, on which said lever pivots, formed by the plane surface carried by the lower rear portion of the frame, and a roller on the lever for engaging said surface, substantially as described.
4. In a bicycle or tricycle, the combination, with the driving-wheel axle and the pivoted pedal-lever connected thereto through intermediate gearing, of a shifting fulcrum, on which said lever pivots, located between the pedal and axle, and consisting of the plane surface carried by the frame, and the bearing on the lever engaging therewith.
5. In a bicycle or tricycle, the combination, with the driving-axle and the pedal-lever pivoting on a shifting fulcrum, of the sun-andplanet gearing between said lever and axle, substantially as described.
6. In a bicycle or tricycle, the cambination, with the driving-wheel and pedal-lever p1voting on a shifting fulcrum, of the gear connected rigidly to the driveavheel, and the gear engaging therewith connected rigidly to the pedal-lever, whereby a differential movement is given said parts, substantially as described.
7. In a rear-driving bicycle or tricycle, the combination, with the frame and drivingwheel, of the gear-wheel rigidly connected to the driving-wheel, the gear-wheel carried by the frame, the forwardly-extending pedal-lever connected to saidlast-mentioned gear and having the pedal at its forward end, and the shifting fulcrum between said pedal and geaiwheel, substantially as described.
S. In a bicycle or tricycle, the combination, with the sun-and-planet driving-gearing and the pedal-lever pivoting on a shifting fulcrum rigidly connected to the planet-gear, of the axle passing through the center of the sungear, the pedal-lever connected to said axle, and the crank connecting the axle and planetgear, substantially as described.
9. In a bicycle or tricycle, the combination,
with the sunvheel rigidly secured to the' drive-wheel, of the planet-wheel mounted in slots in its supporting-arm, whereby differentsized gears may be employed and the pedallever connected to said planet-wheel.
10. In a bicycle or tricycle, the combination, with the driving-wheel having the gearwheel connected rigidly thereto, and the loose axle passing through the center of the drivingvheel, of the gear-wheel carried by said axle and engaging the gear-wh eel on the driving-wheel, the crank on said axle, and the pedal-levers pivoting on a shifting fulcrum and connected to said axle, substantially as described.
11. The combination, in a tricycle having the front steering-wheels and axle, and the rearwardly-extending frame and drive-wheel, of the bearing for the neck on the rearwardlyextending frame mounted below the steeringwheels axle forward of the center of such wheels and inclined from the top backward, whereby the drive-wheel and frame are tilted in turning, substantially as described.
12. In a tricycle, the combination, with the two front steering-wheels and the rear driver, of the arched axle for the steering-wheels having the bearing for the drive-wheel frame below the same and inclined from the top backward, substantially as described.
13. I11 a tricycle, the combination, with the two front steering-wheels and the rear driver, of the forwardly-inclined arched axle for the steering-wheels having the bearing for the drive-wheel frame below the same and inclined from the top backward, substantially as described.
let. In a tricycle or bicycle, the combination, with the drive-axle and crank, of the pivoted with the drivearheels, the pedal-lever pivoting on a shifting t'nlerum, and intermediate gearing eonneetiug the same, of the pedalextension and pedal on eaeh side of the pivotal point of said lever, snlistantially as described.
17. In a bicycle or tricycle, the combination,
with the drive-Wheels, the pedal-lever pivoting on a shifting fulcrum, and intermediate gearing connecting the lever and drive-wluzml,
ot the pedal-extension and pedal on. each side ot' the pivotal. point of said lever, sul)stan'tially as described. ,]H. The combination, with the 'lri\'(. -a.\'le
and the pivoted pedal-lever connected therewith, of the curved slot in the end of said le- Yer and the pedal mounted therein, substantially as dwerihed.
1%). The emnbilnition, with the pi voted pedal- 5 lever, olf a bearing therefor formed of the eoneavities on eaeh side of the same, the adjustahle screws having eoneavities therein, and the single ball fitting in said (:oncavities, subsiantialb as deserihe .l.
20. The eombiualion, with the tulmlarhead and the steering-bar passing th rough the same, of the rubber butters at top and bottom earrried by the washers, having tla i'lges for preventing contact of the rubber with the steel' ing-bm substantially as described.
1. The eoml )inati()n, with the steering-head ot' a tricycle, oi? the steering-wheel and frame, and the top and hot om eeil-s 'irings connect ing the said head and steering Frame, substantially; as deseri bed.
In testimony whereof l have hereunto set my hand in the presence of the two subscribing witnesses.
WILL'IAlvII GOL'DlNt. W'i messes:
than C. Mums, An'ru'ifn PERKINS.