US 401529 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
3 Sheets-Sheet 1.
M. 12mm-IER. RAILWAY CAR FRAME.
Patented Apr. 16, 1889.
lNvENTo WITNEssEs: A
(No mm1.) l 3 sheets-sheet 2.
- 1V1. A. ZRCHER.
N'o. 401,529. Patented Apr. 16, 1889. r J 7 WITNESSESZ INVENTOR UWQIM Hf. W
BVMW/A Patented Apr. 16, 1889.
n milf M. A. ZURCHBR.l RAILWAY GAR FRAME.
WITNESSESI Jol UNITED STATES' PATENT OFFICE.
MAX A. ZRCHER, oF PHCENIXVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA.
.RAILWAY-CAR FRAM E.
SPECIFICATION forming parl/cof Letters Patent No. 461,529, daad April 1e, Isae, Application mea July e, 188s. serai No. 279,221. (No moda) .T all whom `z`t may concer/Lr:
Be it known that I, MAX. A. ZRGHER, a citizen of the United States, residing at Phoenixville, county of Chester, and State of Pennsylvania, have invented new and useful Im4 provements in RailwaylCaI-s, of which the following is a specitication.- [Y
My invention relates to improvements" in the construction of railway-car frames,and particularly upon that class of car-frames disclosed in a prior patent granted tolne by the United States on the 5th dayof June, 1888,
ANo. 384,225, and'also upon the invention disclosed in my application fora patent for improveinent in car-floor frames, filed May 25, 1888, bearing Serial`No. 275,121.
. The object of the presentin-vention is, first, to give to the frames of the structures referred to in said patent and application .additional strength and rigidity, and, second, to' adapt 'them more fully to cars of special classes and designs. These obj ectsare accomplished prin'- cipally by iirst giving increased depth to the several vertical longitudinal trusses at or near the car center, or atthe large door, window, or other openings, by curving or expanding either or both of the chords of each of these trusses, or by trussing additionally above or.
below each or both chords, or any combination of them,thereby enabling the Webshear,
due to given strains, to be transmitted around said openings, thus forminga complete and staticallyframed truss or trusses, the latter integrally connected together, so as to act as one truss. Theftr are accomplished, secondly,
by means of the constructions hereinafter described, and particularly pointed out in the .claims which follow this specification, By means of the increased central depth of the trusses I am enabled to construct a double or multiple deck car having the upper compart- I`'ment or compartments extending the whole length of the car, or a partor' parts only thereof. I also diminish the depth of the vcrtical longitudinal trusses at the ends of a car to a minimum, thereby increasing its rigidity and giving especialstrength to the\structure to resist the compression# In backing of a train and from collisions, as Well as the traction strains, thus avoiding'telescoping by -enablingthe top and bottom chords to divide the impact therefrom more evenly. My improved skeleton car-frame, having increaseddepth at or near the center, is a statically-constructed hollow body or frame; but the constructions shown in my above-named patent are limited to prisms,'because `all the various intersections -ofits longitudinal faces or girders are shown halves of myv improved railway-car frames,
showing especially the vertical longitudinal side girders. Fig. 13 is asimilar view of a Wholev car-frame. the horizontal or inclined (or both kinds com- Fig. 14 is a plan View ofl bined) interior longitudinal trussing along the floor level or levels C, showing various web constructions. Fig. 15 is a plan View of the horizontaler inclined (or both kinds combined) exterior longitudinal trussing along the bottom chords s of the vertical 1ongi tudinal trusses B, F, and fr, singly or any or all combined, also showing various Webconstructions. Fig. 16 is a plan View ofthe horizontal or inclined (or both kinds combined) interior overhead longitudinal trussing, along the top chords s ofA the longitudinal trusses B,l following the bottom chords q of the transverse roof-trusses q, also showing various web constructions. Fig. 17 is a plan view of the inclined or horizontal (or both kinds combined) exterior longitudinall rooftrusses along the same top chords s, but following instead therafters g4 of the same rooftrusses q, also Yshowing various web constructions. Figs. 18 and `19 are exterior side elevational views of half of my double-deck-car f Fig. 2O is a sectional transverse inframe. terior view of the same. Figs- 2l' to 27, inclusive, are sectional transverse interior views having interiorlongitudinal girders,f"fr.Y
Figs.' 28, 29, and 30 are transverse lsectional able to resist ycompression, and tension to the views showing interior longitudinal gi'rders,`
F. ,Figs 31 and 32 are similar views having a combination of trusses,'F-and r.
A represents my improved car-frame, of metal or any analogous material which possesses the required strength., 1
B B represent they extel ior side longitudinal' trusses of the frame, they being statically constructed with non-adjustable web members extending` throughout the entire car-length for all of its essential members, and each one out the plates s, or they may be .Welded together. `AThese same connections and features, as above stated, are also to be used for all other places and members throughout the Whole car-frame.
In Fig. 4 the'bottom chords s are horizontal, and vin Figs. 5 to 8, inclusive, and 11 they are the same, but. additionally trussed underneath to transmit the web-shear past the openings, while in Fig. 1 they are straight but inclined downward toward the center from each end, while in Figs. 2, 19, and 9 to 13, inclusive, they are curved or partly so. In Figs. 3 and 18 each is of a polygonal shape;
The top chords s in Figs. 18 and '7 to 12, in-` clusive, are horizontal, while in Figs. 13 andf 2 to @,inclusive, they are curved or partly so. Those of Fig. 1 are straight, but inclined downward from center toward each end, and Fig.. 19 of a polygonal shape..f
The side trusses, B, as shown in Figs. 13 and 19, each consist of two or more complete trusses, one above the other, so as to have the window, door, or other openings, placed 'between them, the whole rigidly connected together to serve as one truss, wherein vertical posts s2 have to act also as girders in the longitudinal direction of the 'car should these spaces not be trussed with diagonals, 'which may also be the case throughout or through any part of the way; but s2 may be then' omitted for any or all tr'ussed spaces. These trusses Blnay be far enough apart to clear the trucks 'by being outside of the latter, and thereby enable increased depth of the trusses at said locations', and they may be made strong enough so as not to require any interior longitudinal vertical girders, F tor 1.
As already stated, my car-frame constitutes externally a statically eonstructed` hollow body or frame, to whichI give additional.
strength by the following interior constructionsz First, one ci' more interior vertical longitudinal trusses or gi rders, r, extendthe whole or any part of the length of the car or they may `of each view` only.
marked D for the latter.
be sameas the trusses B, extending any orall the-way to the roof, and of similareonstructions able to fulill all functions-as fully explained in my Patent No. 384,225,1narked therein F, .l
Figs; 28, 29, and 30, or any combination of 'r and F in one car, Figs. 31 and 32; vsteigend, interior transverse bracing or trussing is provided at the propergpoints connected to any or all. of the longitudinal trusses. Figs. 28 to 32,.inclusive, show the samein 'connection with the interior longitudinal trusses, F, the space above and below the passage-ways being suitably trusse'd to transmit the webshears. Figs. 20 to 26, inclusive,- show cornerbracket-s o on one side, and Figs. 24 to 27,in
elusive, show diagonal members o for one-half Figs, 20, 24,- 25, and 27 show the posts s2 of the trusses B designed as girders, also in a transverse directionLall to resist lateral or transverse displacement .and thereby equalizeany impacts exerted against thew structure.` In. Figs.- 20 to 32, inclusive," the floor portion is transversely constructed by trussing and bracing,which will be understood on inspection., A
The Hoor-line' C may be horizontal vor any other shape, either longitudinally or transversely, or bothvcombined, but not required to be necessarily on the same level of the bottom chords s of girders B, or that of r or F.
This licor-level@ may be longitudinally (also statically) trussed, as well as the bottom chords of the above-referred-to girders inthe samedirection, as fully described in my abovereferred-to patent application and therein l AAll/these trusses C and D, and .part of B,;F, and lr, form, in themselves, with the vibration-trussing r" and Withparts of each car-body end, a complete auxiliary lower or door body or :frame externally and internally, and as a whole statically tru'ssed.
I also construct an overhead or roof auxil; iary body or frame externally and internally, and as a whole statically constructed, as fully IOO described in my/Patent No.y 384,225, and consisting, internally, of statically-constructed transverse vertical roof-trusses q, with rigid and non-adjustable web members throughol t their entire length, externally formed by the exterior longitudinal roof-trussing along the rafters q4 of the above transverseroofftrusses q and the interior longitudinal trussin g through the top chords s of the trusses B along the bottom'chord q of the same roof-trusses'q. Any ot' the combinationsffoi'1 modifications referred to in my above-named patent also apply here. Any of the herein-described singlo-deck cars', if constructed of suiiiciently uniform or variable height, can be use-d 4as e. y. double or multiple deck car by'adding the' upper iioor, U, at a suitable height with'the.
necessary truss-work to support it. This up'- per floor may have also longitudinal interior girdersf r, or such as F, extending any distance or all the way to the upper floor, U, or
-any distance or all the Way to the roof, or be tween the upper -iioor and `the roof `any dis-l tance or all the way, or any, combinationo'f any or all of these various kinds may bensed.
in one car. It may have transverse gifrders r', which may also extend any distance or all the way to the upper iloor, U, or any distance or all the way to the roof, or between the 'upper floor and the roof, any distance or all t-he way, or any combination of any or all of those in one car.
Access or exit can be had through doors or lopenings placed in any or all of the outer faces and the'iioors; but care shouldcbeexercised that these' various openings are .rot located directly over eachother, or not al.. in the same transversesection to allow of suficient trussing with diagonale for the various web-shear transmissions; or by stairs, steps, or inclines T intercourse can be had internally Abetween the various decks., Any combination of these outer and inner means of intercourse can be applied singly, or any or all combined. As shown, 'l is placed in a longitudinal direction; but any other direction will do as well, and they can be located anywhere inuthe car, centrally orvat the ends or otherwise', and they may be constructed circular or otherwise.
Fig. 19 shows a truss-work suitable for window-openings for each deck in the spaces e',
althou gh any of the other herein-shown trusses may be used instead. lVhile Fig. 18 may be.
used, preferably, for large door an d other openings, there maybe more or less of them in number, and they may be located differently. Inthis case the stairs, steps, or inclines 'l may be omitted. 1
The main loor C may have stairs or steps to facilitate reaching the central part of the car, Fig. 18, or it may be inclined, Fig. 19.
I am aware that formerly wooden cars were built having increased depth at the center with the outer sides extending downward between the two trucks and forming a lower horizontal floor. The top and bottom of the car-body sides being horizontal, they do not form either trusses proper or statically-constructed trusses, nor is such a constructionv described in my patent referred to.
I am also aware that oars having increased central depth exist with partly-trussed sides, the bottom chords of which are not continuous, and Iwhich are not therefore statically trussed, and do not constitute a staticallytrussed car-body. 3
I am also aware of the existence of doubledeck cars, but not of statically-trussed doubledeck cars, as herein disclosed and claimed.
I am also aware that compartment-cars exist having loose and removable boxes with' hinged doors adapted to facilitate loading and unloading. Such cars,- however, consist merely of platforms having hog-chained vertical girders, and do not receive any additional strength from' the removable boxes, there being no trussed connection between said boxes -and the frame.
^ 1. i railway-car frame I am also aware of the use of combined double-deck sleeping and din ing cars, which, however, do not possess as au element of their construction any trussed frame-work.
Having thus described my invention., w hat I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, isehaving two orinore longitudinal trusses or gil-ders extending throughout the length ofv the car, having increased depth at ornear the center of the car,
and connected together at orncar their upper' and lower chords by'trussed girders adapted to resist lateral strai ns, the whole being joined .8oY
together to 'form a statically-trussed frame, substantiallyas shown and described:
2. A railway-car frame consisting of two or more 'longitudinal supporting trusses or gir'd-- A ers' having increased depth at or near the cen- 8 5 ter of the car, connected at or nearV the top and bottom by longitudinal trusses or girdcrs, with one or more intermediate cross or tie trusses or bracing uniting said longitudioonstructcd structure, substantially as described. I
3. A railway-car frame consisting of'an eX- ternal skeleton body having vertical longinal trusses, so as to torni a solid or staticallytudinal trusses of increased center dep t-h, with 9 5 one or more vertical transverse statically-constructed overhead roof-trusses having rigid. and non-adjustable web members th rou ghout tleir ent-ire length, substantially as described.
4. A iail\\='ay-car frame consisting of an exico ternal skeleton body :having vertical longitudinal trusses of increased depth-1 'between the truck-supports, with one or more interior transverse Vibration-trusses and che or more vertical transverse statically.- constructed overhead roof-trusses having 'rigid and nonadjustable web-members throughouttheir entire length, substantially as described.
5. A railway-car frame consisting of anexternal skeleton body whose vertical longitudi'- 1 Io nal trusses are of increased depth between the truck-supports, with one or more interior 1ongit-udinal trusses and one or more vertical transverse statically constructed overhead roof-trusses having rigid and non-adjustable ,web .members throughout their whole length, substantially as described.
G. A railway-car frame consisting of-an extern al skeleton body,with'vertical longitudinal trusses of increased depth between the truck 12e supports, and one ormore interior longitudinal trusses, and one or more interior transverse vibratiomtrusses, and one or more vertical transverse statically-constructed over.- head roof-trusses having rigid and non-admay be of irregular shape, with diagonal and 13o normal members connecting thesides ofl aid frame to said longitudinal members, an d1- agonal and normal members connecting the top and-bottom of such frame to said longitudinal members, substantially as described.
8. A railway-car frame having' normal' and diagonal braces in its side faces, the ,latter ofV variable depth, in combination with diagonal and normal braces in its top and bottom faces,
and bottom faces, IO'
ylateral top, bottom, and side faces,`the latter and knee-braces between the sides and top substantially as described. 9. A railway-car frame consisting of trussed of Variable depth, in combination with a ltrussedroofvsupporting frame or auxiliary body, substantially as described.
10. A railway ear frame consisting of trussed lateral top, bottom, and side faces,
the latter of variable depth, in combination with a trussed-loor-supporting frame or auX- iliary body, substantially as described.
11; A railway car frame consisting of trussedl lateral 13.01), bottom and side faces, the latter of variable depth, in combination with a trussed floor,l and also av trussedroof-snpporting frame forming each an substantially as described. y
12. A statically-constructed railwaycar frame wherein any or all exterior or interior faces arc each constructed of two or more ,l
statically-constructed trusses integrally connected together for each face, so as to form one tru-ss of -variable depth and having open-` ings for windows or doors, substantially as described.
auxiliary body, vtainthe floor are inclined,
13. A -static'ally-A constructed railwaycar frame having longitudinal girders with a diminished depth at their ends, in combination with top and bottom chords, the arrangement being such as to resist collision strains more evenly.
14. A statically constructed railwaycar lframe containing two or more` staticallytrussedlioor-frames, each integrally connected therewith and each constitutingv the floor-support, substantially Ias described.
15. A statically constructed railway car frame containing one or more trussed fioorframes integrally connected therewith, each constituting a floor-'support and any or all inclin'ed in any one or various directions t0 assist inthe discharge of the load, substantially as described.
A16. A statically-` constructed railway-car frame-containing one or more trussed Hoorframes integrally connected therewith,- having longitudinal trusses, their greatest depth being at or near the center of the car, while the top chords of the floor-girders which sussubstanti'ally as described.
WENDELL A. ANDERSON.