US 4016298 A
A cheese extender comprised of a congealed mixture of a particular neutralized casein, fat and water. The weight ratios of neutralized casein to fat are from 1:2 to 2:1 and the weight ratios of water to the combination of neutralized casein and fat are from 1:2 to 3:1. The ingredients are heated to at least partially solvate the neutralized casein and then cooled to form the congealed mixture which closely resembles mozzarella cheese in texture, mouth-feel and blandness.
1. A food composition which normally contains cheese and the inclusion thereof as a cheese substitute congealed mixture of: essentially magnesium neutralized casein or potassium neutralized casein or a mixture of magnesium and potassium neutralized casein; a fat having a melting point of 130 neutralized casein-to-fat is from 1:2 to 2:1 and the weight ratio of water to the combination of neutralized casein and fat is from 1:2 to 3:1.
2. The composition of claim 1 having in the substitute admixed therewith an artificial mozzarella cheese flavor.
3. The composition of claim 1 wherein in the substitute the ratio of water to the combination of fat and neutralized casein is between 1.5:1 and 1:1.5.
4. The composition of claim 1 wherein in the substitute the ratio of casein-to-fat is between 1.5:1 and 1:1.5.
5. The composition of claim 1 wherein in the substitute the fat has a melting point between 20
6. The composition of claim 1 wherein in the substitute the combination of neutralized casein and fat constitute at least 50% by weight of the solids content of the substitute.
7. The composition of claim 6 having in the substitute admixed therewith a flavoring or coloring agent.
8. The composition of claim 1 having admixed therewith a natural cheese.
9. The composition of claim 8 wherein the natural cheese is mozzarella cheese.
10. The composition of claim 1 wherein in the substitute the neutralized casein is essentially magnesium neutralized casein.
11. The composition of claim 5 wherein in the substitute the fat is a vegetable fat.
12. The composition of claim 6 wherein in the substitute the casein and fat constitute at least 75% by weight of the solids content of the composition.
13. The composition of claim 8 wherein the amount of the substitute admixed with natural cheese is within the ratio of 1:10 to 10:1.
14. The composition of claim 13 wherein the ratio of substitute to natural cheese is 1:5 to 5:1.
15. The composition of claim 1 wherein the food composition is pizza.
16. The composition of claim 15 wherein the pizza utilizes the said cheese substitute as the only cheese-like component.
17. The composition of claim 1 wherein the substitute also contains either lactic acid or sodium lactate.
18. A food composition which as a dry cheese substitute, magnesium or potassium neutralized casein and a fat having a melting point of 130 being 1:2 to 2:1, and wherein the dry substitute is reconstitutable with water in weight ratios of water-to-composition of between 1:2 to 3:1 to provide a congealed mixture having properties similar to natural cheese.
19. The composition of claim 18 wherein the substitute contains lactic acid or sodium lactate.
20. The composition of claim 19 wherein the substitute is in a spray-dried form.
21. The spray-dried substitute of claim 20 having admixed therewith either lactic acid, sodium lactate or sodium chloride.
This is a divisional application of U.S. application Ser. No. 455,510, filed Mar. 27, 1974, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,917,854.
The present invention relates to a cheese substitute and/or extender and method for production and use thereof. More particularly, the invention relates to a cheese substitute and/or extender which, when heated, exhibits the property of stringing similar to natural mozzarella cheese.
In the last 15 years, the per capita consumption of Italian style cheese has increased approximately tenfold. While there has been a significant increase in the consumption of traditional Italian style cheeses, such as romano, parmesan and ricotta, by far the most dramatic increase, in United States consumption of Italian style cheese has been in connection with mozzarella. This has been due to the unusually rapid popularization of pizza in the United States. Mozzarella cheese is, by far, the most dominant cheese used in producing pizza, with provolone cheese constituting the next most significant pizza cheese.
The amount of other cheeses used in the production of pizza has been relatively insignificant compared with the amount of mozzarella cheese because of the unique stringy characteristic of heat plasticized mozzarella cheese. Other types of cheese cannot produce this same stringy effect, and the consuming public will not, generally, accept a cheese pizza which does not exhibit the characteristic of stringiness. Additionally, the mozzarella cheese has a distinctive and relatively clear taste which cannot be duplicated by other cheeses. Just as important, the clear taste does not override the taste of spices and other flavors used in pizza preparation, as is the case in other cheeses which have stronger and more lingering flavors. For example, while cheddar cheese or provolone cheese can produce some stringiness in a heated pizza, the flavors of these cheeses so override the flavors of the pizza spices that the consuming public does not, generally, accept these cheeses as substitutes for mozzarella cheese.
The substantial increase in demand for mozzarella cheese has not only caused difficulties in obtaining predictable supplies thereof, but has significantly increased the cost of the mozzarella cheese. In view thereof, the art has sought means for supplementing or extending (or indeed replacing) the mozzarella cheese used in pizza production wherein the desired characteristics of the mozzarella cheese, as discussed above, are preserved. However, these efforts have met with only partial success. Such supplements or extenders have not been able to accurately reproduce the stringy characteristic of mozarella cheese and/or they have undesired flavors. Additionally, since the relatively bland and clear flavor of mozzarella cheese has not been accurately reproduced, the supplements or extenders often either mask the pizza spice flavors or overwhelm the mozzarella cheese flavor.
For the foregoing reasons, prior available supplements of extenders for mozzarella cheese have not enjoyed substantial commercial success and have not been generally acceptable to the consuming public. It would, therefore, be most advantageous to produce a supplement or extender for mozzarella cheese which preserves the appearance, texture and character of the mozzarella cheese but does not adversely affect the flavor of a pizza produced therefrom.
It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide a mozzarella cheese supplement or extender which can be used in major amounts with, or totally replace, the mozzarella cheese used in producing pizza and other food products. It is a further object of the invention to provide such extenders wherein the stringy characteristic of the mozzarella cheese is preserved. It is yet a further object of the invention to provide such products wherein the flavor of the extender does not mask or override the pizza spice flavors. It is yet a further object of the invention to provide such an extender in a very convenient-to-use form, which can be easily transported, stored, and utilized. It is a further object of the invention to provide methods for producing such extenders. Lastly, it is an object of the invention to provide methods of use for such extenders and foods containing the extenders. Other objects will be apparent from the following disclosures and claims.
Very briefly stated, it has now been discovered that a congealed (gelled) mixture of a particular neutralized casein, fat and water can produce a mozzarella cheese extender which provides the stringy characteristic of mozzarella cheese and is of such flavor that the pizza spices and the mozzarella cheese flavor are not masked by the extender. Further, when the cheese extender has a cheese-like flavor incorporated therein, the extender can be substituted either in major amounts or totally for the mozzarella cheese used in making pizza.
The neutralized casein is produced from acid casein which has been neutralized in such a manner that the objectionable taste and mouthfeel of conventional acid casein are eliminated. Further, the neutralized casein has been neutralized in such a manner that it functions to congeal the mixture thereof with fat and water to produce a gelled stringy material which mimics the physical characteristics of mozzarella cheese. Indeed, the present extender has moisture, protein, fat and ash contents quite similar to mozzarella cheese. The composition may also contain conventional additives, such as coloring agents, flavoring agents, vitamin and mineral supplements, preservatives, and the like.
The present mozzarella cheese extender must be a congealed mixture (as more fully explained hereinafter) of a bland and gellable neutralized casein, fat and water.
The neutralized casein is prepared by the method of copending application No. 455,511, filed on Mar. 27, 1974, and now refiled as continuation application Ser. No. 658,906, entitled BLAND NEUTRALIZED CASEIN, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference and relied upon. The essential steps of the preferred process of the copending application are as follows. Casein is neutralized with a magnesium or potassium base (or precursor thereof) in such a manner that the resulting neutralized casein does not include the objectional flavor and consistency components normally associated with conventionally neutralized caseinates, such as sodium and calcium caseinates. To accomplish this result, the casein is dispersed in hot water and sufficient base is added, or vice-versa, to reach a pH of 6.0 to 8.5, especially about 6.8 to 7.2, e.g., 7.1. However, care should be taken when operating at the higher pH ranges, e.g. at 8.3 or higher, that no substantial amounts of undissolved base remain in the hot water. Thereafter, the solids are separated from the mother liquid e.g., by drying, filtering or centrifuging.
The casein is obtained by coagulation of commercially available acid casein in a hot, non-toxic salt solution at temperatures of about 150 to about 210 potassium salts are preferred, e.g. a halide, nitrate, nitride, sulfide, sulfate, etc. Magnesium halide, e.g. magnesium chloride, is the most preferred. After draining the mother liquid, the coagulated curd may be washed one or more times, but this is not required.
The curd is then suspended in heated water, e.g. about 100 about 210 magnesium or potassium base may be any non-toxic base or precursor thereof. However, an oxide or hydroxide is preferred. Sufficient base is added to produce a pH of 6.0 to 8.5, as noted above. The neutralized mixture is homogenized with a high speed stirrer, and then dried, e.g. spray dried (e.g., 290 to 190 purposes of the specification and claims, the terms "neutralized casein" are defined as magnesium or potassium neutralized casein having a pH between 6.0 and 8.5.
The neutralized casein must be bland to the taste in order to not interfere with the cheese and/or pizza flavor. In this regard, sodium and calcium caseinates so interfere with the flavor and so produce unwanted flavors, that these are not equivalents for the present magnesium or potassium neutralized casein.
The fat which is used to produce the present mozzarella extender may be any relatively low melting point vegetable or animal fat, so long as the fat has essentially a bland taste and is a liquid at a temperature of less than 130 Preferably, the melting point is between 20 e.g. between 40 and 120 are more difficult to preserve, the preferred form of the invention is the use of vegetable fat such as derived from coconuts, soybeans, safflower, corn, cotton, etc.
The relative proportions of neutralized casein to fat, as can be appreciated, are such that the ingredients will form a gel and, in combination with natural mozzarella cheese, will preserve the stringy characteristic of the mozzarella cheese.
Thus, in order to mimic the stringy characteristic of mozzarella cheese, the weight to weight ratio of neutralized casein to fat must be between 2:1 and 1:2 and best results are obtained when this ratio is between 1:1.5 and 1.1:1, e.g., 1:1.
Also, in order to provide the stringy characteristic, the extender must have substantial amounts of water incorporated in the congealed mixture. The weight to weight ratio of water to the neutralized casein/fat combination must be within 1:2 to 3:1, especially 1.5:1 to 1:1.5, e.g. 1.25:1 to 1:1.25, and particularly 1:1.
The remainder of the ingredients of the present extender can be as desired. However, the combination of neutralized casein and fat should comprise at least 50% of the total solids of the extender composition, preferably at least 60% to 75%, and more preferably at least 90% to 92%. The remaining ingredients can be coventional flavorings, certified food colorings, preservatives, etc., such as salt, lactic acid or lactates, butter oils, especially lipolyzed butter oils, colorants, such as titanium dioxide or carotene.
It is also an important feature of the present invention that the extender can be produced, packaged, stored, and shipped in a dried form, i.e. without the necessary water, and the water can be added just prior to reconstituting the dry extender ingredients for use with mozzarella cheese. This saves considerably on the difficulty and expense of transporting and storing the present extender as opposed to naturally produced mozzarella cheese which must be transported and stored under refrigerated conditions. For this purpose, in a dried form means that the composition is dried until it has a water content of less than 10% by weight, e.g., less than 8% or even 6%.
The dry extender ingredients may be prepared by forming a suspension or emulsion of the neutralized casein and fat, along with desired optional ingredients as noted above, and then drying, e.g., spray drying (1500 psig nozzle pressure, 290 free-flowing, non-sticky powder. Alternately, the dry ingredients and fat can simply be mechanically mixed, e.g. a Votator mixer. Thus, considerable latitude can be utilized in preparing the extender.
Alternately, the ingredients, i.e. neutralized casein, fat and optional ingredients may be stored separately and mixed just prior to gelling the ingredients with water for incorporation with mozzarella cheese. If desired, mozzarella cheese may be added to either of the above described dry mixtures. Of course, if the mozzarella cheese is added in the natural form, the dry compositions will no longer be storage stable. If it is desired to produce a storage stable composition with mozzarella cheese therein, the composition with the natural cheese (or just the cheese) can be spray dried and the entire spray-dried composition reconstituted with water and gelled just prior to use in pizza production.
The extender may totally replace the natural mozzarella cheese in food compositions, e.g. pizza, but it is preferred that the extender, if not artifically flavored, be used in ratios between 1:10 and 10:1 with natural cheese (on a solids basis). Good mixtures in this regard will be between 1:5 and 5:1, especially 1:2 and 2:1, i.e. 1:1.
It should be understood that the present composition, when prepared for immediate use, as opposed to in the dry form, is a congealed mixture of the defined neutralized casein, fat and water. In this context, the term "congealed" is defined as a homogeneous mixture with no visibly detectible different phases, i.e., the water, casein and fat are not in visibly, discernably different phases. Accordingly, it is clear that the term does not include a simple mechanical mixture of the ingredients, and indeed the composition is best described as a gel. While not bound by theory, it appears that the present particular neutralized casein is sufficiently solvated by the water to act as a semi-solid emulsifier fo the fat and water, i.e., it is gellable. Thus, the neutralized casein used in the practice of this invention must be capable of producing a gel of the described ingredients.
The neutralized casein appears to far more rapidly solvate at elevated temperature, which allows the required gel formation to be more rapidly produced. Therefore, the neutralized casein should be mixed with the fat and water at temperatures of at least 120 150 at these temperatures the neutralized casein can begin to denature. Thus, it is preferred that the mixing be at temperatures of less than 205 preferred temperature is 180
On cooling, e.g., below 95 heated mixture of the neutralized casein, fat and water congeals to form the gel-like solid. The cooled and congealed mixture has the physical appearance and properties of mozzarella cheese, i.e. somewhat elastic, or rubbery, a coherent feel in the mouth, meltable and heat plasticizable to a stringy character. At cooler temperatures, e.g., 75 60 improved grating, temperatures between 40 be used.
The particular neutralized casein used in the composition is therefore critical to the invention. The neutralized casein must be so gellable that the congealed ingredients produce the stringy character and mouth feel of mozzarella cheese. Also, the neutralized casein must be so bland as to not adversely affect the flavor of the gelled ingredients. Further, the neutralized casein must have the ability to produce such a gel within acceptable ratios of the present particular neutralized casein to the other necessary ingredients or optionally included ingredients. In this latter regard, certain optional ingredients are noted hereinbefore, but it should also be appreciated to conventional food "fillers" and "bulking agents" may also be used, including conventional acid casein and caseinates, but the conventional casein and caseinates are not embraced by the term "bland and gellable neutralized casein" as defined above. Any of the conventional caseins or caseinates, e.g. acid casein, sodium caseinate, potassium caseinate, or calcium caseinate may be used as "fillers" and "bulking agents".
The invention will be illustrated by the following examples, but it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific examples but extends to the breadth described above.
Into a steam-heated jacketed mixing tank were placed 865 pounds of water and 10 pounds of magnesium chloride. With heating and stirring, the resulting solution reached a temperature of approximately 200 Thereafter, with vigorous stirring, were slowly added 125 pounds of commercial acid casein on a solids basis and the mixture was stirred for approximately three minutes while maintaining the temperature near 200 to the top of the liquid, forming a curd of bread-dough-like consistency. The pH of the curd was approximately 4.5. The curd was off-white in color, and it was apparent from the appearance, consistency and taste of the curd that significant amounts of undesired components and flavors had been removed. The jacket of the tank was heated to temperatures of approximately 220 to drain the mother liquid.
300 pounds of the curd (containing 120 pounds of casein solids) were resuspended in 300 pounds of water heated to 140 the curd disintegrated into a coarse slurry.
Magnesium oxide was added to this slurry and the pH was monitored. After about one-half hour, the pH of the liquid and curd was approximately 7 About 1.6 pounds of magnesium oxide per 100 pounds of curd had been added to provide this pH. The slurry was then passed through a Matin-Gaulin homogenizer operated at 500 psig and spray dried in a conventional box spray drier with an inlet temperature of about 300 outlet temperature of about 185 spray drier was about 1500 psig.
The resulting dried neutralized casein powder was very white in color and had essentially no taste.
An analysis of the dried neutralized casein, on a dry basis, showed the following analysis:
Carbohydrate, less than 0.05%
The analysis also showed 1.25% magnesium.
Ten milliliters of a 5% solution of the product was dialyzed against one liter of a doubly deionized water for 72 hours, using a cellulose dialyzer tube (Fisher Scientific Company). This membrane retains materials with molecular weights of 12,000 and higher, and has an average pore diameter of 4.8 millimicrons. The dialyzed sample was dried under vacuum at room temperature and the quantity of magnesium was determined by atomic absorption using the Perkin-Elmer's method and showed that after dialysis the magnesium content in the sample was only about 5 10.sup.-.sup.3 %. The loss of magnesium on dialysis shows that the magnesium is not tied to the larger protein molecule, but is free to be removed by passing through the membrane.
Mozzarella cheese extender was prepared in the following manner.
Twenty-two parts of hydrogenated soybean oil (95 were heated to 180 parts of titanium dioxide were added with stirring to the hot oil. To this mixture was added 25 parts of the spray-dried neutralized casein of Example I. With stirring the neutralized casein was dispersed in the hot fat. 49 parts of water were heated to 160 thereto were 2 parts of salt, 1.5 parts of lactic acid (88%) and 0.3 parts of sodium lactate (50%) and coloring.
With steady agitation, the water mixture was added to the fat-protein dispersion and a homogeneous mixture was produced (no free fat or water) in about 4 to 5 minutes. The hot product was poured into 5-pound loaf molds and cooled to 50 cooled product had the consistency, feel and general appearance of mozzarella cheese, although the flavor was exceptionally bland.
Traditional pizza dough was prepared by mixing flour, salt, solid vegetable shortening, scalded milk and dried yeast. The dough was allowed to raise in the conventional manner and rolled into an unbaked pizza crust. The crust was lightly brushed with olive oil and traditional pizza sauce was placed thereon. The sauce was prepared by mixing mascerated tomatoes, minced garlic, minced onion, olive oil, oregano, freshly ground black pepper and red pepper flakes. Onto the pizza sauce was placed a mixture of grated mozzarella cheese and the product of Example II in a similar grated form. The weight ratio of the mozzarella cheese and the product of Example II was 1 to 1.
Thereafter, the pizza was baked at 420 cheese of the baked pizza was white, of a milky translucent appearance and when pulled, stringed in a manner essentially the same as mozzarella cheese.
As a comparison, a pizza was prepared in the same manner as described above, except that the extender of Example II was not used, and the corresponding amount of natural mozzarella was used in its place. The all-mozzarella cheese pizza could not be distinguished from the pizza with the present extender in terms of its appearance, stringiness, or other physical characteristics.
Example II was repeated except that the extender had incorporated therein a mozzarella cheese flavor produced according to the method of U.S. Pat. No. 3,667,968, in an amount of 15% by weight of the extender. In this case, the flavor, as well as the physical characteristics of the pizza produced with the extender was essentially indistinguishable from the pizza produced with all mozzarella cheese.
Example III was repeated except that the extender of Example II was produced from a neutralized casein, according to Example I, except that potassium chloride and potassium oxide were used instead of magnesium chloride and magnesium oxide, respectively. The pizza did not string as well as that of Example III but the stringiness was acceptable. The taste was acceptable, but not as true as that of example III.