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Publication numberUS4020331 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 05/659,586
Publication dateApr 26, 1977
Filing dateFeb 19, 1976
Priority dateAug 30, 1973
Also published asDE2441279A1, DE2441279B2, DE2441279C3
Publication number05659586, 659586, US 4020331 A, US 4020331A, US-A-4020331, US4020331 A, US4020331A
InventorsToshihiro Kimura, Yasumasa Narikiyo
Original AssigneeOkuma Machinery Works Ltd.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Feed rate control system for numerical control machine tool
US 4020331 A
Abstract
A feed rate control system for a numerical control system comprising a circuit to produce a unit movement quantity ΔS and a unit feed rate ΔF, a circuit to accumulate the unit feed rate ΔF at each pulse of the pulse generator and to store them, a ratio calculator to obtain the ratio M of the output numerical value ΣΔF to said unit movement quantity ΔS, multipliers MUL1, MUL2, and MUL3 to multiply said unit movement quantity ΔS, a Z-axis increment ΔZ of said unit movement quantity ΔS and a X-axis increment ΔX, respectively, by said ratio calculator output M, and a circuit to compare the output numerical value ΣΔF of the storage circuit with the unit movement quantity ΔS and to produce an accumulating signal t whenever said ΣΔF is larger than said ΔS, said accumulating signal controlling t the feed rate of the machine tool, which is provided with a high feed rate circuit.
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Claims(2)
What we claim is:
1. A feed rate control system for a numerical control system having a circuit to produce a unit movement quantity ΔS and a unit feed rate ΔF, a circuit to accumulate the unit feed rate ΔF at each pulse of the pulse generator and to store them, and a circuit to compare the output numerical value ΣΔF of the storage circuit with the unit movement quantity ΔS and to produce an accumulating signal t whenever said ΣΔF is larger than said ΔS, said accumulating signal controlling t the feed rate of the machine tool, which is provided with a high feed rate circuit comprising: a ratio calculator RATIO CAL to obtain the ratio M of said output numerical value ΣΔF to said unit mivement quantity ΔS; and multipliers MUL1, MUL2, and MUL3 to multiply said unit movement quantity ΔS, a Z-axis increment ΔZ of said unit movement quantity ΔS and a X-axis increment ΔX, respectively, by said ratio calculator output M, wherein the output M.sup.. ΔZ of said multiplier MUL2 and the output M.sup.. ΔX of said multiplier MUL3 are added to the corresponding contents of a Z-axis drive register ΣMΔZREG and a X-axis drive register ΣM.sup.. ΔXREG register, respectively, in response to the accumulating signal t which is generated when the output E of a subtractor SUB is in the condition E = ΣΔF - M.sup.. ΔX ≧ O, the subtractor serving to subtract the output M.sup.. ΔS of said multiplier MUL1 from said output numerical value ΣΔF.
2. A feed rate control system for a numerical control system claimed in claim 1, which is further provided with an automatic acceleration and deceleration circuit including a register ΣΔTREG capable of increasing said unit feed rate ΔF to the feed rate command value F by an arbitrary amount of value ΔT at each clock pulse in response to an acceleration command ACC and also decreasing said unit feed rate ΔF by an arbitrary amount of value ΔT at each clock pulse in response to a deceleration command DCC, wherein said unit feed rate ΔF is calculated from said register ΣΔTREG thereby enabling a high feed rate control and an automatic acceleration and deceleration control.
Description

The present invention relates to a feed rate control in numerical control system in which a moving member is fed at a high feed rate with high occuracy of positioning.

A conventional numerical control has a problem with respect to the feed rate of the moving member and the accuracy of positioning. That is, when the positioning is made with a high accuracy, the feed rate is low. This arises from the fact that, in the prior art of feed rate control system, LSD (least significant digit) of interpolator is the same as that of the programmed axis command, and the calculating rate of interpolator has a limit in operating speed, so the feed rate of the moving member is restricted. This feed rate control system has been disclosed in the Japanese Patent Publication No. 9649/1972, filed by the applicant of this patent application. However, a brief description will be given below, for ease of understanding the present invention.

FIG. 1a illustrates a relationship between the feed rate of the tool rest and the amount of movement having two directional components, in the case of the lathe, for example. In the figure, the logitudinal SLIDE of the tool rest is taken along a Z-axis while the transverse SLIDE is taken along a X-axis. FIG. 1a also illustrates a state that the tool rest moves in a straight path from a starting point So to an arrival point Sn with a feed rate F (mm/rev) synchronized to the rotation of the main spindle of the machine tool, using a pulse generator (PG) geared to the main spindle. Here, ΔZ and ΔX designate a Z-axis and a X-axis of a unit quantity of movement ΔS. N is a value obtained so that the larger of the two increments ΔX and ΔZ is selected to be less than or equal to the LSD of the command. In FIG. 1b, ΔF is a unit feed rate and Q is the number of pulses which PG generates at every revolution of the main spindle.

FIG. 2 is a block schematic diagram of a conventional feed rate control circuit. The unit feed rate ΔF is accumulated each pulse of PG. An accumulation signal t is generated whenever the former ΣΔF is larger than the latter ΔS where ΣΔF is accumulation of ΔF. The accumulating signal t is used to control the calculating rate of the interpolator generating the contouring outputs x (= ΣΔX) and z (= ΣΔZ).

FIG. 3 shows the variations of the outputs ΣΔX and ΣΔZ of interpolator in the feed rate control circuit depicted with a block diagram in FIG. 2. The command value F of the feed rate is selected, for example, in a way that the unit feed rate ΔF is 1/4 of the unit movement quantity ΔS. The Z-axis increment ΔZ and the X-axis increment ΔX of the unit movement quantity ΔS are accumulated, respectively, every time the accumulating signal t is generated.

FIG. 4 shows how the unit feed rate ΔF is accumulated to obtain the outputs of the interpolator shown in FIG. 3. As shown in the figure, the unit feed rate ΔF (= ΔS/4) is accumulated in synchronixm with the pulse of PG and the sum resulted therefrom reaches the unit movement quantity ΔS every four times of the addition to generate the accumulating signal t. The feed rate control circuit mentioned above is constructed with the intention of attaining a high accuracy of positioning. For this, it is effective only when the unit feed rate of the tool rest ΔF is small compared with the unit movement quantity ΔS. This gives a limit to the command value F of the feed rate. That is, in case the command value F is large in this feed rate control circuit, the unit feed rate ΔF which is given in synchronism with the pulse of the pulse generator is larger than the unit movement quantity. In addition, interpolator effecting the calculation of E = ΣΔF - ΔS has a limit in the calculating speed. Accordingly, the control circuit of the prior art is ineffective in processing such unit feed rate ΔF with the result that the value of E grows to be infinit, thus failing to obtain a desired feed rate.

In the light of the disadvantage mentioned above, the present invention proposes a feed rate control system capable of controlling positioning with a high accuracy, while at the same time capable of automatic acceleration and deceleration control as well as a high feed rate control.

According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a feed rate control system for a numerical control having a circuit to product a unit movement quantity ΔS and a unit feed rate ΔF, a circuit to accumulate the unit feed rate ΔF each pulse of the PG and to store them, and a circuit to compare the output ΣΔF of the storage circuit with the unit movement quantity ΔS and to produce an accumulating signal whenever the former ΣΔF is larger than the latter ΔS, the accumulating signal controlling the feed rate of the machine tool, which is provided with a high feed rate circuit comprising: a ratio calculator RATIO CAL to obtain the ratio M of said output numerical value ΣΔF to said unit movement quantity ΔS; and multipliers MUL1, MUL2, and MUL3 to multiply said unit movement quantity ΔS, a Z-axis increment ΔZ of said unit movement quantity ΔS and a X-axis increment ΔX, respectively, by said ratio calculator output M, wherein the output M.ΔZ of said multiplier MUL2 and the output M.ΔX of said multiplier MUL3 are added to the corresponding contents of the Z-axis drive register ΣM.ΔZREG and the X-axis drive register ΣM.ΔXREG, respectively, in response to the accumulating signal t which is generated when the output E of the subtractor SUB is in the condition E = ΣΔF - M.ΔS≧O, the subtractor serving to subtract the output M.ΔS of said multiplier MUL1 from said output numerical value ΣΔF.

The above and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will be more clear from the following description with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1a is a graph to illustrate a relationship between the command feed rate of tool and the movement quantity possessing two directional components,

FIG. 1b illustrates a relationship between the command feed rate of tool and a unit feed rate thereof,

FIG. 2 shows a block schematic diagram of a prior art feed rate control circuit,

FIG. 3 is a diagramatical illustration of a variation of the output signals of the interpolator in the feed rate control circuit in FIG. 2,

FIG. 4 is a diagramatical illustration of a state that a unit feed rate is cumulatively added to in order to produce the output signals of the interpolator shown in FIG. 3,

FIG. 5 is a block schematic diagram of a feed rate control circuit according to the present invention,

FIG. 6 is a diagramatical illustration of a variation of the output signals of the interpolator in the feed rate control circuit in FIG. 5, and

FIG. 7 is a diagramatic illustration of a state where a unit feed rate is cumulatively added in order to obtain the output signals of the interpolator shown in FIG. 5.

Reference is now made to FIG. 5 schematically illustrating an embodiment of a feed rate control system according to the present invention. The two circuitry blocks surrounded with a dot dash line, i.e. an automatic acceleration and deceleration control circuit and a high feed rate control circuit shown in FIG. 5, is essential to the present invention. However, an over all circuit construction of the feed rate control system will first be described, for an aid of better understanding the present invention. In the FIG. 5, FREG designates a register for holding a command numerical value of feed rate F obtained through a gate G1 which is enabled by an external signal q0. The command numerical value of feed rate F derived from the register passes through a gate G1 which is disabled by the external signal q0 to return to the input of the register RREG, thereby continuing to hold the command numerical value F therein. Here, the characters G1 and G1 represent gates which are related in an inversion, and enabled and disabled by an external signal q0. A register ΣΔTREG holds the result obtained from calculator CAL2, calculation of register ΣΔT REG's content and a determinate value ΔT to determine an acceleration and deceleration curve which is fed through a gate G5 which is abled by the application thereto of the external signal q1. The calculator CAL2 functions as an adder when an acceleration command ACC is applied thereto while as a subtractor when it receives a deceleration command DCC. A comparator COM serves to compare the command value F of feed rate and the output value ΣΔT of the register ΣΔTREG and produces an output of "LOW" when these compared ones coincides each other. NOT circuits N1 and N2 produce "HIGH" at the respective outputs when "LOW" are the outputs of the comparator COM and the register ΣΔT, respectively. AND circuits AND1 and AND2 receive the inverted outputs of the NOT circuits and the acceleration command ACC and the deceleration command DCC, respectively, as shown in the figure. An OR circuit OR1 receives the outputs of the AND circuits AND1 and AND2. In an adder ADD1, the output numerical value ΣΔF of a register ΣΔFREG is added to the output numerical value ΔF (= ΣΔT/Q) read from the register ΣΔTREG through a gate G2 which is enabled by a pulse signal P of a pulse generator PG which is mechanically connected with the main spindle in a manner that Q pulses are generated each one revolution of the main spindle. The register ΣΔFREG the output of the adder ADD1 through a gate G3 which is disabled by an accumulating signal t to be described later. A subtractor SUB effects the subtraction of the output numerical value ΣΔF of the register ΣΔFREG and a unit movement quantity M.sup.. ΔS to be described later to obtain a difference E therebetween, i.e. E = ΣΔF - M.sup.. ΔS. The subtractor SUB also, when the calculated difference E is positive or zero, produces the accumulating signal t to enable the gates G3 and G4 while to disable the gate G3. The difference E is held in the register ΣΔFREG through the gate G3 which is enabled when the accumulating signal t is applied thereto. A register ZREG holds a command value Z of the Z-axis component of the tool moved from the start point So to the end point Sn shown in FIG. 1, through the gate G1 which is enabled by the application thereto of the external signal q0. The output Z of the register reenters the register itself through the gate G1 which is disabled in response to the external signal q0, thereby continuing to hold the command value Z therein.

An adder ADD2 exercises an addition of the output ΣM.sup.. 66 Z of a register ΣM.sup.. ΔZREG to the product M.ΔZ of the output numerical value ΔZ read out of the register ZREG and the ratio M from a high speed feed rate circuit to be described later, the product M.ΔZ being delivered to the adder ADD2 from the high feed rate circuit through a gate G4 enabled when the accumulating signal t is applied thereto. The register ΣM.sup.. ΔZREG holds the output numerical value of the adder ADD2, ΣM.sup.. ΔZ = z, therein, which is a command value to be compared with the detected value of the Z-axial component representing the actual position of tool, and also is delivered to the input of the adder ADD2. Similarly, a register XREG holds a command value X of the X-axis component of the tool movement from the start point So to the end point Sn shown in FIG. 1, while the command value X reaches the register XREG through the gate G1 being enabled in response to the impression thereto of the external signal q0. The output numerical value X of the register reenters the register itself through the gate G1 being disabled by the application thereto of the external signal q0, thereby continuing to hold the command value X therein.

An adder ADD3 exercises an addition of the output ΣM.sup.. ΔX of a register ΣM.sup.. ΔXREG to the product M.sup.. ΔX of the output numerical value ΔX read out of the register XREG and the ratio M to be described later, while the product M.sup.. ΔX is delivered to the adder ADD3 through the gate G4 enabled when the accumulating signal t is applied thereto. The register ΣM.sup.. ΔXREG holds the output numerical value of the adder ADD3, ΣM.sup.. ΔX = x, therein, which is a command value to be compared with the detected value of the X-axial component representing the actual position of the tool rest, and also is applied to the input of the adder ADD3. A calculator CAL1 receives the numerical values ΔZ and ΔX read out of the respective corresponding registers ZREG and XREG and calculates these values to produce a unit movement quantity ΔS. The output numerical value ΔS is multiplied by the ratio M to be described later to obtain the product M.sup.. ΔS. The product M.sup.. ΔS is transferred to the subtractor SUB and is operated together with the feed rate ΣΔF to produce the difference E therebetween, as previously described. In this specification, the circuitry to obtain the command numerical values ΣM.sup.. ΔZ = z and ΣM.sup.. ΔX = x will be referred to as a interpolator. A ratio calculator RATIO.CAL operates to obtain the ratio of the feed rate ΣΔF to the unit movement quantity ΔS, M = (ΣΔF/ΔS). The ratio M is then transferred to the respective multipliers MUL1, MUL2, and MUL3, and is multiplied therein by the respective corresponding output values, ΔS, ΔZ, and ΔX. Further, the ratio M is selected in a way that, when ΔF < ΔS, M 1, and when ΔF ≧ ΔS, M = (ΣΔF/ΔS) (M should be an integer for easy operation obtained by neglecting fractional part).

An operation of the feed rate control system above mentioned will next be described. Since the circuitry except the two circuitries mentioned above and surrounded with a dot-dash-line is the same as the circuitry disclosed in the Patent Publication previously mentioned filed by the applicant of this patent application, the operation thereof will not described. The automatic acceleration and deceleration control circuit which is one of features of the present invention, will first be described with respect to the operation thereof. In the case of acceleration, the calculator CAL2 is made to operate as an adder by the application thereto of the acceleration command ACC, and operates to add ΔT which is a determinant of the inclination of acceleration to the content in the register ΣΔTREG whose initial value is zero, in response to the arrival of each clock pulse q1. The result of the addition ΣΔT is then compared in the comparator COM with the command value F of feed rate. When these coincide with each other, the comparator COM produces "LOW" at its output which in turn is inverted by the inverter N1 into "HIGH". The output HIGH of the inverter passes through the AND gate AND1 receiving the acceleration command ACC and the OR gate OR1 to disable the gate G6 thereby to stop the addition of the determinant ΔT. In the case of deceleration, the calculator CAL2 is made to operate as a subtractor by the application thereto of the deceleration command DCC, and operates to subtract the determinant ΔT from the content ΣΔT in the register ΣΔTREG on each arrival of the clock pulse q1, as inverse to the case of acceleration. As a result of the sequencial subtraction, the content ΣΔT is O, which is then inverted by the inverter N2 into HIGH. The output HIGH passes through the AND gate AND2 receiving the deceleration command DCC and the OR gate OR1 to disable the gate G6 thereby to stop the deceleration of ΔT. The quotient ΔF (= (ΣΔT/Q)) of the division of the content ΣΔT of the register ΣΔTREG by the number of pulses Q for each revolution of the main spindle of the pulse generator PG, is derived from the register ΣΔTREG. The quotient ΔF is fed, in synchronism with the pulses of the pulse generator PG, to the register ΣΔFREG through the adder ADD1.

A next description will be made about the operation of the high feed rate control circuit. When the command value F of the feed rate is small, the quotient ΔF taken out of the automatic acceleration and deceleration control circuit is smaller than the unit movement quantity ΔS over the entire range of the feed rate to be controlled, i.e. the entire range of the feed rate of acceleration and deceleration. As previously described, in this case, the operation of the equation E = ΣΔF - ΔS is permitted. On the other hand, when the command value of the feed rate F is large, the quotient ΔF is larger than ΔS. The interpolator effecting the operation of E = ΣΔF - ΔS has a limit in the operating speed. Thus, the feed rate control circuit is ineffective to process the ΔF so that the difference E grows to be an infinite, thus failing to obtain a desired feed rate, as previously described. However, in the present invention, the content ΣΔF in the register ΣΔFREG shortly after the quotient ΔF coming, in synchronism with the pulse of the guplse generator PG, thereinto is compared in the ratio calculator RATIO CAL with the unit movement quantity ΔS to obtain the ratio M. In the ratio calculator RATIO CAL, 1 the state M = 1 under the condition ΔF < ΔS corresponds to that in the Patent Publication No. 9649/1972, mentioned above.

2 On the other hand the state M = (ΣΔF/ΔS) (M should be an integer obtained by neglecting fractional part) under the condition ΔF ≧ ΔS, satisfies the requirement of a high feed rate control, and, in this case, the product M.sup.. ΔS multiplied the unit movement quantity ΔS by the ratio M is obtained through the multiplier MUL1 and then the product M.sup.. ΔS is fed to the subtractor SUM where the subtraction E = ΣΔF - M.sup.. ΔS is effected. The result of the subtraction E is entered into the register ΣΔFREG through the gate G3 enabled by the accumulating signal t immediately after the subtraction. The difference E in turn is added in the adder ADD1 to the unit feed rate ΔF coming thereinto through the gate G2 enabled in synchronism with the pulse generator, and the result of the addition is entered through the gate G3 into the register ΣΔF.sub. REG. The result of the addition is the subsequent content ΣΔF of the register ΣΔFREG. The content ΣΔF is calculated in the ratio calculator RATIO CAL to obtain the ratio thereof to the unit movement quantity ΔS, and a similar process will be repeated successively. In the high feed rate control circuit, the output M of the RATIO CAL is applied to the respective multipliers MUL2 and MUL3 whose corresponding outputs M.sup.. ΔZ and M.sup.. ΔX are applied through the gates G4 enabled by the accumulating signal t of the subtractor SUB to the respective corresponding adders ADD2 and ADD3. The outputs M.sup.. ΔX of the multipliers applied to the adders are added therein to the respective corresponding contents of the Z-axis register ΣM.sup.. ΔZREG and the X-axis registor ΣM.sup.. ΔXREG and the results from the addition ΣM.sup.. ΔZ = z and ΣM.sup.. ΔX = x appearing at the respective registors are used as the Z-axis and the X-axis outputs of the interpolator.

FIG. 6 shows an example of the feed rate command F accompanying the automatic acceleration and deceleration control in a manner that the unit feed rate ΔF is increased twice the unit movement quantity ΔS, then is kept constant for a time, and finally is gradually decreased to zero. As can be seen from the figure, the accumulating signal t for causing the interpolator to produce the output, occurs once every three pulses of the pulse generator and, at this time, the moving increment is ΔZ for Z-axis while ΔX is for X-axis. Following this, the accumulating signal t occurs once each pulse of the pulse generator PG with increase of the interpolator output. At a point of the increase thereof, the Z-axis moving increment takes a change to 2.sup.. ΔZ in response to the acceleration command, the X-axis moving increment to 2.sup.. ΔX.

After this, the interpolator generator outputs continues to increase at a constant rate, and, at a point of the increase thereof, the z-axis moving increment returns to ΔZ while the x-axis moving increment to ΔX, in response to the deceleration command DCC. This deceleration state of the interpolator is controled to make the contouring path to final position. In this example having described heretofore, the command value F of the feed rate is used whose unit feed rate ΔF is twice the unit movement quantity ΔS. Note, however, that, in the present invention, the use of the ratio calculator in the high feed rate circuit would permit the use of a larger command value within the servo system capability to follow.

Referring now to FIG. 7, ΣΔF exceeds the unit movement quantity ΔS at the third pulse of the pulse generator PG to generate the accumulating signal t, as described with reference to FIG. 6. At this time, the ratio M exists in the region of ΔF < ΔS, so that M = 1. From the fourth pulse, the ratio M enters into the region of ΔF ≧ ΔS so that M = 1 is derived from the relation of M = (ΣΔF/ΔS) (M is an integer obtained from neglecting fractional part). From the sixth pulse of the pulse generator, ΣΔF exceeds 2.ΔS, and the ratio calculator output M is 2 depending upon the relation M = (ΣΔF/ΔS). Following this, the feed rate F continues with the condition of M = 2 for a constant feed rate with the deceleration command, into the region of deceleration with M = 1 (not shown in this figure). Although, in the example of this figure, the maximum of M is 2, i.e. M = 2, if the command value F of the feed rate is set large, a larger ratio M is permitted in use, as far as the servo system may operate normally to follow.

As apparent from the foregoing description, the feed rate control system of the present invention is constructed by adding, the automatic feed rate control circuitry and the high feed rate circuitry, to the conventional feed rate control system. As a result, when the command value F of the feed rate is small, the feed rate control system according to the present invention enables high accuracy positioning, and when the command value F is large, high accuracy positioning is also possible. That is, in such a case, the automatic feed rate control circuitry effects the acceleration and when the feed rate reaches the command value F, it stops its accelerating operation and a machine slide is controled at a constant feed rate. When the tool approaches the destination after moving at a constant feed rate, it is decelerated and when the unit feed rate ΔF is sufficiently smaller than the unit movement quantity ΔS, the positioning is completed. Thus, even when the command value F is large, the high feed rate control and the automatic acceleration and deceleration control is enabled. Thus, the effects attained by the present invention are that a high accuracy of positioning is attained and at the same time the time for positioning is shortened. Finally, it is to be noted that the block diagram of the control circuit in FIG. 5 is operable in a high feed rate control, without the automatic acceleration and deceleration control circuitry, if necessary.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3798427 *Feb 27, 1973Mar 19, 1974Giddings & LewisAutomatic deceleration to zero velocity in iteratively computing numerical control systems
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4103069 *Oct 6, 1976Jul 25, 1978Gte Sylvania IncorporatedCoated silver activated zinc sulfide cathode ray tube
US4902950 *Feb 4, 1988Feb 20, 1990Fanuc Ltd.Numerical control method with response delay compensating function
US5723962 *Mar 12, 1996Mar 3, 1998Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki KaishaNumerical control method and numerical control device
US6225772 *Nov 9, 1998May 1, 2001Fanuc Ltd.Acceleration/deceleration control method for numerical control, and numerical control device
Classifications
U.S. Classification318/571
International ClassificationB23Q15/013, G05B19/416
Cooperative ClassificationG05B2219/42186, G05B19/416, G05B2219/43006, G05B2219/34179
European ClassificationG05B19/416