|Publication number||US4025850 A|
|Application number||US 05/618,564|
|Publication date||May 24, 1977|
|Filing date||Oct 1, 1975|
|Priority date||Oct 1, 1975|
|Publication number||05618564, 618564, US 4025850 A, US 4025850A, US-A-4025850, US4025850 A, US4025850A|
|Original Assignee||Joseph Spiteri|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (15), Referenced by (13), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Voltage checkers have been made with a lamp which lights to indicate the presence of a voltage. This type of checker can be made in pocket size and is convenient to use but has a limited range so that several checkers are required to cover a wide range of voltages.
This invention is intended to combine the functions of several narrow range testers into a single unit without increase in size or change in the method of use. The same circuit and the same indicator used for a voltage of 3 volts is also used without change for voltages of 250 volts and higher, a.c. or d.c.
In the drawing,
FIG. 1 is a plan view of a preferred form of voltage checker,
FIG. 2 is a circuit diagram using a NPN transistor, and
FIG. 3 is another circuit diagram using a PNP transistor.
The tester has a housing 1 with a pencil clip 2 for carrying. At the upper end of the housing is an indicator such as a light emitting diode 3 and at the lower end of the housing are flexible leads 4, 5 terminating in insulated hand grip sections 6, 7 and terminals 8, 9 for making contact to the points at which the existence of voltage is to be determined. Low voltage sound emitters may be substituted for the light emitting diode to provide an audio indication. The existence of a voltage of 3 volts or to 250 or more volts is indicated by current flowing through the light emitting diode. All of the current for the light emitting diode flows through diode or rectifier 10, resistor 11, and transistor 12. The diode 10 changes a.c. to d.c., a necessary function. If a.c. were not rectified the tester would burn up. The half wave rectifier 10 is adequate. A full wave rectifier is not necessary. In the case of d.c. voltages, the half wave rectifier performs the additional function of indicating polarity. With a.c. voltages, the terminals may be reversed without changing the indication. With d.c. voltages an indication can be obtained only when the terminal 8 is connected to a positive voltage.
When the terminals 8, 9 are connected across an unknown a.c. voltage, transistor 12 is biased on by the voltage applied through resistor 14 to base or control electrode 12b causing a flow of current through resistor 11, emitter 12e, collector 12c and light emitting diode 3. A voltage limiting means such as zener diode 13, limits the sum of the voltage across resistor 11 (V) plus the emitter to base voltage (Veb) of the transistor to a value which cannot excede the rated voltage of the zener diode 13. The result is to limit the current through resistor 11 to a value less than the rated current of the light emitting diode, typically 15 milliamperes. Because of the voltage limiting effect of the zener diode 13, the transistor 12 sustains all voltages in excess of the voltage drop across the light emitting diode 3, and resistor 11, typically less than 3 volts. For this function the transistor acts as a variable resistor and the result is substantially constant current through the light emitting diode.
Circuit values for the checker shown in FIG. 2 are:
Light emitting diode 3 (LSL-3L) Advacom, Inc.
Resistor 11 330 Ohms 1/2 watt Advacom, Inc.
Resistor 14 27000 Ohms 1/2 watt Advacom, Inc.
Zener diode 13 2.4 volt Solid State, Inc.
Diode 10 IN 4004 Advacom, Inc.
Transistor 12 MPS-A 42 Solid State, Inc.
FIG. 3 is the same as FIG. 2, except for the change in polarity required by the PNP transistor. Corresponding parts are indicated by the same reference numerals primed.
Other voltage limiting devices such as varistors may be substituted for the zeners 13, 13'.
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4184113 *||Nov 7, 1977||Jan 15, 1980||Compu-Trol, Inc.||Method of counting electrical load current pulsations|
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|US4841240 *||Jan 29, 1988||Jun 20, 1989||American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories||Method and apparatus for verifying the continuity between a circuit board and a test fixture|
|US5003250 *||Aug 9, 1988||Mar 26, 1991||Hiroshi Hukuba||Voltage testing device for electric tooth-brush|
|US5940280 *||Apr 8, 1998||Aug 17, 1999||Nippon Electric Industry Co., Ltd.||Converter circuit of battery charger for electric vehicle|
|US6043703 *||Jul 30, 1997||Mar 28, 2000||Allen-Bradley Company, Llc||Low power active input circuit|
|DE4210051A1 *||Mar 27, 1992||Nov 26, 1992||Daimler Benz Ag||HV measurement, esp. for motor vehicle ignition systems - using probe in form of open base transistor with emitter and collector connected to supply via current limiting resistor|
|DE102012106612A1 *||Jul 20, 2012||May 15, 2014||Sma Solar Technology Ag||DC-Verpolungserkennung|
|WO1986006191A1 *||Apr 11, 1985||Oct 23, 1986||Walter J Valentine||Electrical warning system for malfunctions in refrigeration|
|WO2014012900A1||Jul 15, 2013||Jan 23, 2014||Sma Solar Technology Ag||Dc reverse polarity detection|
|U.S. Classification||324/133, 324/119, 323/312, 324/132|
|International Classification||G01R19/155, G01R19/14|
|Cooperative Classification||G01R19/14, G01R19/155|
|European Classification||G01R19/155, G01R19/14|