US 402684 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
) (No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 1.
MAXIM MAGNETIC SEPARATOR.
N0. 402,684. Patented May '7, 1889.
7463-11 aw. Q M InuenZvr a a 5W hwlyw m, W W
N PETERS, Phclo-Lflhcgmpher, Washingiun, D C.
(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet; 2. H. S. MAXIM.
MAGNETIC SEPARATOR. No. 402,684. v Patented May '7, 1889.
' M 151083 for afiiaez W 3: 8 AMWW N. PETERS, Pholn-Lilhogrjphnr. Wnnhinglon. 0,0-
UNITED STATES PATENT UEFICE.
HIRAM S. MAXIM, OF LONDON, ENGLAND.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 402,684, dated May 7, 1889.
Application filed February 24,1887. Serial No. 228,785. (No model.) Patented in England April 5 1886, N0.4,'751| To aZZ whom it may concern-.-
Be it known thatI, HIRAM STEVENS MAXIM, mechanical engineer, a citizen of the United .States of America, and a resident of London,
England, have invented certain new and use ful improvements relating to the application and utilization of magnetism or electro-magnetisln for the separation of metals, and for other purposes, and to apparatus therefor, (for which I have obtained a patent in Great- Britain, No. 4,7 51, bearing date April 5,1S86,) of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to a novel method of employing magnetism 0r electro-magnetism for the separation of associated materials, and for other purposes hereinafter indicated; and it comprises improved apparatus hereinafter described.
The chief peculiarity of my said invention consists in the employment of moving magnetic fields, as hereinafter specified, for the separation of gold, silver, copper, and other metals, which are commonly known as nonmagnetic, (but some of which have been classified by Faraday and other writers as diamagnetic metals,) from non metallic substances or bodies.
It is well known that gold, silver, copper, and other metals which are ordinarily considered non-magnetic, and which in their normal condition are not susceptible or are but very slightly susceptible of magnetization, can yet by electromagnetic or magneto-electric induction have temporarily imparted to them a condition resembling that of ordinary magnetic bodies. I have discovered that when particles or pieces of the herein-mentioned and other metals pass through a series or group of magnetic fields in which there are many alternations or reversals of polarity, and the magnets of which rapidly move or change their position relatively to such particles or pieces,
the latter, though not in contact with the magnet-poles, will be impelled or deflected in the direction of movement of the magnetic fields. For example, assuming that two series or groups of magnets are so relatively arranged that the magnet-poles of one group are opposite those of the other group, unlike poles facing each other, so that magnetic fields are produced between them, if these opposite series or groups of magnets are simultaneously rotated in the same direction,
particles or pieces of metal permitted to fall through or suspended in the space between them will by the action of the magnets be impelled or deflected in the direction of rotation of the magnets, and, if free, will be thrown tangentially away from the circular path of the said magnets. The magnitude of the force by which they are thrown out depends partly upon the relative conductivity of the metals and partly upon the strength or intensity of the magnetic fields and the frequency of the changes or reversals thereof. The separative action or effect, however, is not dependent upon the existence in the metals of any inherent or normal condition or propertysuch as that by virtue of which a piece of iron in the presence of a magnet, when both are at rest, is magnetized in the direction of the field or lines of force-and the separation, instead of being the result of the approximation of the metals to the magnet-poles, is caused by forces which move the particles transversely across the field or space between the magnets. According to one part of my said invention I utilize this action of rapidly-moving series or groups of magnetic fields for the separation of the precious metals or of copper from ores containing the same, or for assaying or analyzing ores and other substances, or for similar purposes.
I can utilize moving magnetic fields in the manner herein specified for the separation of iron from non-metallic materials, or for the assay or analysis of substances containing iron. My invention is, however, more advantageous for the treatment of non-mag netic or diamagnetic metals, or those which are but slightly magnetic, than for the treatment of iron, because iron, having a tendency to approach and adhere to the magnet poles, cannot be thrown outward unless the tangential er centrifugal force due to the rotation of the magnets is sufficient to over come such tendency.
In order that the efficient working of the apparatus shall not be affected or impaired by air-currents produced by the rotation of the magnets or in any other manner, it is important that such air-currents should be carefully excluded from the space through which the substances to be operated upon are permitted to fall or in which they are suspended. For this purpose I prefer to inclose each series or group of magnets in a casing which revolves therewith, and to place stationary diaphragms of parchment or other suitable material between the said series or groups of magnets, so as to leavea space between the said diaphragms in which the air will be unaffected by the movement of the magnets. In someinstances I also inclose the two series or groups of magnets in a stationary box or casin If the apparatus is to be used for separating precious metals from their ores, or for similar purposes, I provide means whereby the ores or other substances to be treated can be caused to fall or pass in a continuous stream into and through the space between the two opposite series or groups of magnets. I also provide one or more inclined plates or chutes upon which the metals or other materials deflected by the magnets will fall, and down which the said materials may descend into suitable receptacles.
In the accompanying drawingsI have illus trated a convenientform of apparatus for the treatment of gold-bearing sand and similar materials according to my present invention.
Figure 1 is a vertical central section of the said apparatus. Fig. 2 is a vertical section on the line a; m, Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a longitudinal central section through one of the series or groups of magnets and a casing inclosing the same. Fig. at is an end elevation, partly in vertical section, of the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 3, some of the parts being removed. Fig. 5 is a projection of portions of two series or groups of magnets-that is to say, a view illustrating portions of the peripheries of the said series or groups developed or projected upon a plane-showing the relative arrangement of the magnet-poles or polar extensions, some of the parts being shown in section. Fig. 6 is a face view, and Fig. 7 an end View, of a peculiarly-shaped pole-piece hereinafter described. Fig. 8 is a diagram illustrating one of the uses of the apparatus.
Like letters indicate corresponding parts throughout the drawings.
A is a table or platform mounted upon standards A.
B is a box or casing supported upon and firmly secured to the said'table or platform and inclosing parts of the mechanism.
C C are plates or disks of soft iron, which are fixed upon a shaft, D, carried in bearings B, secured in the sides of the box or casing B.
E E are electro-1nagnets,tl1e cores E of which are firmly secured to the plates 0, so that the said plates serve to connect the cores of each magnet.
F is a sleeve or distance-piece, which is placed upon the shaft D between the two plates 0. These plates and the said sleeve or distance-piece are firmly clamped between a collar, D, formed or fixed on the shaft D, and a nut, D screwed upon the sa1d shaft.
G G are metal rings, which are firmly attached to but insulated from the plates (J, and which are connected by means of bindingscrews G one with each end of the wire forming the magnet-coils.
H H are contact springs or brushes, which are connected with the poles of an electric generator and which bear against the rings G G.
The magnet-coils of one series or group are electrically connected with those of the other series or group through the shaft I) or the sleeve F, or in any other convenient manner. If desired, the magnets of each series or group may be connected with the electric generator by separate contact springs or brushes.
I is a pulley, which is fixed upon the shaft D and is connected by means .of a rope or belt, I, with another pulley, J, fixed upon a shaft, J,carried in hearings in the standards A. A pulley, J is also fixed upon the shaft J, and is to be connected by means of arope or belt with a steam-engine or other suitable motor.
K K are casings of wood or other suitable material, one of which is placed over each series or group of magnets and is secured to the corresponding plate 0. These casings assist in preventing any disturbance of the air in the space around the said magnets by the rotation of the latter. The magnet-poles or polar extensions .1 extend through apertures in these casings.
L L are diaphragms of parchment or other suitable material, which are stretched or otherwise mounted upon frames L, firmly secured within. the box B, and which. are arranged between the two series or groups of magnets in such a manner as to leave a space between them wherein the air will be undisturbed by the rotation of the magnets.
M is a hopper, which is suitably supported above the box or casing B. Beneath this hopper is arranged a shaking or vibrating tray or chute, N, for feeding the substances to be treated from the said hopper into the machine. This chute is operated in a wellknown manner by means of a shaft, N, con nected by means of the rope or belt N and pulleys N N with the shaft D.
O is a spout or chute for the discharge of the sand or other materials after the gold has been'separated therefrom. This chute is arranged beneath the space between the diaphragms L.
P P are spouts or chutes for conducting the gold deflected by the magnets into thereceptacles Q Q.
Deflectors or deflecting-plates-such as that shown at B, Fig. 1-are, if necessary, arranged in proper relation to the magnets to prevent the carrying of the particles of gold around with the said magnets.
The operation of this machine is as follows-that is to. say: A suitable current of electricity is passed into the magnet-coils through one of the contact springs or brushes H H and out through the other of the said contact springs or brushes. The magnets of both series or groups are thereby excited, thus producing between the two diaphragms L a series or group of very powerful magnetic fields, the magnets being so wound that unlike poles face each other. The shaftD and the two series or groups of magnets are then rotated at a high speed, and the material to be operated upon is placed in the hopper M, whence it falls into the tray or chute N. By the vibration of this tray or chute the said material is fed forward, so that it falls in a continuous stream into the space between the diaphragms L. The material which is affected by the magnets is powerfully impelled or deflected in the direction of rotation and thrown into one or the other of the chutes P P. The material which is not affected by the magnets or which is very slightly affected thereby falls directly into' and through the chute O, and is discharged from the machine. The cores E of the magnets are arranged radially upon the plates 0. The pole-pieces or polar extensions may be made in the form of a chisel-edge-that is to say, V-shaped in transverse section; or each magnet may be provided with a series of polar extensions like saw-teeth, or with a series of fine needle-points, which points are arranged in rows or in circles, or in the form of a volute; or the said magnets may be made with ordinary flat poles, or otherwise. I prefer, however, to form and arrange the pole pieces or polar extensions as shown in the drawings, in order to intensify the magnetic fields and insure the proper action of-the magnets upon very fine particles or pieces of metal.
By referring to Figs. 5, G, and 7, it will be seen that the pole-pieces are so shaped that when they are secured in their proper positions upon the magnet-cores the polepieces of each magnet are inclined toward each other. Moreover, when the two series or groups of magnets are placed in their proper relative positions on the shaft l) the pairs of pole-pieces 011 one serles or group coincide or correspond with those of the other series or group. The pole-pieces of the two series or groups of magnets are therefore arranged in sets of four and are not equidistant-that is to say, although the four polepieces of each set are equidistant or approximately equidistant from each other, the distance between the pole-pieces of one set and those of an adjacent set is greater than the distance between the pole-pieces of either set. By this peculiar arrangement of the magnetpoles or polar extensions I provide for lnsuring an abrupt or sudden reversal of polarity or transition from one polarlty to the other between the four pole-pieces forming each set, the lines of magnetic force of one polarity being in close proximity to those of the opposite polarity, and the neutral hues or the accompanying drawings, yet it is obvious that permanent magnets are applicable for the purposes of my invention. Moreover, in some instances I can use the magnet-coils without the cores.
The apparatus, without material change, may be used for assaying or analyzing various substances. For example, if I desire to assay a certain quantity of ore, I suspend it in the space between the diaphragms L and then start the magnets in rotation. If gold or other metallic substance is present in the material being operated upon, it will be more or less deflected according to the quantity of the gold or other metallic substance which it contains. The amount of this deflection may be readily measured and taken as a showing of the proportion of metal which is present in the mass. In the same manner I may test the quantity of salts,,saccharine matter, or acids in a given solution by suspending the solution in a bottle between the magnets or diaphragms. On rotating the magnets the bottle will be deflected, and the larger the proportion of salts or acids present in the solution the greater will be the deflection thereof.
In lieu of using direct currents for energizing the magnets I-may use a current the direction of which alternately changes. I am thereby enabled to rotate the magnets at a slower speed with the same results. i
The main or essential feature of my invention is that the materials during their passage through or between the magnets,and in whatever way they maybe caused so to pass, shall be exposed to continuous and rapid reversals or alternations of the polarity of the magnetic fields or lines of force through which the said materials pass.
Fig. 8 illustrates the manner in which I use the apparatus for assaying and similar purposes.
The letterg represents areceptacle for the material to be treated, which is suspended by a thread, 19, between the cores E. The amount of deflection of the receptacle is indicated by any form of scale, as so.
I am aware that rotating magnets have been employed for separating magnetic from nonmagnetic substances by the adherence of the particles of magnetic material to the magnetpoles or to a band or belt in contact therewithfor example, as described in the speci-,
fications of British Letters Patent granted to F. J. King, and dated July 29, A. D. 1873, No. 2,574, and February 11, A. D. 1880, No. 607. I
am also aware that means have been devisedby T. A. Edison for separating magnetic from non-magnetic substances by employing the attraction of stationary magnets to alter the IIO path of the magnetic substance and draw it away from the non-magnetic substance, as described in the specification of Letters Patent of the United States, dated June 1., A. D. 1881, No. 228,329. In these cases, however, the separation of the magnetic from the nonmagnetic bodies or particles is effected or partially effected by force of attraction, which acts in the line or direction of' the axes of the magnets, and is ind ependent of any movement of the magnets or magnetic fields,whereas my apparatus is designed. to work. and works most efficiently without the adhesion of the metals to the magnet-poles, and the movement or action which effects the separation takes place transversely to the axes of the magnets and magnetic fields, as above stated.
I-Iaving nowparticularly described and ascertained the nature of my said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, I wish it understood that I make no claim either to the devices described in the said former specifications or to any similar devices; but
I claim- 1. In an. apparatus for separating metals and non-metallic substances, the combination, with approximating; magnets or magnetic poles adapted to maintain intermediate fields of force, of a hopper or receptacle from which the material under treatment passes freely through said fields of force and means for producing rapid reversals or alternations of the polarity of the fields or lines of force through which the material is passing, as set forth.
2. In an apparatus for separating metallic and non-metallic substances, the combination, with the magnets E E, mounted so as to leave an open space between their poles capable of receiving the material to be exposed to the action of said magnets, of means for continuously and rapidly reversing or alternating the polarity of the magnetic fields or lines of force acting upon the material, as set forth.
In an apparatus for separating metallic from non-metallic substances by 1n agnetie induction, the combination, with a series or group of magnets, of a second series or group of magnets arranged opposite to the first group and at such distance as to leave an open space between the two series, the poles of each series being alternately opposite and arranged so that unlike poles on the two series face each other, and means for introducing into the space between the two series the materials to be separated or acted upon, as set forth.
4. In an apparatus for separating metallic from non-metallic substances, the combination, with two series of magnets arranged opposite each other with an open space between them in such manner that the poles of each series of magnets face unlike poles of the other series, of meanssuch as a hopperfor introducing into the space between the two series of magnets the material to be acted upon, and a source of power for moving or driving the said series of magnets simultaneously in the same direction, as set forth.
5. In an apparatus for separating metallic from non-metallic substances by magnetic induction, the combination, with circular groups or series of magnets arranged opposite each other with an open space between their poles and in such. order that the magnetic fields thus produced are alternately of opposite polarity, of a hopper or a means for introducin g the material to be acted upon into the space between the magnets, and a source of power for simultaneously rotating the two groups or series of magnets, as set forth.
6. In a magnetic separator, the combination of series or groups of magnets arranged opposite each other so that magnetic fields of alternate polarity exist in. a space bet-ween them, means, substantially such as above de scribed, for simultaneously moving the said series or groups of magnets in the same direction, and chutes for receiving'and conducting away the separated materials, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.
7. In a magnetic separator, the combination. of circular series or groups of magnets arranged. opposite each other so that magnetic fields of alternate polarity exist in a space between. them, means, substantially such as above described, for simultaneously rotating the said series or groups of magnets in the same direction, and diaphragms arranged between the said series or groups of magnets and having a space between them wherein the air will be unaffected by the movement of the magnets, as and for the purposes above specified.
8. In a magnetic separator, the combination of series or groups of magnets having pole pieces inclined toward each other, the said series or groups of magnets being arranged opposite each other so that unlike poles face each other and a space is left between the said series or groups, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.
9. In a magnetic separator, the combination of the circular series or groups of mag nets E, the rotating shaft D, on which the said. series or groups are mounted opposite each other, the casing 1.3, inclosing the said magnets, the diaphragms Ii, arranged between the said series or groups of magnets, the hopper M, and the chutes P 1 0, all substantially as and for the purposes set forth.
In testimonywhereof I have hereunto signed my name in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
, IIIIRAM b. MAXIM W ituesses:
DAVID YOUNG, GEO. BARNETT.