US 404425 A
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J. T. OBENGHAIN. BOILER CLEANING APPARATUS.
Patented June 4, 1889.
LW 3. Witnesses: (X Inventor, v1 'h'. w Attorney,
UNITED STATES ATENT rrrcn.
JOHN T. OBENCHAIN, OF LOGANSPORT, INDIANA.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 404,425, dated June 4, 1889.
Application filed January 4,
To all wwnt t may concern.'
Be it known that I, J oHN T. OBENCHAIN, of Logansport, Cass county, Indiana, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Boiler-Cleaning Apparatus, of which the following is a specification.
This invention pertains to that class of devices in which the foul water in the upper levels in the boiler is caused to pass outfrom the boiler and into a precipitator where the heavier matters are left, the purified water returning again to the boiler.
My improvements will be readily understood from the following description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which- Figure l is a vertical section illustrating my apparatus in connection with a boiler; Fig. 2, a plan of the precipitator, with a portion shown in horizontal section; and Fig. 3, a plan of the skimmer.
In the drawings, A indicates in vertical section the shell of the boiler; B, the water in the boiler; C, a large'vertical pipe screwed downwardly through the top of the boiler and reaching thereinto or near to the water- CSO line, this pipe being hereinafter termed the skimmer-pipe, D, the skimmer in the form of a cylindrical cup secured upon the lower end of the skimmer-pipe in such adjusted position of height as may be called for, the cup being so adjusted vertically as to be about half-way immersed in the water in the boiler when the water is at its average level; E, vertical slots in the wall of the skimmer, these slots being open at the top and extending downwardly to about the bottom of the skimmer-cup, these slots presenting a practically uniform area of opening from top to bottom; F, a central hollow hub projecting upwardly from the solid floor of the skimmercup, this hub being threaded to receive the skimmer-pipe on which the skimmer may be screwed up or down, as desired, the position, after adjusting, being fixed by a lock-nut on the skimmer-pipe; G, a series of apertures in the wall of the hub F, at the foot of the hub, these apertures placing the interior of the hub in communication with the interior of the skimmer-cup; H, a pipe-T upon the upper end of the skimmer-pipe; J, a pipe leading from this T to the precipitator and serv- 1889. Serial No. 295,382.
ing to place the precipitator in communication with the interior of the skimmer-pipe C; K, the precipitator, being a tight circular napiform vessel disposed at any convenient position contiguous to the boiler; L, the inlet of the pipe J to the precipitator, the same being tangentially disposed at the inner periphery of the vessel just below its roof, such inner periphery forming the smooth and truly circular inwall of the vessel; M, the base of the precipitator of cyma-reversa contour; N, a clean-out valve at the base of the precipitator, O, a horizontal septum in the precipitator; P, a cock discharging outwardly horizontally from the extreme upper part of the precipitator; Q, a centrally-disposed pipe reaching from the roof of the precipitator downwardly thereinto and having its open lower end preferably bell-mouthed; R, apipe leading upwardly from the pipe Q and thence horizontally to over the skimmer-pipe C; S, a pipe leading from the pipe R downwardly through the T H, thence centrally downward through the skimmer-pipe C and through the skimmer-hub and tightly through the skimmer-bottom and into the boiler, at some disstance below the bottom of the skimmer; and T, regulating-valves in the pipes J and R.
When heat is applied to the water in the boiler, the eifect is to produce currents of circulation in the water, the impurities in suspension moving with these currents. The cu rrents are upwardly directly over the fire, thence horizontally to the colder end of the boiler, thence downwardly, and' back horizontally to the hot portion of the boiler, and so on and on. The foreign matters in freest suspension will take the form of scum upon the top of the water and will move with the circulatory current from the hotter to the cooler end of the boiler. Purifying devices operating by means of skimmers, therefore, deal with the scum at the surface of the water in the boiler, and, preferably, at the cooler end of the boiler, where the currents take a downward turn.
The skimmer-cup D will be surrounded by scum; which will find its way within the cup through the open slots. Upon entering the cup the scum becomes to a greater or less degree protected from the effect of the general circulatory currents in the water surrounding IOO ` the eup, and therefore there will be more or less tendency l'or the matters in suspension to preeipitate themselves to lhebottom ot the eup. The skiininer-pipe @leads Yl'rom thecup outwardly to the preeipitator, and there is an outwardly-tlowing euri-ent through this pipe, theeft'ect ot which current is to draw up out oli' the ciipthose matters which have aecumulated therein. fly reason of the location of the apertures G, it follows that the ell'eet ot this outward Current is mainly expended u-pon those matters which by reason ot' their superior gravity have tended to settle when within the cup. The cup thus becomes elozired ot' such matters as rapidly as they enter.
'lhe water-level of the boiler is subject to constant variilitit'ins, and it is desirable that such variation should not a't'ect the settling ijfapaeity ol' the skimmer. ',lhe inflow to the skimmeris not lrom the general body of water surrounding the skimmer, but from the senin arising `upon the surl'aee ot' the water; eonseqt'iently, as the water rises in the boiler the stratum ol scum rises with it. The inliowol" senin to the skimmer is dependent upon the area oli' the skimmer-slots lil, considered in connectionwith the depth ol' the scum. lhe slots beingI ot' unit'orm area throughout their depth, it lfollows that they maintain a uniform working th roughoiit the Variations oli' water-level. It, however, the thickness ol scum increases, then more ol the length olf the slot beeomes el't'eethre and the Capacity of the skimmer accordingly in creased.
The steam, water, and foreign matters pass ing l'rom the skim meroutwardly through pipe C go by pipe J and connection L to the preeipitator. The inlet L being arranged tangentially at the top of the precipitator, the matters are so diseharged into the precipitator as to iorm a vortex therein. Nere the preeipitator simply li'ull ot' the matters, the same matter would leave the preeipitator and go to the boiler with that entering.; thepi'eeipitator l'rom the boiler except such extremelyheavy matter as might precipitate in the preeipitator in spite ol the normal currents therein. This would be the case il' the pipe .l delivered the matter to the precil'iitator in the ordinary manner; but the eoni'iet'itiou L prodiicing the vortex gives to the heavierinat ters the greatermomentum. Thismomentum causes these heavier matters to move around the inner walls of the precipitator and to be acted upon by graif'ity which draws them down these walls outoli' the range et in lluence oi.' the general circulatory currents within the preeipitator. rlhe heavier matters consequently liiid their way to the base ol the precipitator, whence they may be from time to time withdrawn through the valve N. The septum O is not at all essential, and in praetiee is not always used. lts olliee is to l'ree the lower part et the precipitator to some extent lrom. the ell'eet ol' the circulatory ei'irrent. The
heavier matters which have onee passed through the perlorations ol' the selitum, wh ile they would rise again under the inlluenee olf circulatory currents in the absence ol the septum, will not be acted upon with sufficient foree to cause them to search their way up wardly through the perforatioiis of the septum. Being thus held for a time ,[iee from motion, gravity takes elt'eet and causes them to settle through the comparatively stagnant water below the septum.
The circulatory currents carry the contents ot' the precipitator therefrom through the pipes Q, R, and S to the boiler7 except such heavier matters which have been preeil'iitated through the action ot the precipitator-walls and the septum. llie pipe (.2, forming the ontlet from the precil'iitator, reaches well down wardly into the same, and consequently water cannot leave the precipitator until it has lor some time been subjected to the Vortex aetion against the walls. In other words, water leaving the precipitator is water which has entered at aI higher level and sunk to a lower level, and has, in the meantime, been subjeeted to the vortex action.
llheii the device is first started, the upper portion ol the precipita-tm.' will l'orm an airchamber; but this air may be gotten rid ol' by temporarily opeiiing the eoek l, a'ter which everything works normally, it" the valves T are adjusted to secure the proper relation between circulatory current and eapaeity oli' skimmer-slots. Oil carried over to the preeipitat'or will aecumnlate in the upper part ol' the saine, and maybe drawn ol't' by the eoek l). \Vater goingl trom the precipitator to the boiler passes down pipe S, whieh centrally disposed within. the skimmerpipe, and pipe Si discharges :immediately below the skimmer. The result oli' this ar rangement is that the inlet to the boiler and the outlet tln'irelron'i are secured bymeansol' a single hole in the boiler-shell, and that the discharge l'rom the pipe itl aeet'ilerates the euri-ents in the neighborhood olf the skimmer, and that the temperati'iresol' the ineom ing and. oiitgoingwaterare much assimilated. ll willV be l'ound in iriraetiee that too strong a circulatory current is not eompatible with good porli'ormance. The ineiimiug eolder water in the pipe S being surrounded by the outgoing hotter water in the skimmer-pipe (l, the heat ot' the water in the two pipes tends toward assimilation.
In applying the ffiliparatus the skimmerpipe (l is screwed down throi'igh a tapped hole in the boiler as t'ar as the thread upon the pipe will permit and a pipe-connection with the boiler thus secured. rllie skimmer is then screwed upon the skimmer-pipe to proper height and iixed, it' needed, by a locknut.
l claim as my invention l. ln a boiltuf-cleaner, the combination, substantially as set torth, with a preeipi'tatiiig chamber, a pipe learfling thereto from the lOO lIO
boiler, and a pipe leading therefrom Vto the boiler, of a skimmer within the boiler, having the form of a cup whose peripheral wall is provided with vertical slots having a uniform effective area throughout their vertical depth, said first-mentioned pipe projecting downwardly into said cup and communicating with the interior thereof near the floor of the cup.
2. In a boiler-cleaner, the combination, substantially as set forth, with a precipitatingchamber, a pipe leading thereto from the boiler and a pipe leading therefrom to the boiler, of a skimmer within the boiler and attached to said first-mentioned pipe and havin g the form of a cylindrical cup whose perripheral wall is provided with vertical slots having a uniform effective area throughout the vertical depth, said first-mentioned pipe projecting downwardly into said cup and communicating with the interior thereof near the iioor of the cup.
3. In a boiler-cleaner, the combination, substantially as set forth, with a precipitatingchamber, a pipe leading thereto from the boiler, and a pipe leading therefrom to theboiler, of a skimmer having the form of a cup with a vertically-slotted periphery and communicating with said first-mentioned pipe near the bottom of the cup only and below the level of the lower ends of said slots.
et. In a boiler-cleaner, the combination, substantially as set forth, with a precipitatingchamber, a pipe leading thereto from the boiler, and a pipe leading therefrom to the boiler, of a skimmer having the form of a cup with a vertically-slotted periphery, and having a central hollow hub connected with said first-mentioned pipe, and having apertures leading from the base of the cup to within the base of the hub.
5. In aboiler-cleaner, the combination, substantially as set forth, with a precipitatingchamber, and a pipe leading therefrom to the boiler, ot' a vertical skimmer-pipe having a threaded portion projecting downwardly into the boiler, a pipe connecting the said skimmer-pipe wit-l1 the precipitator, and a slotted cup shaped skimmer screwed upon the lower end of said lskimmer-pipe and vertically adjustable thereon.
G. In a boiler-cleaner, the combination, substantially as set forth, of a precipitatingchamber, a skimmer within the boiler, a pipe leading from said skimmer vertically through the boiler-shell and thence to the precipitator, and a pipe leading from the precipitator to said vertical pipe and passing downwardly within the same and through the skimmer and into the boiler-space below the skimmer.
7. In a boiler-cleaner, the combination, substantially as set forth, of a precipitatingchamber, a skimmer within the boiler, a pipe- T outside the boiler over the skimmer, a skimmerpipe connecting the T with the skimmer, a pipe connecting the precipitator with said T and skimmer-pipe, and a pipe passing from below the skimmer upwardly through said skimmer and skimmer-pipe and out of said T, and thence to the precipitator.
8. In aboiler-cleaner, the combination, substantially as set forth, of a skimmer, a precipitating-chamber having a circular inwall, a pipe leading from said chamberto the boiler below the skimmer, and a pipe leading from the skimmer to said chamber and connected with said chamber at an outer point, and arranged to discharge tangentially against and cause the discharge to follow the complete circle of said inwall.
0. In a boiler-cleaner, the combination, substantially as set forth, of a skimmer, a precipitating-chamber,'a pipe leading from the skimmer to the outer portion of the precipitating-chamber, and a pipe leading from the boiler-space below the skimmer to a point in the precipitating-chamber below the point of connection with said first-mentioned pipe.
10. In a boiler-cleaner, the combination, substantially as set forth,of askimmer, aprecipitating-chamber, a pipe leading from the skimmer to a tangential inlet at the outer portion of the precipitating-chamber, a centrally-disposed pipe project-ing downwardly from the roof of the precipitating-chamber, and a pipe connecting said pipe with the boiler-space below the skimmer.
l1. In a boiler-cleaner, the combination, substantially as set forth, of a skimmer, a napiform precipitatingchamber having a completely circular inwall, a clean-out valve at the base of the chamber, a pipe leading from the skimmer to the precipitating-chamber and discharging tan gentially against the circular inwall thereof, and a pipe leading from the precipitating-chamber to the boilerspace below the skimmer.
l2. In a boiler-cleaner, the combination, substantially as set forth, of a skimmer, a precipitating-chamber, a horizontal perforated septum in the chamber, a clean-out valve at the base of the chamber, a pipe connecting the skimmer with the chamber above the septum, and a pipe leading from the boiler-space below the skimmer to the chamber above the septum.
JOHN T. OBENCHAIN. Witnesses:
HENRY M. CIssoN, HENRY C. THORNTON.